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Issael Ramirez, Paldor Iddo and Sergey Spektor

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are known to be angiographically occult malformations with low perfusion of blood flow.5 Near-infrared indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography allows for intraoperative observation and documentation of blood flow in large and small vessels.2,4

Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are thought to be the most common cerebral vascular abnormality.2,3 The opportunity to differentiate intraoperatively between normal veins and DVA draining veins might be useful in the event of a possible venous sacrifice. Coagulation of the DVA can lead to devastating consequences. ICG reliably demonstrates margins between CCM and the venous structures.1,2 For these reasons, we decided to use ICG video angiography in this patient.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/9MONn0GkO4U.

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James K. Liu and Vincent N. Dodson

Brainstem cavernous malformations are formidable lesions because of their eloquent location and propensity for bleeding resulting in neurological impairment. The surgical management can be challenging due to their deep location around critical neurovascular structures. In this operative video manuscript, the authors demonstrate resection of a large recurrent pontine cavernous malformation with an exophytic component in the cerebellopontine angle via a combined petrosal approach. Both anterior and posterior (retrolabyrinthine) petrosectomies were performed to allow multi-corridor access to the lesion. Due to excessive scar formation from prior surgeries, sharp dissection was paramount to create dissection planes around the lesion. This video atlas demonstrates the operative technique and surgical nuances of the skull base approach, safe resection of the malformation through the operative corridor, gentle handling of the neurovascular structures and a multi-layered reconstruction technique to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The use of endoscopic-assisted microsurgery of the brainstem is also demonstrated. A gross total resection was achieved, and the patient improved neurologically. In summary, the combined petrosal approach with endoscopic assistance is an important strategy in the armamentarium for the surgical management of brainstem cavernous malformations.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/oAETW6tVc_Y.

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Sirin Gandhi, Tsinsue Chen, Justin R. Mascitelli, Claudio Cavallo, Mohamed A. Labib, Michael J. Lang and Michael T. Lawton

This video illustrates a contralateral supracerebellar transtentorial (cSCTT) approach for resection of a ruptured thalamic cavernous malformation in a 56-year-old woman with progressive right-sided homonymous hemianopsia. The patient was placed in the sitting position, and a torcular craniotomy was performed for the cSCTT approach. The lesion was resected completely. Postoperatively, the patient had intact motor strength and baseline visual field deficits with moderate right-sided paresthesias. The cSCTT approach maximizes the lateral surgical reach without the cortical transgression seen with alternative transcortical routes.1 Contralaterality is a defining feature, with entry of the neurosurgeon’s instruments from the craniotomy edge of the craniotomy, contralateral to the lesion, allowing access to the lateral aspect of the lesion. The sitting position facilitates gravity-assisted cerebellar retraction and enhances the superior reach of this approach (Used with permission from Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona).

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/lqB9mu_T8NQ.

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Florian Roser, Luigi Rigante and Mohamed Samy Elhammady

Procedures on cavernous malformations of the brainstem are challenging due to their eloquent location. This accounts especially for recurrent cavernomas as surgical scars, adhesions, and functional shift might have occurred since primary surgery. We report on a 38-year-old female patient with a large recurrent brainstem cavernoma, who underwent previous successful surgery and experienced recurrent bleeding about 2 years later. She harbored a large associated developmental venous anomaly (DVA) traversing the cavernoma through the midline of the brainstem. In order to visualize complete resection and preservation of the DVA at the same time, endoscopic-assisted resection within the brainstem after decompression in the semisitting position was performed.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/K1p-Sx7jUpA.

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Lucas Ramos Lima, Jarbas Carvalhais Reis, Gerival Vieira Junior, Tiago Fraga Vieira, Lucidio Duarte de Souza Filho, Tiago Silva e Carvalho, Fabricio Nery Marques, Ramon Souza Lago and Thiago Vinícius Muniz Santana

Symptomatic cavernous malformations in the ventral region of the pons are difficult to access surgically. The authors present a case of a 46-year-old woman with a 10-year history of sudden and transitory diplopia and right hemiparesis, followed by five more episodes of mild right hemiparesis. Brain MRI showed a 2.6-cm cavernous malformation in the pons with an exophytic portion in the prepontine cistern. The patient underwent an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach for a complete resection of the lesion. CSF leak was noted and corrected on the sixth postoperative day. The patient progressed with complete motor deficit recovery.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ePgpyij2Wpo.

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Matteo Zoli, Giacomo Sollini, Sofia Asioli, Clarissa Ann Elisabeth Gelmi, Angelo Gianluca Corradini, Ernesto Pasquini and Diego Mazzatenta

We present the case of a 47-year-old man with left exophthalmus. MRI showed a left intraorbital intraconal cavernous malformation, located in the superoesternal quadrant and medially displacing the optic nerve. An endoscopic transpalpebral approach was performed and total removal was achieved after dissection of the lesion from the optic nerve and other orbital structures. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous malformation. The patient was discharged neurologically intact on the second postoperative day free of complications. Follow-up MRI demonstrated radical resection of the cavernoma and resolution of the exophthalmus with an excellent esthetic result.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/o1a1tneZ6qk.

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Georgios A. Zenonos, Samir Sur, Maximiliano Nuñez, David T. Fernandes-Cabral and Jacques J. Morcos

In this 3D video we review the case of a lower pontine cavernous malformation in a 31-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis and an abducens palsy. The cavernous malformation was completely resected through a far lateral approach and a peritrigeminal brainstem entry zone, with a significant improvement in the patient’s hemiparesis. The relevant anatomy is reviewed in detail through multiple anatomical brainstem dissection specimens, as well as high-definition fiber tractography images. The rationale for the approach is analyzed relative to other possible options, and a number of technical pearls are provided.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/fH2Q7RjlBKQ.

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Giulio Cecchini, Giovanni Vitale, Thomas J. Sorenson and Francesco Di Biase

Cavernous malformations in the midbrain can be accessed via several safe entry zones. The accepted rule of thumb is to enter at the point where the lesion is visible at the surface of the brainstem to pass through as little normal brain tissue as possible. However, in some cases, in order to avoid critical neural structures, this rule may not apply. A different safe entry zone can be chosen. Our video presents a case of a ruptured cavernous malformation in the midbrain reaching its anterior surface which was successfully resected via a posterolateral route using the supracerebellar infratentorial approach.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/j7VTqRO7qd4.

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Peyton L. Nisson, Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Whitney S. James, David Xu and Peter Nakaji

Cavernous malformations of the brain are low-flow vascular lesions that have a propensity to hemorrhage. Extensive surgical approaches are often required for operative cure of deep-seated lesions. A 23-year-old female presented with a cavernous malformation of the left posterior insula with surrounding hematoma measuring up to 3 cm. A minimally invasive (mini-)pterional craniotomy with a transsylvian approach was selected. Endoscopic assistance was utilized to confirm complete resection of the lesion. The minipterional craniotomy is a minimally invasive approach that provides optimal exposure for sylvian fissure dissection and resection of many temporal and insular lesions.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/9z6_EhU6lxs.