Editorial. AtlasGPT: dawn of a new era in neurosurgery for intelligent care augmentation, operative planning, and performance
Benjamin S. Hopkins, Bob Carter, Jesse Lord, James T. Rutka, and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol
Acute management of ruptured cavernous malformation of the optic nerve: illustrative case
Philip Kawalec, Marc R Del Bigio, and Anthony M Kaufmann
A cavernous malformation of the optic nerve (CMON) is a rare condition that often presents with an abrupt decline in vision. Acute management of ruptured optic nerve cavernous malformations is generally surgical, although the timing of surgery is controversial.
A 47-year-old female experienced the sudden loss of vision in her left eye. Examination showed that this eye was nearly blind, and her right eye had a temporal field defect. Neuroimaging showed hemorrhage in her left optic nerve and optic chiasm. She was taken to the operating room on an emergent basis where the optic canal was decompressed, the hemorrhage was evacuated, and a vascular malformation with features of a cavernoma was removed from the optic nerve. Over the next 2 days, the vision in her right eye significantly recovered.
CMONs remain rare, and it is unlikely that enough cases can be gathered to form a larger trial to compare the role and timing of surgery. On the basis of our experience with this case, the authors recommend that acute CMON-related hematomas should be treated as a surgical emergency and managed with acute optic nerve decompression, hematoma evacuation, and cavernoma resection to improve chances of vision recovery and prevent further vision loss.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis detected using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy in a patient with glioblastoma: illustrative case
Youhei Takeuchi, 1, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Shunji Mugikura, and Hidenori Endo
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) sometimes occurs in the background of hypercoagulopathic disorders, including malignancy, chemotherapy, etc. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignancy found in the central nervous system, and reports on cases of GBM complicated by CVST are sparse. The authors herein report a case of GBM complicated by CVST during maintenance temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and describe the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of CVST.
A 65-year-old male was treated for left temporal GBM. After surgical removal of the lesion, the patient was treated with chemoradiation therapy, which included 60 Gy local radiation with concomitant TMZ chemotherapy. He was subsequently received TMZ maintenance therapy. Routine MRI performed 7 months after surgery revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. However, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) revealed a high-intensity signal at the posterior portion of the superior sagittal sinus, indicating the presence of a thrombus. In addition to the preexisting symptoms, the patient experienced some disorientation. Angiography revealed an obstruction in the superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus, right sigmoid sinus, and straight sinus. His symptoms improved with endovascular and anticoagulant therapy.
Performing DWI during routine follow-up can help in the early diagnosis of CVST in patients with malignant gliomas.
Compressive myelopathy from diffuse spinal dural calcifications in a patient with end-stage renal disease: illustrative case
Alexis Malecki, Jacob Pawloski, Anthony Anzalone, Kelly Shaftel, Hassan Ali Fadel, and Ian Lee
Diffuse spinal dural calcification is a rare disorder associated with hyperparathyroidism, including the secondary forms associated with renal failure, osteodystrophy, and chronic hypocalcemia. Here, the authors report a rare case of diffuse dural calcification causing spinal cord compression with myelopathy, requiring decompressive surgery with duraplasty to achieve adequate decompression.
A 46-year-old male with a history of renal failure on dialysis presented with 2 months of progressive neuropathic pain, lower-extremity weakness, and nonsustained clonus. Spine imaging showed severe renal osteodystrophy with multilevel compression fractures and diffuse dural calcifications with areas of invagination causing severe spinal cord compression. Decompressive surgery was recommended. In surgery, a thickened and calcified dura was encountered with areas of buckling causing spinal cord compression. The invaginated area of the dura was resected and reconstructed with patch duraplasty. The patient’s neurological status remained unchanged postoperatively, and at the 6-month follow-up, the patient reported significant improvement in pain and muscle spasms.
Diffuse dural calcifications are a rare complication of prolonged dialysis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. When there is resultant spinal cord compression, this condition requires an intradural approach that addresses the thickened, calcified dura directly to obtain adequate spinal cord decompression.
Delayed symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following vestibular schwannoma resection: illustrative case
Paurush Pasricha, Alay V Khandhar, and Basant K Misra
Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following posterior fossa extraaxial tumor resection is a rare phenomenon, with only 13 cases previously reported in the literature. The condition appears similar to vasospasm following supratentorial tumor resection, intraaxial posterior fossa tumor resection, and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The majority of patients were not evaluated for vasospasm prior to symptom onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis.
The authors present their experience in a 56-year-old female who developed delayed cerebral vasospasm after excision of a solid-cystic vestibular schwannoma. Routine postoperative brain computed tomography showed evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. She was discharged on the 9th postoperative day. On the 11th day after tumor excision, she developed left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and dysphagia and was readmitted. Angiography confirmed bilateral diffuse cerebral vasospasm. The patient responded to standard hyperdynamic therapy used for vasospasm secondary to aSAH.
Symptomatic distant cerebral vasospasm after posterior fossa extraaxial tumor excision is a rare but challenging complication with a very high morbidity rate in reported cases. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prompt management for a favorable outcome.
Enlarged tumefactive perivascular, or Virchow-Robin, spaces and hydrocephalus: do we need to treat? Illustrative cases
Belal Neyazi, Vanessa Magdalena Swiatek, Klaus-Peter Stein, Karl Hartmann, Ali Rashidi, Seraphine Zubel, Amir Amini, and I. Erol Sandalcioglu
Perivascular spaces (PVSs) are spaces in brain parenchyma filled with interstitial fluid surrounding small cerebral vessels. Massive enlargements of PVSs are referred to as “giant tumefactive perivascular spaces” (GTPVSs), which can be classified into three types depending on their localization. These lesions are rare, predominantly asymptomatic, and often initially misinterpreted as cystic tumor formations. However, there are several reported cases in which GTPVSs have induced neurological symptoms because of their size, mass effect, and location, ultimately leading to obstructive hydrocephalus necessitating neurosurgical intervention. Presented here are three diverse clinical presentations of GTPVS.
Here, the authors observed an asymptomatic case of type 1 GTPVS and two symptomatic cases of type 3 GTPVS, one causing local mass effect and the other hydrocephalus.
GTPVSs are mostly asymptomatic lesions. Patients without symptoms should be closely monitored, and biopsy is discouraged. Hydrocephalus resulting from GTPVS necessitates surgical intervention. In these cases, third ventriculostomy, shunt implantation, or direct cyst fenestration are surgical options. For patients presenting with symptoms from localized mass effect, a thorough evaluation for potential neurosurgical intervention is imperative. Follow-up in type 3 GTPVS is recommended, particularly in untreated cases. Given the infrequency of GTPVS, definitive guidelines for neurosurgical treatment and subsequent follow-up remain elusive.
Fluorescence and immune-cell infiltration of nonneoplastic, postbrachytherapy brain tissue in 5-ALA–guided resection of recurrent anaplastic meningioma: illustrative case
Rishab Ramapriyan, Victoria E Clark, 1 PhD, Maria Martinez-Lage, Brian Hsueh, 1 PhD, Brian V Nahed, 1 MSc, William T Curry, Bryan D Choi, 1 PhD, Bob S Carter, and 1 PhD
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery is a well-established technique for resecting high-grade gliomas. However, its application in meningiomas, especially those previously treated with radiation therapy, remains under investigation.
A 48-year-old female with recurrent anaplastic meningioma, World Health Organization grade 3, underwent a right-sided craniotomy using off-label 5-ALA as a surgical adjunct. The patient had previously undergone brachytherapy seed implantation (20 × cesium 131) for tumor management. During the surgery, a large fluorescent tumor mass adjacent to the brachytherapy-treated area was resected, and the prior brachytherapy seeds were removed. Interestingly, the surrounding brain tissue in the irradiated area showed robust 5-ALA fluorescence. Pathological examination confirmed that the fluorescent brain tissue was nonneoplastic and associated with lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration.
This case report presents unique 5-ALA fluorescence in nonneoplastic tissue following brachytherapy, which was found during the resection of recurrent anaplastic meningioma. This phenomenon may reflect an intricate interplay among radiation therapy, immune cells, the tumor microenvironment, and 5-ALA metabolism. Given that false-positive findings in fluorescence-guided surgery can lead to unnecessary tissue resection and increased surgical morbidity, further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and its implications for meningioma surgery.
Letter to the Editor. Clinical manifestations of Erdheim-Chester disease besides epilepsy
Letter to the Editor Response
Caren M Stuebe, Amanda V Jenson, Tanner W Lines, Ashley M Holloman, Matthew D Cykowski, Steve H Fung, Ronald E Fisher, Kenneth L McClain, and David S Baskin
Microvascular decompression of a vertebral artery loop causing cervical radiculopathy: illustrative case
Alexa Semonche, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Young Lee, Todd Dubnicoff, Harlan Matles, Dean Chou, Adib Abla, and Edward F Chang
Vertebral artery loops are a rare cause of cervical radiculopathy. Surgical options for nerve root decompression include an anterior or posterior approach, with or without additional microvascular decompression.
The authors describe a case of a 49-year-old man with a long-standing history of left-sided neck pain and migraines, who was found to have a vertebral artery loop in the left C3–4 neural foramen compressing the left C4 nerve root. The patient underwent a posterior cervical decompression with instrumented fusion and macrovascular decompression of the left C4 nerve root via Teflon felt insertion. In a literature review, we identified 20 similar cases that had also been managed surgically.
Although the anterior approach is more frequently described in the literature, a posterior approach for nerve compression by a vertebral artery loop is also a safe and effective treatment. The authors report the third case of this surgical approach with a good outcome.