Tailored surgery to extensively resect epileptogenic lesions using intraoperative electrocorticography (ioECoG) may improve seizure outcomes. However, resection of large areas is associated with decreased memory function postoperatively. The authors assessed whether ioECoG could provide useful information on how to minimize the focus resection and obtain better seizure outcomes without memory deterioration. They examined the postoperative seizure-free period and memory alteration in a retrospective cohort of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in whom the extent of removal was determined using ioECoG findings.
The authors enrolled 82 patients with TLE associated with HS who were treated surgically. Transsylvian amygdalohippocampectomy was indicated as the first step. When visual inspection identified interictal epileptic discharges from the lateral temporal lobe on ioECoG, anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) was eventually performed. The patients were divided into the selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SA, n = 40) and ATL (n = 42) groups. Postoperative seizure outcomes were assessed at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 years postoperatively using the International League Against Epilepsy classification. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to evaluate the period of seizure recurrence between the SA and ATL groups. Factors attributed to seizure recurrence were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model, and they were as follows: epileptic focal laterality; age at seizure onset (< 10 or ≥ 10 years old); seizure frequency (more than weekly or less than weekly seizures); history of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure; infectious etiology; and surgical procedure. The Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised was used to evaluate memory function pre- and postoperatively.
Seizure outcomes were significantly worse in the SA group than in the ATL group at 2 years postoperatively (p = 0.045). The International League Against Epilepsy class 1 outcomes at 7 years postoperatively in the SA and ATL groups were 63% and 81%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that seizure recurred significantly earlier in the SA group than in the ATL group (p = 0.031). The 2-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the SA and ATL groups in each memory category, and revealed that there was no significant difference regardless of the side of surgery.
Visual assessment of ioECoG cannot be used as an indicator to minimize epileptic focus resection in patients with TLE associated with HS. ATL is more effective in obtaining seizure-free outcomes; however, both ATL and SA can preserve memory function.