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Liming Qiu, Angela An Qi See, Terry W. J. Steele and Nicolas Kon Kam King

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgery presents unique surgical challenges arising from delicate neural structures, limited accessibility, and the risk of CSF leakage that can lead to CNS infections. Sutures and staples may have limited applicability in the complex anatomical constraints of cranial and spinal surgeries, especially in trauma settings when time is of the essence. Surgical bioadhesives are emerging as attractive alternatives because they avoid traumatic application methods, provide a stress-distributed fixation, and provide good cosmesis and outcomes. This article presents the history of the development of surgical bioadhesives, and is also a review of current applications of commercial surgical bioadhesives within neurosurgical procedures and the unmet clinical needs that should be addressed in bioadhesives technologies.

METHODS

A PubMed literature search was performed using the terms “(glue OR bioadhesive OR fibrin OR tisseel OR evicel OR tachosil OR cyanoacrylate OR duraseal OR bioglue) AND (neurosurgery OR spine OR spinal OR dural OR microvascular decompression OR transsphenoidal OR endovascular).” Of 2433 records screened, 168 studies were identified that described the use of bioadhesives in neurosurgical procedures.

RESULTS

The greatest number of studies describing the use of bioadhesives in neurosurgery were identified for endovascular embolization, followed by dural closure and transsphenoidal surgeries. Other common areas of application were for microvascular decompression, skin closure, peripheral nerve repair, and other novel uses. Numerous case reports were also identified describing complications associated with bioadhesive use.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the paucity of approved indications, surgical bioadhesive use in neurosurgical procedures is prevalent. However, current bioadhesives still each have their own limitations and research is intense in the development of novel solutions.

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Kai Yamasaki, Chikako Kiyotani, Keita Terashima, Yuko Watanabe, Masayuki Kanamori, Yuhki Koga, Nobuhiro Hata, Fuminori Iwasaki, Hiroaki Goto, Katsuyoshi Koh, Jun Kurihara, Shinya Tokunaga, Yoshiki Arakawa, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Kosaka and Junichi Hara

OBJECTIVE

The prognosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) has improved in recent years with the use of multimodal therapy, mainly in cases not involving metastatic disease. The authors wanted to obtain historical control data and evaluate the suitable treatments in Japanese children with ATRTs that were proven negative for INI-1 immunostaining.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected clinical information on 38 pediatric patients with ATRTs treated from 2005 to 2016 and analyzed the data for this series.

RESULTS

The median age of the patient population was 1.3 years, and the male/female ratio was approximately 2:1. Twenty-three patients (60.5%) had metastases. The effects of treatment on prognosis were analyzed for 34 patients after exclusion of 4 patients who could not receive curative treatment. At a median follow-up of 40.9 months, the mean (± SD) progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66.6% ± 8.3% and 45.9% ± 8.7% at 2 years and 44.2% ± 9.9% and 34.2% ± 8.9% at 5 years, respectively. The metastasis stage at diagnosis (M0–1 vs M2–4) (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.08–6.65; p = 0.0338) and gross tumor resection (yes vs no) (HR 3.49, 95% CI 1.01–12.1; p = 0.0481) were prognostic factors for PFS but not for OS. Postoperative chemotherapy was performed in all 34 cases. High-dose chemotherapy was performed in 19 (55.8%) of 34 patients and showed a positive impact on OS (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.86; p = 0.0254); the most commonly used regimen was a double-conditioning regimen of thiotepa plus melphalan. Local radiotherapy had a positive impact on both PFS and OS; however, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) performed in 12 patients as the primary therapy was associated with a poor outcome. Disseminated recurrence within 12 months from diagnosis was the most common pattern of treatment failure regardless of CSI.

CONCLUSIONS

There has been an improvement in outcomes for pediatric ATRT patients since the introduction of multimodal therapy in Japan, mainly in patients without metastases. Even if selection bias is taken into consideration, CSI did not contribute to an improved prognosis. Novel treatment approaches are required for pediatric ATRT patients with metastases.

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Sophie J. M. Rijnen, Gülizar Kaya, Karin Gehring, Jeroen B. Verheul, Olga C. Wallis, Margriet M. Sitskoorn and Geert-Jan M. Rutten

OBJECTIVE

The authors evaluated the cognitive performance of patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) before and after surgery, and specifically investigated 1) the effects of hemispheric tumor location and 2) the type of surgery (either with or without intraoperative stimulation mapping [ISM]).

METHODS

Patients underwent neuropsychological assessment 1 day before (T0) and 3 months after (T3) surgery. ISM targeted motor and/or language functions, but no other cognitive functions. Using 2-way mixed ANOVAs, differences between groups (i.e., for patients with right- vs left-sided lesions and normative controls [NCs], and also for patients operated on with vs without ISM and NCs), effects over time (T0–T3), and interaction effects in cognitive functioning were explored. Individual changes over time were assessed with reliable change indices for each neuropsychological test.

RESULTS

In total, 77 patients with LGG were included (38 and 39 patients with right- and left-sided lesions, respectively; and 42 patients with and 35 patients without ISM). The majority of patients who were operated on with ISM had left-sided lesions. Patients with right- and left-sided lesions scored significantly lower on 6 and 3 out of 8 tests, respectively, compared to NCs. No significant differences between hemispheric groups were found at T0 or at T3. Patients with left-sided lesions showed significant deterioration of performance on verbal memory and sustained attention over time. Patients who underwent operation with versus without ISM scored significantly lower on 6 and 3 out of 8 tests, respectively, compared to NCs. Patients in the ISM group scored significantly lower on the Stroop test, shifting attention test, and verbal fluency test than patients without ISM. Also, the ISM group showed a significant decline in mean cognitive flexibility and sustained attention performance over time.

CONCLUSIONS

Cognitive impairments were found in patients irrespective of hemispheric tumor location, whereby patients who were operated on with ISM performed slightly worse after surgery than patients without ISM. The authors conclude that there is room for improvement of cognitive functioning in surgically treated patients with LGG. The use of specific tests for higher cognitive functions during surgery may potentially improve functional outcome, but that is to be determined in future studies and balanced against oncological outcome. Implementation of neuropsychological assessments into the clinical management of patients with LGG should be encouraged, to inform and alert patients and clinicians on the status of cognitive functioning.

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Mohammed Ali Alvi, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Mohamad Bydon, Harry Cloft and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECTIVE

The impact of FDA approval of flow-diversion technology for the treatment of supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms and the publication of the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study, both of which occurred in 2011, on the utilization of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypasses is not known.

METHODS

The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for hospitalizations for EC-IC bypass performed from 2008 to 2016. Diagnoses of interest included an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), carotid occlusive disease (COD), and moyamoya disease. The authors assessed trends in EC-IC bypass utilization for these diagnoses and the incidence of adverse discharges, defined as discharge to locations other than home, and the rate of mortality.

RESULTS

A total of 1640 EC-IC bypass procedures were performed at 558 hospitals during the study period, with 1148 procedures at 448 hospitals performed for a diagnosis of interest. The most frequent surgical indication was moyamoya disease (65.7%, n = 754), followed by COD (23.2%, n = 266), SAH (3.2%, n = 37), and a UIA (7.9%, n = 91). EC-IC bypass utilization for COD decreased from 0.21 per 100 admissions of COD in 2010 to 0.09 per 100 admissions in 2016 (p = 0.023). The frequency of adverse discharges increased during the study period from 22.3% of annual admissions in 2008 to 31.2% in 2016 (p = 0.030) when analysis was limited to procedures performed for a diagnosis of interest. Per volume, the top 5th percentile of hospitals, on average, performed 18.4 procedures (SD 13.2) per hospital during the study period, compared to 1.3 procedures (SD 1.3) that were performed in hospitals within the bottom 95th percentile. The rate of adverse discharges was higher at low-volume institutions when compared to that at high-volume institutions (33.8% vs 28.7%; p = 0.029). Over the study period, the authors noted a trend toward a reduced percentage of total surgical volume performed at high-volume hospitals (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors observed a decrease in the utilization of EC-IC bypass for COD during the study period. An increase in the rate of adverse discharges was also noted, coinciding with more procedures being performed at lower-volume centers.

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Barbara Zarino, Elisa Verrua, Emanuele Ferrante, Elisa Sala, Giulia Carosi, Claudia Giavoli, Andreea L. Serban, Giulia Del Sindaco, Martina A. Sirtori, Giulio A. Bertani, Paolo Rampini, Giorgio G. Carrabba, Maura Arosio, Anna Spada, Marco Locatelli and Giovanna Mantovani

OBJECTIVE

Some studies have highlighted psychological and neuropsychological difficulties and a potential reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with pituitary tumors, despite hormone deficits or excess. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first prospective longitudinal case-control study with the aim of simultaneously testing whether HRQOL and psychiatric and neuropsychological disabilities are related to neural dysfunction due to hypercortisolism per se, or tumor mass and/or surgery in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD). The authors evaluated a homogeneous cohort of patients with CD and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) before and after neurosurgery and compared these patients with healthy controls.

METHODS

Twenty patients (10 with NFPA and 10 with CD) were evaluated using 3 validated questionnaires (SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory–II [BDI-II], and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–II [MMPI-II]) to assess HRQOL and psychological status preoperatively and 12 months after neurosurgery. Neuropsychological tests were assessed preoperatively, 3–7 days postoperatively, and 12 months postoperatively. Twenty healthy matched controls were recruited.

RESULTS

Preoperatively, the NFPA and CD subgroups had worse HRQOL scores than controls on the basis of SF-36 scores, although the NFPA subgroup experienced significant recovery 12 months postoperatively. Preoperatively, CD patients had depressive symptoms according to the BDI-II and MMPI-II that persisted 12 months postoperatively, together with social introversion and hypochondriasis; NFPA patients were similar to controls except for hypochondriasis scores that were clinically significant at all timepoints. Preoperatively and 3–7 days postoperatively, both subgroups showed significant neuropsychological disabilities compared with controls, but only the CD subgroup did not completely recover over time.

CONCLUSIONS

HRQOL and neuropsychological impairments were observed in all patients at early timepoints, independent of hypercortisolism, tumor mass, and successful surgery. Over time, CD patients showed persistent changes in HRQOL, in particular in social activities. In this light, CD seems to have a strong impact on HRQOL and to be associated with more psychological and neuropsychological comorbidities than NFPA.

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Shinya Fukuda, Yasutaka Koga, Motoki Fujita, Eiichi Suehiro, Kotaro Kaneda, Yasutaka Oda, Hideyuki Ishihara, Michiyasu Suzuki and Ryosuke Tsuruta

OBJECTIVE

The harmful effects of hyperoxemia have been reported in critically ill patients with various disorders, including those with brain injuries. However, the effect of hyperoxemia on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients is unclear. In this study the authors aimed to determine whether hyperoxemia during the hyperacute or acute phase in patients with aSAH is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor neurological outcome.

METHODS

In this single-center retrospective study, data from patients with aSAH treated between January 2011 and June 2017 were reviewed. The patients were classified into groups according to whether they experienced DCI (DCI group and non-DCI group) and whether they had a poor outcome at discharge (poor outcome group and favorable outcome group). The background characteristics and time-weighted average (TWA) PaO2 during the first 24 hours after arrival at the treatment facility (TWA24h-PaO2) and between the first 24 hours after arrival and day 6 (TWA6d-PaO2), the hyperacute and acute phases, respectively, were compared between the groups. Factors related to DCI and poor outcome were evaluated with logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS

Of 197 patients with aSAH, 42 patients experienced DCI and 82 patients had a poor outcome at discharge. TWA24h-PaO2 was significantly higher in the DCI group than in the non-DCI group (186 [141–213] vs 161 [138–192] mm Hg, p = 0.029) and in the poor outcome group than in the favorable outcome group (176 [154–205] vs 156 [136–188] mm Hg, p = 0.004). TWA6d-PaO2 did not differ significantly between the groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that higher TWA24h-PaO2 was an independent risk factor for DCI (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01–1.17, p = 0.037) and poor outcome (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06–1.29, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

Hyperoxemia during the first 24 hours was associated with DCI and a poor outcome in patients with aSAH. Excessive oxygen therapy might have an adverse effect in the hyperacute phase of aSAH.

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Tianming Qiu, Apisara Chanchotisatien, Zhiyong Qin, Jinsong Wu, Zunguo Du, Xialing Zhang, Fangyuan Gong, Zhenwei Yao and Shuguang Chu

OBJECTIVE

H3 K27M-mutant gliomas present heterogeneously in terms of pathology, imaging, and prognosis. This study aimed to summarize the imaging characteristics of adult H3 K27M-mutant gliomas.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified all cases of glioma diagnosed using histopathological studies (n = 3300) that tested positive for histone H3 K27M mutations (n = 75) between January 2016 and December 2018 in a single hospital. Preoperative and follow-up MR images of 66 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) were reviewed for anatomical location, degree of contrast enhancement, enhancement patterns, hemorrhage, edema, diffusion restriction, tumor dissemination, and tumor spread.

RESULTS

The study included 66 cases (40 in men, 26 in women) of H3 K27M-mutant glioma in adult patients. Tumors were found in the following sites: thalamus (n = 38), brainstem (n = 6), brainstem with cerebellar or thalamic involvement (n = 4), whole brain (n = 8), corpus callosum (n = 3), hypothalamus (n = 1), hemispheres (n = 2), and spinal cord (n = 4). All pure brainstem lesions were located posteriorly, and all corpus callosal lesions were in the genu. Most spinal tumors were long-segment lesions. Hemispheric lesions mimicked gliomatosis cerebri in presentation, with the addition of traditional midline structure involvement. Most tumors were solid with relatively uniform signals on plain MRI. Of the 61 cases with contrast-enhanced MR images, 36 (59%) showed partial to no enhancement, whereas 25 (41%) showed diffuse or irregular peripheral enhancement. Hemorrhage and edema were rare. Most lesions were solid and showed mild diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging. Tumor dissemination to the leptomeninges (n = 8) and subependymal layer (n = 3) was observed.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors described the MRI features of diffuse midline glioma with H3 K27M mutation in the largest study done to date in adult patients. Tumors were found in both midline and nonmidline structures, with the thalamus being the most common site. Although adult H3 K27M-mutant gliomas demonstrated highly variable presentations in this cohort of patients, the authors were able to observe shared characteristics within each location.

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Constantin Tuleasca, Lorenzo Giammattei, Roy Thomas Daniel and Marc Levivier

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Han Jo Kim, Sohrab Virk, Jonathan Elysee, Peter Passias, Christopher Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Gregory Mundis Jr., Themistocles Protopsaltis, Munish Gupta, Eric Klineberg, Justin S. Smith, Douglas Burton, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Cervical deformity (CD) is difficult to define due to the high variability in normal cervical alignment based on postural- and thoracolumbar-driven changes to cervical alignment. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patterns of sagittal deformity could be established based on neutral and dynamic alignment, as shown on radiographs.

METHODS

This study is a retrospective review of a prospective, multicenter database of CD patients who underwent surgery from 2013 to 2015. Their radiographs were reviewed by 12 individuals using a consensus-based method to identify severe sagittal CD. Radiographic parameters correlating with health-related quality of life were introduced in a two-step cluster analysis (a combination of hierarchical cluster and k-means cluster) to identify patterns of sagittal deformity. A comparison of lateral and lateral extension radiographs between clusters was performed using an ANOVA in a post hoc analysis.

RESULTS

Overall, 75 patients were identified as having severe CD due to sagittal malalignment, and they formed the basis of this study. Their mean age was 64 years, their body mass index was 29 kg/m2, and 66% were female. There were significant correlations between focal alignment/flexibility of maximum kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and thoracic slope minus cervical lordosis (TS-CL) flexibility (r = 0.27, 0.31, and −0.36, respectively). Cluster analysis revealed 3 distinct groups based on alignment and flexibility. Group 1 (a pattern involving a flat neck with lack of compensation) had a large TS-CL mismatch despite flexibility in cervical lordosis; group 2 (a pattern involving focal deformity) had focal kyphosis between 2 adjacent levels but no large regional cervical kyphosis under the setting of a low T1 slope (T1S); and group 3 (a pattern involving a cervicothoracic deformity) had a very large T1S with a compensatory hyperlordosis of the cervical spine.

CONCLUSIONS

Three distinct patterns of CD were identified in this cohort: flat neck, focal deformity, and cervicothoracic deformity. One key element to understanding the difference between these groups was the alignment seen on extension radiographs. This information is a first step in developing a classification system that can guide the surgical treatment for CD and the choice of fusion level.