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Enrico Giordan, Christopher S. Graffeo, Alejandro A. Rabinstein, Robert D. Brown Jr., Walter A. Rocca, Alanna M. Chamberlain and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECTIVE

Recent population-based and hospital cohort studies have reported a decreasing incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and declining aSAH-associated case-fatality rates. Principal drivers of these trends are debated, but improvements in smoking cessation and hypertension control may be critical factors.

METHODS

The population-based medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiological Project was used to document aSAH incidence and 30-day case fatality rates during a 20-year study period (1996–2016) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Incidence rates in the study period were compared with data from a previous Olmsted County study concerning aSAH incidence from 1965 to 1995 and with regional trends in tobacco use.

RESULTS

One hundred nineteen incident cases of aSAH were included. The median age at hemorrhage was 59 years (range 16–94 years), and 74 patients were female (62.2%). The overall average annual aSAH incidence rate was 4.2/100,000 person-years (P-Y). The aSAH incidence rate decreased from 5.7/100,000 in 1996 to 3.5/100,000 P-Y in 2011–2016. The overall aSAH-associated 30-day case-fatality rate was 21.9% and declined by approximately 0.5% annually. An accelerated decline in the fatality rate (0.9%/year) was observed from 2006–2016. Smoking among adult Olmsted County residents decreased from 20.4% in 2000 to 9.1% in 2018.

CONCLUSIONS

A decline in the incidence of aSAH and 30-day case-fatality rate from 1996 to 2016 was observed, as well as an accelerated decline of the fatality rate from 2006 to 2016. These findings confirm and extend the trends reported by prior studies in the same population. The decrease in aSAH in the years studied paralleled a noticeable reduction in the population smoking rates.

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Davis G. Taylor, Ajay Chatrath, Panagiotis Mastorakos, Gabriella Paisan, Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell and John A. Jane Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Syringogenesis in Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is thought to occur secondary to impaction of the cerebellar tonsils within the foramen magnum (FM). However, the correlation between the CSF area and syringogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The authors sought to determine whether the diminution in subarachnoid space is associated with syringogenesis. Further, the authors sought to determine if syrinx resolution was associated with the degree of expansion of subarachnoid spaces after surgery.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression for CM-I from 2004 to 2016 at the University of Virginia Health System. The subarachnoid spaces at the FM and at the level of the most severe stenosis were measured before and after surgery by manual delineation of the canal and neural tissue area on MRI and verified through automated CSF intensity measurements. Imaging and clinical outcomes were then compared.

RESULTS

Of 68 patients, 26 had a syrinx at presentation. Syrinx patients had significantly less subarachnoid space at the FM (13% vs 19%, p = 0.0070) compared to those without syrinx. Following matching based on degree of tonsillar herniation and age, the subarachnoid space was significantly smaller in patients with a syrinx (12% vs 19%, p = 0.0015). Syrinx resolution was associated with an increase in patients’ subarachnoid space after surgery compared with those patients without resolution (23% vs 10%, p = 0.0323).

CONCLUSIONS

Syrinx development in CM-I patients is correlated with the degree to which the subarachnoid CSF spaces are diminished at the cranial outlet. Successful syrinx reduction is associated with the degree to which the subarachnoid spaces are increased following surgery.

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Harishchandra Lalgudi Srinivasan, Mitchell T. Foster, Kirsten van Baarsen, Dawn Hennigan, Benedetta Pettorini and Conor Mallucci

OBJECTIVE

Children with posterior fossa tumors (PFTs) may present with hydrocephalus. Persistent (or new) hydrocephalus is common after PFT resection. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is sometimes performed prior to resection to 1) temporize hydrocephalus prior to resection and 2) prophylactically treat post-resection hydrocephalus. The objective of this study was to establish, in a historical cohort study of pediatric patients who underwent primary craniotomy for PFT resection, whether or not pre-resection ETV prevents the need for post-resection CSF diversion to manage hydrocephalus.

METHODS

The authors interrogated their prospectively maintained surgical neuro-oncology database to find all primary PFT resections from a single tertiary pediatric neurosurgery unit. These data were reviewed and supplemented with data from case notes and radiological review. The modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH) score was retrospectively calculated for all patients. The primary outcome was the need for any form of postoperative CSF diversion within 6 months of PFT resection (including ventriculoperitoneal shunting, ETV, external ventricular drainage [EVD], and lumbar drainage [LD]). This was considered an ETV failure in the ETV group. The secondary outcomes were time to CSF diversion, shunt dependence at 6 months, and complications of ETV. Statistical analysis was done in RStudio, with significance defined as p < 0.05.

RESULTS

A total of 95 patients were included in the study. There were 28 patients in the ETV group and 67 in the non-ETV group. Patients in the ETV group were younger (median age 5 vs 7 years, p = 0.04) and had more severe preoperative hydrocephalus (mean frontal-occipital horn ratio 0.45 vs 0.41 in the non-ETV group, p = 0.003) and higher mCPPRH scores (mean 4.42 vs 2.66, p < 0.001). The groups were similar in terms of sex and tumor histology. The overall rate of post-resection CSF diversion of any kind (shunt, repeat ETV, LD, or EVD) in the entire cohort was 25.26%. Post-resection CSF diversion was needed in 32% of patients in the ETV group and in 22% of the patients in the non-ETV group (p > 0.05). Shunt dependence at 6 months was seen in 21% of the ETV group and 16% of the non-ETV group (p > 0.05). The median time to ETV failure was 9 days. ETV failure correlated with patients with ependymoma (p = 0.02). Children who had ETV failure had higher mCPPRH scores than the ETV success group (5.67 vs 3.84, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

Pre-resection ETV did not reliably prevent the need for post-resection CSF diversion. ETV was more likely to fail in children with ependymoma and those with higher mCPPRH scores. Based on the findings of this study, the authors will change the practice at their institution; pre-resection ETV will now be performed based on a newly defined protocol.

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Adomas Bunevicius, Hideyuki Kano, Cheng-Chia Lee, Michal Krsek, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Amr El-Shehaby, Khaled Abdel Karim, Nuria Martinez-Moreno, David Mathieu, John Y. K. Lee, Inga Grills, Douglas Kondziolka, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Wael A. Reda, Roman Liscak, Yan-Hua Su, L. Dade Lunsford, Mary Lee Vance and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The optimal time to perform stereotactic radiosurgery after incomplete resection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–producing pituitary adenoma in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) remains unclear. In patients with persistent CD after resection of ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, the authors evaluated the association of the interval between resection and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) with outcomes.

METHODS

Pooled data from 10 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation were used in this study.

RESULTS

Data from 255 patients with a mean follow-up of 65.59 ± 49.01 months (mean ± SD) were analyzed. Seventy-seven patients (30%) underwent GKRS within 3 months; 46 (18%) from 4 to 6 months; 34 (13%) from 7 to 12 months; and 98 (38%) at > 12 months after the resection. Actuarial endocrine remission rates were higher in patients who underwent GKRS ≤ 3 months than when treatment was > 3 months after the resection (78% and 65%, respectively; p = 0.017). Endocrine remission rates were lower in patients who underwent GKRS at > 12 months versus ≤ 12 months after the resection (57% vs 76%, respectively; p = 0.006). In multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for clinical and treatment characteristics, early GKRS was associated with increased probability of endocrine remission (hazard ratio [HR] 1.518, 95% CI 1.039–2.218; p = 0.031), whereas late GKRS (HR 0.641, 95% CI 0.448–0.919; p = 0.015) was associated with reduced probability of endocrine remission. The incidence of some degree of new pituitary deficiency (p = 0.922), new visual deficits (p = 0.740), and other cranial nerve deficits (p = 0.610) was not significantly related to time from resection to GKRS.

CONCLUSIONS

Early GKRS is associated with an improved endocrine remission rate, whereas later GKRS is associated with a lower rate of endocrine remission after pituitary adenoma resection. Early GKRS should be considered for patients with CD after incomplete pituitary adenoma resection.

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Alexander G. Weil, Aria Fallah, Shelly Wang, George M. Ibrahim, Lior M. Elkaim, Prasanna Jayakar, Ian Miller, Sanjiv Bhatia, Toba N. Niazi and John Ragheb

OBJECTIVE

Although hemispherectomy is an effective treatment for children with intractable hemispheric epilepsy syndromes, as many as 40% of patients eventually develop seizure recurrence. The causes of seizure recurrence in these patients are incompletely understood. The authors sought to evaluate the efficacy of hemispherectomy at their center and determine whether contralateral MRI abnormalities can predict seizure recurrence.

METHODS

A retrospective review of consecutive hemispherectomies performed at Miami Children’s Hospital between January 2000 and June 2014 was performed. Time-to-event analysis was performed. The “event” was defined as any seizures following resective epilepsy surgery (not including seizures in the first postoperative week and auras). Several preoperative variables were analyzed to determine their suitability to predict seizure recurrence following surgery.

RESULTS

Sixty-nine patients (44 boys) with a mean age of 8.2 ± 5.9 years (range 0.1–20.8 years) underwent 72 hemispherectomies; 67 of these were functional hemispherectomies, while another 5 were completion of a previous functional hemispherectomy (2 completions of functional hemispherectomies, 3 anatomical hemispherectomies). The duration of epilepsy was 5.8 ± 5.5 years with 66 cases (91.7%) having daily seizures. Etiology included stroke (n = 28), malformation of cortical development (n = 11), hemimegalencephaly (n = 11), encephalitis (n = 13), and other (n = 7). Engel class I outcome was achieved in 59 (86%) and 56 (81%) patients at 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively. The mean time to seizure recurrence was 33.5 ± 31.1 months. In univariate analyses, the absence of contralateral abnormalities on MRI (HR 4.09, 95% CI 1.41–11.89, p = 0.009) was associated with a longer duration of seizure freedom. The presence of contralateral MRI abnormalities was associated with contralateral ictal seizures on preoperative scalp EEG (p = 0.002). Fifteen patients experienced 20 complications (20/72, 27.8%), including the development of hydrocephalus necessitating CSF diversion in 9 cases (13%), hygroma in 1, hemispheric edema in 1, aseptic meningitis in 2, postoperative hemorrhage in 2, infection in 2, ischemic stroke in 2, and blood transfusion–contracted hepatitis C in 1 case.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with bihemispheric abnormalities, as evidenced by contralateral MRI abnormalities, have a higher risk of earlier seizure recurrence following functional hemispherectomy.

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Jean Meyblum, Baptiste Boukebous, Pierre Diviné, Philippe Cottin, Charles-Henri Flouzat Lachaniette and Thierry Bégué

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of L4–5 total disc replacement (TDR) positioning on functional outcome at the 2-year follow-up. The secondary objective was to assess its influence on sagittal balance.

METHODS

Prospective data were compiled for 38 single-level L4–5 ProDisc-O TDRs. Anteroposterior placement (APP) was the distance between the center of the implant and the center of the L5 endplate divided by the total length of the L5 endplate. This ratio was expressed as a percentage (APP 0%–49%, anterior off-centering; 50%, perfect centering; and 51%–100%, posterior off-centering). The patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the APP and using quartile values: group 1, anterior placement (APP 0%–46%); group 2, central placement (APP 46.1%–52%, the 2 central quartiles); and group 3, posterior placement (APP 52.1%–100%). The sagittal balance parameters assessed were overall lordosis, segmental lordosis, and pelvic incidence. Adequate lordosis was defined for each patient according to their pelvic incidence. The Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain were assessed.

RESULTS

The average APP was 48% (range 40%–64%). There were 10 patients in group 1, 18 in group 2, and 10 in group 3. There was a significant difference in functional outcomes among the 3 groups. APP influenced the VAS back (p = 0.04) and VAS leg (p = 0.05) scores. Group 1 consistently showed the highest performance scores. No significant association between APP and the sagittal balance parameters was found. Patients who had preoperative sagittal imbalance or those who significantly modified their balance after the surgery had the poorest outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Disc prostheses at L4–5 seem to provide better functional outcome when they are positioned anteriorly to the center of the vertebral body.

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Danielle Golub, Jonathan Hyde, Siddhant Dogra, Joseph Nicholson, Katherine A. Kirkwood, Paulomi Gohel, Stephen Loftus and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) continue to carry poor prognoses, and patient outcomes depend heavily on the extent of resection (EOR). The utility of conventional image-guided surgery is limited by intraoperative brain shift. More recent techniques to maximize EOR, including intraoperative imaging and the use of fluorescent dyes, combat these limitations. However, the relative efficacy of these two techniques has never been systematically compared. Thus, the authors performed an exhaustive systematic review in conjunction with quantitative network meta-analyses to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and intraoperative MRI (IMRI) in optimizing EOR in HGG. They secondarily analyzed associated progression-free and overall survival and performed subgroup analyses by level of evidence.

METHODS

PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and Web of Science were searched for studies evaluating conventional neuronavigation, IMRI, and 5-ALA in HGG resection. The primary study endpoint was the proportion of patients attaining gross-total resection (GTR), defined as 100% elimination of contrast-enhancing lesion on postoperative MRI. Secondary endpoints included overall and progression-free survival and subgroup analyses for level of evidence. Comparative efficacy analysis of IMRI and 5-ALA was performed using Bayesian network meta-analysis models.

RESULTS

This analysis included 11 studies. In a classic meta-analysis, both IMRI (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.65–9.39, p < 0.001) and 5-ALA (OR 2.866, 95% CI 2.127–3.863, p < 0.001) were superior to conventional navigation in achieving GTR. Bayesian network analysis was employed to indirectly compare IMRI to 5-ALA, and no significant difference in GTR was found between the two (OR 1.9 favoring IMRI, 95% CI 0.905–3.989, p = 0.090). A handful of studies additionally suggested that the use of either IMRI (2 and 4 studies, respectively) or 5-ALA (2 and 2 studies, respectively) improves progression-free and overall survival.

CONCLUSIONS

IMRI and 5-ALA are individually superior to conventional neuronavigation for achieving GTR of HGG. Between IMRI and 5-ALA, neither method is clearly more effective. Future studies evaluating the comparative cost and surgical time associated with IMRI and 5-ALA will better inform any cost-benefit analysis.

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Brian M. Corliss, Rachel Freedman, Meghan M. Brennan, Jessica Smith, John D. Nerva, Neil S. Harris, Adam J. Polifka, Brian L. Hoh and W. Christopher Fox

OBJECTIVE

Inhibition of platelet aggregation is universally used to prevent thromboembolic complications related to stent placement in endovascular neurosurgery, but excessive inhibition potentiates hemorrhagic complications. Previously, the authors demonstrated that two different commercially available measures of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)–dependent platelet inhibition—the VerifyNow P2Y12 clopidogrel assay (measured in platelet reactivity units [PRU]) and maximal amplitude (MA) attributable to ADP activity (MA-ADP) derived from thromboelastography (TEG) with platelet mapping (PM)—yielded wildly different results. This study sought to analyze observed complications to quantify the ideal therapeutic windows for both tests.

METHODS

Ninety-one patients with simultaneous or near-simultaneous PRU and TEG-PM results who underwent craniocervical endovascular stenting at the authors’ institution between September 2015 and November 2017 were identified and retrospectively enrolled. From November 2017 until June 2019, 109 additional patients were prospectively enrolled. For this study, in-hospital thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications (both CNS and non-CNS) were tabulated, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify threshold values of the PRU and MA-ADP for predicting each type of complication.

RESULTS

Of the 200 patients enrolled, 7 were excluded because of anemia or thrombocytopenia outside of the test manufacturer’s specified ranges and 1 was excluded because they did not have a TEG-PM result. Including complications of all severities, there were a total of 15 CNS thrombotic complications, 1 access-site thrombotic complication, 3 CNS hemorrhages, 8 access-site hemorrhagic complications, and 3 hemorrhagic complications not affecting either the CNS or the access site. ROC curve analysis yielded therapeutic threshold values of 118–144 PRU. The results demonstrated PRU has a significant dose-dependent effect on the rates of thrombosis and hemorrhage. Logistic regression models did not demonstrate statistically significant relationships between the MA-ADP and either thrombosis or hemorrhage. ROC analysis based on these models is of little value and did not identify significant threshold values for MA-ADP.

CONCLUSIONS

There continues to be poor correlation between the results of TEG-PM and PRU. PRU accurately predicted complications, with a relatively narrow ideal value range of 118–144. The MA-ADP alone does not appear able to accurately predict either hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications in this group.