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Marco Colasurdo, Nir Leibushor, Ariadna Robledo, Viren Vasandani, Zean Aaron Luna, Abhijit S. Rao, Roberto Garcia, Visish M. Srinivasan, Sunil A. Sheth, Naama Avni, Moleen Madziva, Mor Berejick, Goni Sirota, Aielet Efrati, Avraham Meisel, Hashem Shaltoni, and Peter Kan

OBJECTIVE

Machine learning algorithms have shown groundbreaking results in neuroimaging. Herein, the authors evaluate the performance of a newly developed convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect and quantify the thickness, volume, and midline shift (MLS) of subdural hematoma (SDH) from noncontrast head CT (NCHCT).

METHODS

NCHCT studies performed for the evaluation of head trauma in consecutive patients between July 2018 and April 2021 at a single institution were retrospectively identified. Ground truth determination of SDH, thickness, and MLS was established by the neuroradiology report. The primary outcome was performance of the CNN in detecting SDH in an external validation set, as measured using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Secondary outcomes included accuracy for thickness, volume, and MLS.

RESULTS

Among 263 cases with valid NCHCT according to the study criteria, 135 patients (51%) were male, the mean (± standard deviation) age was 61 ± 23 years, and 70 patients were diagnosed with SDH on neuroradiologist evaluation. The median SDH thickness was 11 mm (IQR 6 mm), and 16 patients had a median MLS of 5 mm (IQR 2.25 mm). In the independent data set, the CNN performed well, with sensitivity of 91.4% (95% CI 82.3%–96.8%), specificity of 96.4% (95% CI 92.7%–98.5%), and accuracy of 95.1% (95% CI 91.7%–97.3%); sensitivity for the subgroup with an SDH thickness above 10 mm was 100%. The maximum thickness mean absolute error was 2.75 mm (95% CI 2.14–3.37 mm), whereas the MLS mean absolute error was 0.93 mm (95% CI 0.55–1.31 mm). The Pearson correlation coefficient computed to determine agreement between automated and manual segmentation measurements was 0.97 (95% CI 0.96–0.98).

CONCLUSIONS

The described Viz.ai SDH CNN performed exceptionally well at identifying and quantifying key features of SDHs in an independent validation imaging data set.

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Alexander C. M. Greven, J. Miller Douglas, Anudeep S. Nakirikanti, James G. Malcolm, Melissa Campbell, Kirk A. Easley, Nealen G. Laxpati, Jason J. Lamanna, David P. Bray, Brian M. Howard, Jon T. Willie, Nicholas M. Boulis, and Robert E. Gross

OBJECTIVE

Overlapping surgery, in which one attending surgeon manages two overlapping operating rooms (ORs) and is present for all the critical portions of each procedure, is an important policy that improves healthcare access for patients and case volumes for surgeons and surgical trainees. Despite several studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of overlapping neurosurgical operations, the practice of overlapping surgery remains controversial. To date, there are no studies that have investigated long-term complication rates of overlapping functional and stereotactic neurosurgical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the 1-year complication rates and OR times for nonoverlapping versus overlapping functional procedures. The secondary objective was to gain insight into what types of complications are the most prevalent and test for differences between groups.

METHODS

Seven hundred eighty-three functional neurosurgical cases were divided into two cohorts, nonoverlapping (n = 342) and overlapping (n = 441). The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scale score was used to compare the preoperative risk for both cohorts. A complication was defined as any surgically related reason that required readmission, reoperation, or an unplanned emergency department or clinic visit that required intervention. Complications were subdivided into infectious and noninfectious. Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-tests, and uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine significance.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in mean ASA scale score (2.7 ± 0.6 for both groups, p = 0.997) or overall complication rates (8.8% nonoverlapping vs 9.8% overlapping, p = 0.641) between the two cohorts. Infections accounted for the highest percentage of complications in both cohorts (46.6% vs 41.8%, p = 0.686). There were no statistically significant differences between mean in-room OR time (187.5 ± 141.7 minutes vs 197.1 ± 153.0 minutes, p = 0.373) or mean open-to-close time (112.2 ± 107.9 minutes vs 121.0 ± 123.1 minutes, p = 0.300) between nonoverlapping and overlapping cases.

CONCLUSIONS

There was no increased risk of 1-year complications or increased OR time for overlapping functional and stereotactic neurosurgical procedures compared with nonoverlapping procedures.

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Fraser Henderson Jr., Brett E. Youngerman, Sumit N. Niogi, Tyler Alexander, Abtin Tabaee, Ashutosh Kacker, Vijay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine if the distinction between planum sphenoidale (PS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas is clinically meaningful and impacts the results of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA).

METHODS

A consecutive series of patients who were 18 years of age or older and underwent EEA for newly diagnosed grade I PS meningiomas (PSMs) and TS meningiomas (TSMs) between October 2007 and May 2021 were included. The PS and TS were distinguished by drawing a line passing through the center of the TS and perpendicular to the PS on postcontrast T1-weighted MRI. Probabilistic heatmaps were created to display the actual distribution of tumor volumes. Tumor volume, extent of resection (EOR), visual outcome, and complications were assessed.

RESULTS

The 47 tumors were distributed in a smooth continuum. Using an arbitrary definition, 24 (51%) were PSMs and 23 (49%) were TSMs. The mean volume of PSMs was 5.6 cm3 compared with 4.5 cm3 for TSMs. Canal invasion was present in 87.5% of PSMs and 52% of TSMs. GTR was achieved in 38 (84%) of 45 cases in which it was the goal, slightly less frequently for PSMs (78%) compared with TSMs (91%), although the difference was not significant. Th mean EOR was 99% ± 2% for PSMs and 98% ± 11% for TSMs. Neither the suprasellar notch angle nor the percentage of tumor above the PS impacted the rate of GTR. After a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range 0.1–131 months), there were 2 (5%) recurrences after GTR (n = 38) both of which occurred in patients with PSMs. Forty-two (89%) patients presented with preoperative impaired vision. Postoperative vision was stable or improved in 96% of patients with PSMs and 91% of patients with TSMs. CSF leakage occurred in 4 (16.6%) patients with a PSM, which resolved with only lumbar drainage, and in 1 (4.3%) patient with a TSM, which required reoperation.

CONCLUSIONS

PSM and TSMs arise in a smooth distribution, making the distinction arbitrary. Those classified as PSMs were larger and more likely to invade the optic canals. Surgical outcome for both locations was similar, slightly favoring TSMs. The arbitrary distinction between PSMs and TSMs is less useful at predicting outcome than the lateral extent of the tumor, regardless of the site of origin.

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Jianjian Zhang, Jin Yu, Can Xin, Miki Fujimura, Tsz Yeung Lau, Miao Hu, Xiao Tian, Mingrui Luo, Tianshu Tao, Ling Li, Changyin Wang, Wei Wei, Xiang Li, and Jincao Chen

OBJECTIVE

Side-to-side (S-S) superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass was reportedly used to treat a special moyamoya disease (MMD) patient with collaterals arising from the donor STA. However, the S-S technique is not routinely performed to date, and its benefits are still unknown for adult MMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of routine use of the S-S technique for adult MMD.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 50 adult patients (65 hemispheres, including 30 in the end-to-side [E-S] group and 35 in the S-S group) with MMD who underwent STA-MCA bypass. The patient demographic characteristics, clinical courses, technical details, intraoperative blood flow data, postoperative and preoperative relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores, and short-term revascularization results were compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences observed in terms of the baseline characteristics, bypass patency rates, postoperative/preoperative rCBF values, incidence of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS), mRS scores, and short-term revascularization results between the 2 groups (all p > 0.05). Intraoperative blood flow analysis showed that the increase of STA flow in the E-S group was significantly higher than that of proximal STA flow in the S-S group (p = 0.008). Although the increases of proximal and distal recipient flow in the E-S group seemed greater than those in the S-S group, the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.086 for proximal flow and p = 0.076 for distal flow). CHS symptoms in the S-S group were milder and with much shorter duration. The follow-up angiographic data of the representative case demonstrated that both frontal and parietal STA branches and the occipital artery participated in postoperative collateralization.

CONCLUSIONS

S-S anastomosis can achieve comparable clinical effects to standard E-S construction. S-S anastomosis used in adult MMD demonstrated mild CHS symptoms with short duration and had the potential to arouse all scalp arteries as donor sources for revascularization through the intact distal STA branch via flow self-regulation.

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Sarah N. Chiang, Erin C. Peterson, David C. Lauzier, Sean D. McEvoy, Gary B. Skolnick, Sybill D. Naidoo, Matthew D. Smyth, and Kamlesh B. Patel

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic strip craniectomy for metopic craniosynostosis relies on rapid growth and postoperative helmeting for correction. Endoscopic repair is generally performed before patients reach 4 months of age, and outcomes in older patients have yet to be quantified. Here, the authors examined a cohort of patients treated with endoscopic repair before or after 4 months of age to determine aesthetic outcomes of delayed repairs.

METHODS

Data from eligible patients were retrospectively assessed and aggregated in a dedicated metopic synostosis database. Inclusion criteria were radiographically confirmed metopic synostosis and endoscopic treatment. Patients were dichotomized into two groups: those younger than 4 months and those 4 months or older at the time of repair. The frontal width and interfrontal divergence angle (IFDA) were measured on reconstructed CT images. These measurements, alongside operative time, estimated blood loss, and transfusion rates, were compared between groups using the Student t-test or chi-square test.

RESULTS

The study population comprised 28 patients treated before 4 months of age and 8 patients treated at 4–6 months of age. Patient sex and perioperative complications did not differ by age group. Older age at repair was not significantly associated with 1-year postoperative IFDA (140° ± 4.2° vs 142° ± 5.0°, p = 0.28) or frontal width (84 ± 5.2 vs 83 ± 4.4 mm, p = 0.47).

CONCLUSIONS

One-year postoperative IFDA and frontal width do not differ significantly between patients treated before and after 4 months of age. Further study with longer follow-up is necessary to confirm the longevity of these results at skeletal maturity.

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Satoru Demura, Tetsuya Ohara, Ryoji Tauchi, Kosuke Takimura, Kota Watanabe, Satoshi Suzuki, Koki Uno, Teppei Suzuki, Haruhisa Yanagida, Toru Yamaguchi, Toshiaki Kotani, Keita Nakayama, Kei Watanabe, Noriaki Yokogawa, Norihiro Oku, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Takuya Yamamoto, Ichiro Kawamura, Yuki Taniguchi, Katsushi Takeshita, Ryo Sugawara, Ichiro Kikkawa, Tatsuya Sato, Kenta Fujiwara, Tsutomu Akazawa, Hideki Murakami, Noriaki Kawakami, and

OBJECTIVE

Various complications have been reported in the treatment of pediatric spinal deformities. Among these, instrument-related complications could be critical concerns and risks of reoperation. This study aimed to identify the incidence and causes of complications after primary definitive fusion for pediatric spine deformities.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected data from 14 institutions about patients who underwent primary definitive fusion between 2015 and 2017. There were 1490 eligible patients (1184 female and 306 male), with a mean age of 13.9 years. The incidence, causes, and reoperation rates were analyzed according to 4 etiologies of pediatric spine deformity (congenital, neuromuscular, syndromic, idiopathic). The complications were also categorized as screw-, hook-, or rod-related complications, implant loosening or backout, and junctional problems.

RESULTS

The incidence of overall instrument-related complications was 5.6% (84 cases). Regarding etiology, the incidence rates were 4.3% (idiopathic), 6.8% (syndromic), 7.9% (congenital), and 10.4% (neuromuscular) (p < 0.05). The most common causes were pedicle screw malposition (60.7%), followed by implant backout or loosening (15.4%), junctional problems (13.1%), rod breakage (4.8%), and other complications (6.0%). Univariate analysis showed that etiology, type of deformity (kyphosis), surgical procedure, operation time, and estimated blood loss were significant factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that etiology (neuromuscular), surgical procedure (combined approach), and operation time (> 5 hours) remained as significant risk factors. Among all patients with instrument-related complications, 45% (38/84) required revision surgery. Of these cases, > 50% were related to pedicle screw malposition. Medial breach was the most common complication regardless of location, from upper thoracic to lumbar spine.

CONCLUSIONS

Pedicle screw malposition was the primary cause of overall complications and subsequent reoperation. In addition to more precise screw insertion techniques, meticulous confirmation of pedicle screw placement, especially of medial breach, may reduce the overall instrument-related complications and revision rates.

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Anna Bruna Ronchetti, Marta Bertamino, Chiara Maria Tacchino, Paolo Moretti, and Marco Pavanello

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Songshan Chai, Kai Fu, Bangkun Yang, Jie Zhang, and Nanxiang Xiong

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Sandeep Kandregula, Amey R. Savardekar, Danielle Terrell, Nimer Adeeb, Stephen Whipple, Robbie Beyl, Harjus S. Birk, William Christopher Newman, Jennifer Kosty, Hugo Cuellar, and Bharat Guthikonda

OBJECTIVE

Frailty is one of the important factors in predicting the outcomes of surgery. Many surgical specialties have adopted a frailty assessment in the preoperative period for prognostication; however, there are limited data on the effects of frailty on the outcomes of cerebral aneurysms. The object of this study was to find the effect of frailty on the surgical outcomes of anterior circulation unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) and compare the frailty index with other comorbidity indexes.

METHODS

A retrospective study was performed utilizing the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2016–2018). The Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) was used to assess frailty. On the basis of the HFRS, the whole cohort was divided into low-risk (0–5), intermediate-risk (> 5 to 15), and high-risk (> 15) frailty groups. The analyzed outcomes were nonhome discharge, complication rate, extended length of stay, and in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS

In total, 37,685 patients were included in the analysis, 5820 of whom had undergone open surgical clipping and 31,865 of whom had undergone endovascular management. Mean age was higher in the high-risk frailty group than in the low-risk group for both clipping (63 vs 55.4 years) and coiling (64.6 vs 57.9 years). The complication rate for open surgical clipping in the high-risk frailty group was 56.1% compared to 0.8% in the low-risk group. Similarly, for endovascular management, the complication rate was 60.6% in the high-risk group compared to 0.3% in the low-risk group. Nonhome discharges were more common in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group for both open clipping (87.8% vs 19.7%) and endovascular management (73.1% vs 4.4%). Mean hospital charges for clipping were $341,379 in the high-risk group compared to $116,892 in the low-risk group. Mean hospital charges for coiling were $392,861 in the high-risk frailty group and $125,336 in the low-risk group. Extended length of stay occurred more frequently in the high-risk frailty group than in the low-risk group for both clipping (82.9% vs 10.7%) and coiling (94.2% vs 12.7%). Frailty had higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values than those for other comorbidity indexes and age in predicting outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Frailty affects surgical outcomes significantly and outperforms age and other comorbidity indexes in predicting outcome. It is imperative to include frailty assessment in preoperative planning.

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Juan Pablo Sardi, Bruno Lazaro, Justin S. Smith, Michael P. Kelly, Brian Dial, Jeffrey Hills, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Munish Gupta, Christine R. Baldus, Chun Po Yen, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Previous reports of rod fracture (RF) in adult spinal deformity are limited by heterogeneous cohorts, low follow-up rates, and relatively short follow-up durations. Since the majority of RFs present > 2 years after surgery, true occurrence and revision rates remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to better understand the risk factors for RF and assess its occurrence and revision rates following primary thoracolumbar fusions to the sacrum/pelvis for adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS) in a prospective series with long-term follow-up.

METHODS

Patient records were obtained from the Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis–1 (ASLS-1) database, an NIH-sponsored multicenter, prospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients aged 40–80 years undergoing primary surgeries for ASLS (Cobb angle ≥ 30° and Oswestry Disability Index ≥ 20 or Scoliosis Research Society-22r ≤ 4.0 in pain, function, and/or self-image) with instrumented fusion of ≥ 7 levels that included the sacrum/pelvis. Patients with and without RF were compared to assess risk factors for RF and revision surgery.

RESULTS

Inclusion criteria were met by 160 patients (median age 62 years, IQR 55.7–67.9 years). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (IQR 3.8–6.6 years), there were 92 RFs in 62 patients (38.8%). The median time to RF was 3.0 years (IQR 1.9–4.54 years), and 73% occurred > 2 years following surgery. Based on Kaplan-Meier analyses, estimated RF rates at 2, 4, 5, and 8 years after surgery were 11%, 24%, 35%, and 49%, respectively. Baseline radiographic, clinical, and demographic characteristics were similar between patients with and without RF. In Cox regression models, greater postoperative pelvic tilt (HR 1.895, 95% CI 1.196–3.002, p = 0.0065) and greater estimated blood loss (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.005–1.036, p = 0.0088) were associated with increased risk of RF. Thirty-eight patients (61% of all RFs) underwent revision surgery. Bilateral RF was predictive of revision surgery (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.8–6.9, p = 0.0002), while patients with unilateral nondisplaced RFs were less likely to require revision (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18–0.84, p = 0.016).

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides what is to the authors’ knowledge the highest-quality data to date on RF rates following ASLS surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 38.8% of patients had at least one RF. Estimated RF rates at 2, 4, 5, and 8 years after surgery were 11%, 24%, 35%, and 49%, respectively. Greater estimated blood loss and postoperative pelvic tilt were significant risk factors for RF. These findings emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up to realize the true prevalence and cumulative incidence of RF.