Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistula associated with thrombus formation in the internal jugular vein: illustrative case

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  • 1 Departments of Neurosurgery and
  • | 2 Neurology, Nagasaki Medical Center, Kubara Omura-city, Nagasaki, Japan
Open access

BACKGROUND

A craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistula (CCJAVF) is a rare vascular malformation, and its etiology remains unclear. Here, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, they present the first case of CCJAVF associated with thrombus formation in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old man presented with a sudden occipital headache. Computed tomography revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage surrounding the brainstem and upper cervical cord. Digital subtraction angiography showed a CCJAVF fed by the left C2 radiculomeningeal artery with ascending intracranial drainage and epidural plexus. After endovascular treatment, the authors retrospectively found that his ipsilateral internal jugular vein and innominate vein were occluded with a huge thrombus at admission.

LESSONS

This case suggested a restricted antegrade venous flow due to thrombus-induced progressive retrograde intracranial drainage causing hemorrhage. Venous hypertension should be considered one of the causes of hemorrhage due to CCJAVF as well as intracranial arteriovenous fistulas.

ABBREVIATIONS

AVF = arteriovenous fistula; CCJAVF = craniocervical junction AVF; CT = computed tomography; IJV = internal jugular vein; MR = magnetic resonance; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage

BACKGROUND

A craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistula (CCJAVF) is a rare vascular malformation, and its etiology remains unclear. Here, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, they present the first case of CCJAVF associated with thrombus formation in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old man presented with a sudden occipital headache. Computed tomography revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage surrounding the brainstem and upper cervical cord. Digital subtraction angiography showed a CCJAVF fed by the left C2 radiculomeningeal artery with ascending intracranial drainage and epidural plexus. After endovascular treatment, the authors retrospectively found that his ipsilateral internal jugular vein and innominate vein were occluded with a huge thrombus at admission.

LESSONS

This case suggested a restricted antegrade venous flow due to thrombus-induced progressive retrograde intracranial drainage causing hemorrhage. Venous hypertension should be considered one of the causes of hemorrhage due to CCJAVF as well as intracranial arteriovenous fistulas.

ABBREVIATIONS

AVF = arteriovenous fistula; CCJAVF = craniocervical junction AVF; CT = computed tomography; IJV = internal jugular vein; MR = magnetic resonance; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage

BACKGROUND

A craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistula (CCJAVF) is a rare vascular malformation, and its etiology remains unclear. Here, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, they present the first case of CCJAVF associated with thrombus formation in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old man presented with a sudden occipital headache. Computed tomography revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage surrounding the brainstem and upper cervical cord. Digital subtraction angiography showed a CCJAVF fed by the left C2 radiculomeningeal artery with ascending intracranial drainage and epidural plexus. After endovascular treatment, the authors retrospectively found that his ipsilateral internal jugular vein and innominate vein were occluded with a huge thrombus at admission.

LESSONS

This case suggested a restricted antegrade venous flow due to thrombus-induced progressive retrograde intracranial drainage causing hemorrhage. Venous hypertension should be considered one of the causes of hemorrhage due to CCJAVF as well as intracranial arteriovenous fistulas.

A craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistula (CCJAVF) is a rare vascular malformation with various draining patterns.1–4 Because of its rarity, the etiology remains uncertain, and the clinical course is sometimes unpredictable.5,6 Herein we report a case of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by CCJAVF associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) occlusion.

Illustrative Case

An 80-year-old man presented with a sudden occipital headache with vomiting and was transferred to our institution. The patient’s laboratory data indicated no coagulant disorders, and he had no history of trauma, cancer, or intravenous catheter placement. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an SAH surrounding the brainstem and upper cervical cord (Fig. 1). There were no positive findings in his initial neurological examination, but respiratory disturbance and tetraparesis appeared after admission and worsened rapidly without abnormal signals in the spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging (Fig. 2, left). No intracranial aneurysms were detected, but MR angiography demonstrated arterial dilatation adjacent to the craniocervical junction (Fig. 2, right). Digital subtraction angiography showed an AVF at the craniocervical junction fed by the left C2 radiculomeningeal artery with drainage to the epidural venous plexus (Fig. 3A–C). The fistula also had ascending intracranial drainage, and we recognized this draining vein as the cause of the SAH.

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Initial axial (left) and sagittal (right) head CT scans show an SAH surrounding the medulla and upper cervical cord.

FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Preoperative sagittal T2-weighted MR image of the cervical spine shows no abnormal signals suspicious for myelopathy or infarction on the spinal cord (left). MR angiography demonstrates arterial dilatation near the craniocervical junction (right).

FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Lateral (A), right oblique (B), and three-dimensional reconstruction (C). Digital subtraction angiography of the left vertebral artery shows CCJAVF from the radiculomeningeal artery (arrow) and ascending intracranial drainage (arrowheads) and drainers for epidural venous plexus. The postoperative image (D) reveals the disappearance of intracranial drainage and flow reduction of drainage for the venous plexus.

At first, we attempted to perform direct surgery to achieve radical and secure treatment, but the patient was intolerant of the prone and lateral position during the surgery because of severe aspiration pneumonia. The patient received transarterial embolization after his respiratory condition became stable. Under general anesthesia, a 7-Fr guiding catheter was navigated to the left vertebral artery via the femoral approach. After a Marathon microcatheter (Covidien) was introduced to dilated C2 radiculomeningeal artery, Scepter XC balloon (Microvention) was placed in the vertebral artery just distal to the radiculomeningeal artery. We could not place the microcatheter distal site of the feeder because the feeder was tortuous for catheterization; therefore, the balloon was temporality inflated during injection of 33% n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue to avoid glue reflux to the vertebral artery. The intracranial drainage disappeared, and the shunt flow for extradural space was dramatically reduced after the glue penetrated adjacent to the shunting site (Fig. 3D).

The postoperative course was uneventful, and respiratory disturbance and tetraparesis improved significantly. Postoperative CT angiography showed no residual intracranial drainage although a huge thrombus was detected in the left IJV after surgery (Fig. 4A and B). We retrospectively found that the left IJV and left innominate vein were already occluded on admission (Fig. 4C and D). Anticoagulation therapy was initiated, and the thrombus gradually dissolved. The patient was completely recovered 3 months after surgery.

FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Postoperative CT angiography demonstrates a huge thrombus formation in the left IJV (A and B). Retrospectively, the initial CT angiography shows occlusion of the left innominate vein and IJV (C and D).

Discussion

Observations

A craniocervical junction is a rare AVF lesion that accounts for 1% to 2% of intracranial or spinal AVFs1,4 and mainly occurs in middle-aged men.1,2,6,7 CCJAVFs have a wide range of clinical presentations, including acute SAH,8–11 myelopathy,12 intramedullary hemorrhage,2 brainstem dysfunction,6,13–15 and radiculopathy.3 Our patient had respiratory disorders and tetraparesis after admission and completely recovered after treatment. The patient’s upper cervical cord dysfunction was probably due to compression by the SAH at the craniocervical junction rather than myelopathy because there were no abnormal signals in the spinal cord.

CCJAVFs are usually fed by radiculomeningeal arteries and meningeal branches from vertebral arteries, occipital arteries, ascending pharyngeal arteries, and anterior spinal arteries.1,3,4,11,16 They mainly drain into the medullary vein, coronal venous plexus, intracranial venous system, anterior spinal vein, and epidural plexus.1,3,4,11,17 In previous reports, risk factors for bleeding, including intracranial drainage, varix, feeder aneurysm, and feeders from the anterior spinal arteries, have been mentioned.1–3,11,16 Epidural drainage has been reported to infrequently cause a hemorrhage.2

The treatment for CCJAVF remains controversial. Most previous reports discussed direct surgery because the feeders were small and tortuous for endovascular embolization.3,4 CCJAVFs fed by the occipital arteries or meningeal branches from the vertebral arteries are sometimes successfully treated by endovascular embolization;18 however, misembolization of normal vessels can cause severe disabilities when the feeding arteries are from the radiculomeningeal artery or vertebral arteries.15 In the current case, we were able to prevent the glue from flowing through the vertebral arteries with distal balloon protection.

Some intracranial AVFs are associated with trauma, inflammation, history of craniotomy, or dural sinus thrombosis.19,20 Venous hypertension caused by sinus thrombosis is considered to restrict antegrade venous flow and lead to the opening of small capillary vessels or activation of vascular growth factors.20,21 However, the mechanism underlying CCJAVF formation remains unclear because of its rarity. There are several reports of CCJAVFs following cervical spine fracture,22,23 infection, and surgical procedure.23,24 Several studies have suggested that venous hypertension may be associated with CCJAVF.2,17 Another possible etiology is thrombosis or congestion of the internal dural vein due to bone fracture or postoperative fibrosis causing an abnormal shunt.22 In the present case, SAH was probably caused by ascending intracranial drainage, but the AVF mainly drained into the epidural plexus. We assume that the thrombus in the IJV and innominate vein restricted the antegrade venous flow out because the external vertebral venous plexus at the cervical level plexus mainly joins the innominate vein. Paravertebral venous hypertension may have caused an increase in the abnormal shunt flow and bleeding from intracranial drainage.

To date, this case appears to be the first report of CCJAVF related to thrombus formation in the IJV; only four previous cases of intracranial AVFs after IJV occlusion or stenosis have been reported (Table 1).21,25–27 The AVF site is relatively common in the transverse or sigmoid sinus. The interval from IJV occlusion or stenosis to AVF formation ranges widely (4 months to 5 years). In our case, the duration of the IJV occlusion was probably not long because the thrombus was not organized and diminished with anticoagulation therapy. Therefore, we assume that the AVF had already been formed before IJV occlusion; however, the thrombus in the IJV caused an increase in intracranial drainage flow and led to SAH.

TABLE 1.

Summary of arteriovenous fistula associated with occlusion or stenosis of internal jugular vein

Case No.Authors & YearAge (yrs)/ SexInitial SymptomsPrimary Findings on CT or MRIPast HistoryIVJ Stenosis/ OcclusionDuration*Site of SVFTreatmentPrognosis
1Matsuyama et al., 19972632/FHA, pulsatile tinnitusMass in suprasellar regionHormonal therapy for infertilityStenosisLt TS-SSTAE (PVA)GR
2Ngerageza et al., 20162572/MNone (incidental diagnosis)NDTongue cancer removal & ligation of IJVOcclusion (ligation)5 yrsLt TSDirect surgeryGR
3Fudaba et al., 20172774/MUnconsciousnessCerebellar hemorrhage, epidural hematomaTongue cancer removal & ligation of IJVOcclusion (ligation)4 mosLt TS, rt SS (de novo dAVF at SSS & rt TS after 6 mos)TVE (TAE for de novo dAVF)GR
4Suzuki et al., 20202177/FPulsatile tinnitusND except for AVFHead injury 3 mos before admissionStenosis due to elongated styloid processRt hypoglossal canal (multiple shunt)TVE & TAEGR
5Present case80/MSudden occipital HASAH surrounding upper cervical cordNothingIdiopathic occlusionC2 duraTAEGR

GR = good recovery; HA = headache; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; ND = not described; SS = sigmoid sinus; TAE = transarterial embolization; TS = transverse sinus; TVE = transvenous embolization; — = unknown.

Duration from IJV occlusion or stenosis.

Lessons

To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of SAH due to CCJAVF associated with thrombus formation in the IJV. Venous hypertension may have caused the fast retrograde venous flow of intracranial drainage and bleeding. Although the prevalence of CCJAVF is low, clinicians should be aware of the coexistence of venous thrombus associated with bleeding or venous congestion as well as intracranial AVFs.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Editage for English language editing.

Disclosures

The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

Author Contributions

Conception and design: Morofuji, Shiozaki, Kawahara, Tsutsumi. Acquisition of data: Shiozaki, Kutsuna. Analysis and interpretation of data: Morofuji, Shiozaki, Uchida. Drafting the article: Morofuji, Shiozaki, Haraguchi. Critically revising the article: Ono, Tsutsumi. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: Morofuji, Ono, Tsutsumi. Approved the final version of the manuscript on behalf of all authors: Morofuji. Study supervision: Tsutsumi.

References

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    Hiramatsu M, Sugiu K, Ishiguro T, et al. Angioarchitecture of arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: a multicenter cohort study of 54 patients. J Neurosurg. 2018;128(6):18391849.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Matsubara S, Toi H, Takai H, et al. Variations and management for patients with craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistulas: comparison of dural, radicular, and epidural arteriovenous fistulas. Surg Neurol Int. 2021;12:411.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Zhao J, Xu F, Ren J, Manjila S, Bambakidis NC. Dural arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: a systematic review. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016;8(6):648653.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Goto Y, Hino A, Shigeomi Y, Oka H. Surgical management for craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistula targeting the intradural feeder. World Neurosurg. 2020;144:e685e692.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Sato H, Wada H, Noro S, Saga T, Kamada K. Subarachnoid hemorrhage with concurrent dural and perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas at craniocervical junction: case report and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2019;127:331334.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Wang JY, Molenda J, Bydon A, et al. Natural history and treatment of craniocervical junction dural arteriovenous fistulas. J Clin Neurosci. 2015;22(11):17011707.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Zhong W, Zhang J, Shen J, et al. Dural arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: a series case report. World Neurosurg. 2019;122:e700e712.

  • 8

    Hamid S, Choi W, Raghuram K, Chaudhry US. A rare case of a cervical dural arteriovenous fistula presenting in a younger patient with vertex subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report and literature review. Radiol Case Rep. 2020;15(10):18491852.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Drazin D, Jeswani S, Shirzadi A, et al. Anterior spinal artery syndrome in a patient with vasospasm secondary to a ruptured cervical dural arteriovenous fistula. J Neuroimaging. 2014;24(1):8891.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Zhao J, Esemen Y, Rane N, Nair R. Intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by cervical spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: case report. Front Neurol. 2021;12:685332.

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  • 11

    Aviv RI, Shad A, Tomlinson G, et al. Cervical dural arteriovenous fistulae manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: report of two cases and literature review. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25(5):854858.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Sato K, Morofuji Y, Sadakata E, et al. A case of dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction with high signal intensity localized to the thoracic spinal cord on T2-weighted MRI. Article in Japanese. No Shinkei Geka. 2020;48(3):245251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Chng SM, Sitoh YY, Hui F. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with tetraparesis due to cervicomedullary junction compression. A case report. Interv Neuroradiol. 2004;10(4):347351.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Wang XC, Du YY, Tan Y, et al. Brainstem congestion due to dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction: case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg. 2018;118:181187.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Beynon C, Herweh C, Rohde S, Unterberg AW, Sakowitz OW. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography for microsurgical treatment of a craniocervical dural arteriovenous fistula. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114(6):696698.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Kai Y, Hamada J, Morioka M, Yano S, Mizuno T, Kuratsu J. Arteriovenous fistulas at the cervicomedullary junction presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage: six case reports with special reference to the angiographic pattern of venous drainage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26(8):19491954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Sato K, Endo T, Niizuma K, et al. Concurrent dural and perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: case series with special reference to angioarchitecture. J Neurosurg. 2013;118(2):451459.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Liang G, Gao X, Li Z, Wang X, Zhang H, Wu Z. Endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistula at the foramen magnum: report of five consecutive patients and experience with balloon-augmented transarterial Onyx injection. J Neuroradiol. 2013;40(2):134139.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Reynolds MR, Lanzino G, Zipfel GJ. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Stroke. 2017;48(5):14241431.

  • 20

    Matsubara S, Satoh K, Satomi J, et al. Acquired pial and dural arteriovenous fistulae following superior sagittal sinus thrombosis in patients with protein S deficiency: a report of two cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2014;54(3):245252.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Suzuki Y, Toma N, Kuroda Y, et al. Dural arteriovenous fistula formation as Eagle jugular syndrome: a case report and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2020;144:154161.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Vankan Y, Demaerel P, Heye S, et al. Dural arteriovenous fistula as a late complication of upper cervical spine fracture. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(4 suppl Spine):382384.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Coric D, Branch CL Jr, Wilson JA, Robinson JC. Arteriovenous fistula as a complication of C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 1996;85(2):340343.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Flannery T, Tan MH, Flynn P, Choudhari KA. Delayed post-surgical development of dural arteriovenous fistula after cervical meningocele repair. Neurol India. 2003;51(3):390391.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Ngerageza JG, Horiuchi T, Murata T, Aoyama T, Hongo K. Iatrogenic dural arteriovenous fistula after radical neck dissection for metastatic malignant disease: a case report. Head Neck. 2016;38(4):E87E90.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Matsuyama T, Morimoto T, Sakaki T. Dural arteriovenous fistula caused by jugular vein stenosis: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1997;37(4):340342.

    • Crossref
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  • 27

    Fudaba H, Kubo T, Goda M, et al. The potentiality for development of multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas after ligation of the internal jugular vein: a case report. NMC Case Rep J. 2017;4(3):7173.

    • Crossref
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  • View in gallery

    Initial axial (left) and sagittal (right) head CT scans show an SAH surrounding the medulla and upper cervical cord.

  • View in gallery

    Preoperative sagittal T2-weighted MR image of the cervical spine shows no abnormal signals suspicious for myelopathy or infarction on the spinal cord (left). MR angiography demonstrates arterial dilatation near the craniocervical junction (right).

  • View in gallery

    Lateral (A), right oblique (B), and three-dimensional reconstruction (C). Digital subtraction angiography of the left vertebral artery shows CCJAVF from the radiculomeningeal artery (arrow) and ascending intracranial drainage (arrowheads) and drainers for epidural venous plexus. The postoperative image (D) reveals the disappearance of intracranial drainage and flow reduction of drainage for the venous plexus.

  • View in gallery

    Postoperative CT angiography demonstrates a huge thrombus formation in the left IJV (A and B). Retrospectively, the initial CT angiography shows occlusion of the left innominate vein and IJV (C and D).

  • 1

    Hiramatsu M, Sugiu K, Ishiguro T, et al. Angioarchitecture of arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: a multicenter cohort study of 54 patients. J Neurosurg. 2018;128(6):18391849.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Matsubara S, Toi H, Takai H, et al. Variations and management for patients with craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistulas: comparison of dural, radicular, and epidural arteriovenous fistulas. Surg Neurol Int. 2021;12:411.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Zhao J, Xu F, Ren J, Manjila S, Bambakidis NC. Dural arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: a systematic review. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016;8(6):648653.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Goto Y, Hino A, Shigeomi Y, Oka H. Surgical management for craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistula targeting the intradural feeder. World Neurosurg. 2020;144:e685e692.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Sato H, Wada H, Noro S, Saga T, Kamada K. Subarachnoid hemorrhage with concurrent dural and perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas at craniocervical junction: case report and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2019;127:331334.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Wang JY, Molenda J, Bydon A, et al. Natural history and treatment of craniocervical junction dural arteriovenous fistulas. J Clin Neurosci. 2015;22(11):17011707.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Zhong W, Zhang J, Shen J, et al. Dural arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: a series case report. World Neurosurg. 2019;122:e700e712.

  • 8

    Hamid S, Choi W, Raghuram K, Chaudhry US. A rare case of a cervical dural arteriovenous fistula presenting in a younger patient with vertex subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report and literature review. Radiol Case Rep. 2020;15(10):18491852.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Drazin D, Jeswani S, Shirzadi A, et al. Anterior spinal artery syndrome in a patient with vasospasm secondary to a ruptured cervical dural arteriovenous fistula. J Neuroimaging. 2014;24(1):8891.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Zhao J, Esemen Y, Rane N, Nair R. Intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by cervical spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: case report. Front Neurol. 2021;12:685332.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Aviv RI, Shad A, Tomlinson G, et al. Cervical dural arteriovenous fistulae manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: report of two cases and literature review. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25(5):854858.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Sato K, Morofuji Y, Sadakata E, et al. A case of dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction with high signal intensity localized to the thoracic spinal cord on T2-weighted MRI. Article in Japanese. No Shinkei Geka. 2020;48(3):245251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Chng SM, Sitoh YY, Hui F. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with tetraparesis due to cervicomedullary junction compression. A case report. Interv Neuroradiol. 2004;10(4):347351.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Wang XC, Du YY, Tan Y, et al. Brainstem congestion due to dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction: case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg. 2018;118:181187.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Beynon C, Herweh C, Rohde S, Unterberg AW, Sakowitz OW. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography for microsurgical treatment of a craniocervical dural arteriovenous fistula. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114(6):696698.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Kai Y, Hamada J, Morioka M, Yano S, Mizuno T, Kuratsu J. Arteriovenous fistulas at the cervicomedullary junction presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage: six case reports with special reference to the angiographic pattern of venous drainage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26(8):19491954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Sato K, Endo T, Niizuma K, et al. Concurrent dural and perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction: case series with special reference to angioarchitecture. J Neurosurg. 2013;118(2):451459.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Liang G, Gao X, Li Z, Wang X, Zhang H, Wu Z. Endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistula at the foramen magnum: report of five consecutive patients and experience with balloon-augmented transarterial Onyx injection. J Neuroradiol. 2013;40(2):134139.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Reynolds MR, Lanzino G, Zipfel GJ. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Stroke. 2017;48(5):14241431.

  • 20

    Matsubara S, Satoh K, Satomi J, et al. Acquired pial and dural arteriovenous fistulae following superior sagittal sinus thrombosis in patients with protein S deficiency: a report of two cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2014;54(3):245252.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Suzuki Y, Toma N, Kuroda Y, et al. Dural arteriovenous fistula formation as Eagle jugular syndrome: a case report and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2020;144:154161.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Vankan Y, Demaerel P, Heye S, et al. Dural arteriovenous fistula as a late complication of upper cervical spine fracture. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(4 suppl Spine):382384.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Coric D, Branch CL Jr, Wilson JA, Robinson JC. Arteriovenous fistula as a complication of C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 1996;85(2):340343.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Flannery T, Tan MH, Flynn P, Choudhari KA. Delayed post-surgical development of dural arteriovenous fistula after cervical meningocele repair. Neurol India. 2003;51(3):390391.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Ngerageza JG, Horiuchi T, Murata T, Aoyama T, Hongo K. Iatrogenic dural arteriovenous fistula after radical neck dissection for metastatic malignant disease: a case report. Head Neck. 2016;38(4):E87E90.

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