Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 40,037 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Open access

Incidental durotomy resulting in a postoperative lumbosacral nerve root with eventration into the adjacent facet joint: illustrative cases

Michael J Kelly, Franziska C. S Altorfer, Marco D Burkhard, Russel C Huang, Frank P Cammisa Jr., and J. Levi Chazen

BACKGROUND

Radicular pain after lumbar decompression surgery can result from epidural hematoma/seroma, recurrent disc herniation, incomplete decompression, or other rare complications. A less recognized complication is postoperative nerve root herniation, resulting from an initially unrecognized intraoperative or, more commonly, a spontaneous postoperative durotomy. Rarely, this nerve root herniation can become entrapped within local structures, including the facet joint. The aim of this study was to illustrate our experience with three cases of lumbosacral nerve root eventration into an adjacent facet joint and to describe our diagnostic and surgical approach to this rare complication.

OBSERVATIONS

Three patients who had undergone lumbar decompression surgery with or without fusion experienced postoperative radiculopathy. Exploratory revision surgery revealed all three had a durotomy with nerve root eventration into the facet joint. Significant symptom improvement was achieved in all patients following liberation of the neural elements from the facet joints.

LESSONS

Entrapment of herniated nerve roots into the facet joint may be a previously underappreciated complication and remains quite challenging to diagnose even with the highest-quality advanced imaging. Thus, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to diagnose this issue and a low threshold for surgical exploration.

Open access

The paraneurium and the tumefactive appearance of peripheral nerve neurolymphomatosis: illustrative case

Damiano G Barone, Ryan W Kendziora, Stephen M Broski, David J Schembri Wismayer, and Robert J Spinner

BACKGROUND

Peripheral neurolymphomatosis (NL) is an often-misdiagnosed condition characterized by lymphomatous infiltration within the peripheral nerves. Its rarity and complexity frequently result in delayed diagnosis and suboptimal patient outcomes. This study aims to elucidate the role of the paraneurium (circumneurium) in NL, emphasizing its diagnostic and therapeutic significance.

OBSERVATIONS

A 72-year-old man presented with lesions on his right lower eyelid. Initial diagnostics were inconclusive until an excisional biopsy confirmed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. Following a complete metabolic response to rituximab treatment, the patient relapsed 14 months later with progressive lymphoma and bilateral sciatic nerve involvement, as confirmed by positron emission tomography–computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

LESSONS

This paper underscores the critical role of the paraneurium in NL, enhancing understanding of its pathophysiology. Integrating advanced imaging techniques have proved essential in accurately identifying neurolymphomatous involvement within the paraneurium. This study paves the way for more effective management strategies in NL and similar conditions, focusing on improving patient care and outcomes.

Restricted access

Beyond medical knowledge: a didactic curriculum focused on knowledge, wisdom, and application

Katherine E. McDaniel, Alexander Suarez, Dana G. Rowe, Brandon Bishop, Joshua Jackson, Alankrita Raghavan, Caroline Folz, Stephen Harward, Brandon Smith, Steven Cook, and C. Rory Goodwin

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine whether a flipped classroom curriculum coupled with case-based learning would improve residents’ perceptions of the learning environment, improve education outcomes, and increase faculty engagement. Research suggests that active learning yields better educational results compared with passive learning. However, faculty are more comfortable providing lectures that require only passive participation from learners.

METHODS

A council was created to identify issues with the current format of the resident didactic curriculum and to redesign the neurosurgical curriculum and conference per Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements. Trends from the authors’ 2022 and 2023 ACGME Resident Surveys were tracked to assess changes in the organizational learning environment. Surveys of resident participants were conducted to assess learner satisfaction.

RESULTS

Between July 2022 and June 2023, the authors gathered 127 survey responses from neurosurgical residents. The majority of respondents, comprising 50.4% (n = 64), were postgraduate year (PGY)–4 and PGY-5 residents. Sixty-six percent (n = 84) reported that the new format ranked within the top third of sessions they had experienced. On analysis of trends from these 2022 and 2023 ACGME Resident Surveys, the authors observed a positive trajectory in various key components. Notably, there was an upward trend in achieving an appropriate balance between service and education, in the availability of protected time for structured learning, faculty engagement and interest in education, and amount of clinical and didactic teaching.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggest that this innovative educational model can have a positive impact on residents’ perceptions of the learning environment, their educational outcomes, and faculty engagement. As residency education continues to evolve, the flipped classroom model offers an exciting avenue for enhancing the quality of residency education.

Restricted access

Bilateral spheno-orbital meningiomas: surgical management, progression, and recurrence

Alexia Planty-Bonjour, Louis-Marie Terrier, Gabrielle Cognacq, Mourad Aggad, Florian Bernard, Camille Lopez, Gaston Tabourel, Guillaume Dannhoff, Frederic Bako, Gaëlle Kerdiles, Patrick Francois, and Aymeric Amelot

OBJECTIVE

Bilateral spheno-orbital meningiomas (bSOMs) are a rare entity among meningiomas. These tumors are benign and predominantly affect women. They represent 4% of spheno-orbital meningiomas (SOMs) and are poorly described in the literature. This study aimed to describe the characteristics, risk factors, evolution, and management of bSOMs.

METHODS

Twenty patients with bSOMs were enrolled in a multicentric descriptive study including 15 neurosurgical departments.

RESULTS

In this study, the authors found that bSOMs affected exclusively women, with a mean age of 50 years. Approximately 65% of patients were on progestin therapy. The mean follow-up in this series was 55 months. Clinically, visual symptoms were predominant: proptosis was present in 17 of 20 patients (85%; 7 unilateral, 10 bilateral), and a decrease in visual acuity was observed in 11 of 20 patients (55%; 6/10 to 9/10 in 6 patients, 3/10 to 5/10 in 1 patient, and < 3/10 in 4 patients). Contrary to unilateral SOMs, the authors identified that intracranial hypertension was a common presentation (25%) of bSOMs. Surgical management with gross-total resection was the gold standard treatment. Recurrences only occurred following subtotal resection in 36% to 60% of patients, with a median time of 50 to 54 months after surgery. Visual improvement or stability was observed in 75% of cases postoperatively. Progesterone receptor expression levels were 70% to 100% in 10 of 11 (91%) cases.

CONCLUSIONS

Bilateral SOMs are usually found in female patients and are strongly associated with hormone replacement therapy. Early surgical management with gross-total resection is the most effective treatment in terms of recurrence and improves visual acuity. Given the slow progressive nature of bSOMs and their time to recurrence, which can be up to 10 years, long-term follow-up of patients is essential.

Restricted access

Comparing posterior cervical foraminotomy with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in radiculopathic patients: an analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database

Praveen V. Mummaneni, Erica F. Bisson, Giorgos Michalopoulos, William J. Mualem, Sally El Sammak, Michael Y. Wang, Andrew K. Chan, Regis W. Haid, John J. Knightly, Dean Chou, Brandon A. Sherrod, Oren N. Gottfried, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Jacob L. Goldberg, Michael S. Virk, Ibrahim Hussain, Nitin Agarwal, Steven D. Glassman, Mark E. Shaffrey, Paul Park, Kevin T. Foley, Brenton Pennicooke, Domagoj Coric, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Eric A. Potts, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Anthony L. Asher, and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to compare clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between posterior foraminotomy and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients presenting with cervical radiculopathy.

METHODS

The Quality Outcomes Database was queried for patients who had undergone ACDF or posterior foraminotomy for radiculopathy. To create two highly homogeneous groups, optimal individual matching was performed at a 5:1 ratio between the two groups on 29 baseline variables (including demographic characteristics, comorbidities, symptoms, patient-reported scores, underlying pathologies, and levels treated). Outcomes of interest were length of stay, reoperations, patient-reported satisfaction, increase in EQ-5D score, and decrease in Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores for arm and neck pain as long as 1 year after surgery. Noninferiority analysis of achieving patient satisfaction and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in PROs was performed with an accepted risk difference of 5%.

RESULTS

A total of 7805 eligible patients were identified: 216 of these underwent posterior foraminotomy and were matched to 1080 patients who underwent ACDF. The patients who underwent ACDF had more underlying pathologies, lower EQ-5D scores, and higher NDI and neck pain scores at baseline. Posterior foraminotomy was associated with shorter hospitalization (0.5 vs 0.9 days, p < 0.001). Reoperations within 12 months were significantly more common among the posterior foraminotomy group (4.2% vs 1.9%, p = 0.04). The two groups performed similarly in PROs, with posterior foraminotomy being noninferior to ACDF in achieving MCID in EQ-5D and neck pain scores but also having lower rates of maximal satisfaction at 12 months (North American Spine Society score of 1 achieved by 65.2% posterior foraminotomy patients vs 74.6% of ACDF patients, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

The two procedures were found to be offered to different populations, with ACDF being selected for patients with more complicated pathologies and symptoms. After individual matching, posterior foraminotomy was associated with a higher reoperation risk within 1 year after surgery compared to ACDF (4.2% vs 1.9%). In terms of 12-month PROs, posterior foraminotomy was noninferior to ACDF in improving quality of life and neck pain. The two procedures also performed similarly in improving NDI scores and arm pain, but ACDF patients had higher maximal satisfaction rates.

Restricted access

Improvement of diffusion tensor imaging–based tractography by free-water correction in nonedematous gliomas: assessment with brain mapping

Fabien Almairac, Drew Parker, Lydiane Mondot, Petru Isan, Marie Onno, Théodore Papadopoulo, Denys Fontaine, and Ragini Verma

OBJECTIVE

The free-water correction algorithm (Freewater Estimator Using Interpolated Initialization [FERNET]) can be applied to standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to improve visualization of subcortical bundles in the peritumoral area of highly edematous brain tumors. Interest in its use for presurgical planning in purely infiltrative gliomas without peritumoral edema has never been evaluated. Using subcortical maps obtained with direct electrostimulation (DES) in awake surgery as a reference standard, the authors sought to 1) assess the accuracy of preoperative DTI-based tractography with FERNET in a series of nonedematous glioma patients, and 2) determine its potential usefulness in presurgical planning.

METHODS

Based on DES-induced functional disturbances and tumor topography, the authors retrospectively reconstructed the putatively stimulated bundles and the peritumoral tracts of interest (various associative and projection pathways) of 12 patients. The tractography data obtained with and without FERNET were compared.

RESULTS

The authors identified 21 putative tracts from 24 stimulation sites and reconstituted 49 tracts of interest. The number of streamlines of the putative tracts crossing the DES area was 26.8% higher (96.04 vs 75.75, p = 0.016) and their volume 20.4% higher (13.99 cm3 vs 11.62 cm3, p < 0.0001) with FERNET than with standard DTI. Additionally, the volume of the tracts of interest was 22.1% higher (9.69 cm3 vs 7.93 cm3, p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Free-water correction significantly increased the anatomical plausibility of the stimulated fascicles and the volume of tracts of interest in the peritumoral area of purely infiltrative nonedematous gliomas. Because of the functional importance of the peritumoral zone, applying FERNET to DTI could have potential implications on surgical planning and the safety of glioma resection.

Restricted access

Industry payments to academic neurosurgeons in 2021: an open payments cross-sectional analysis

Luca H. Debs, Seena Mansouri, W. Luke Ledford, William Woodall, and Fernando L. Vale

OBJECTIVE

The Open Payments Program (OPP) was a database started in 2013 by the US government to report payments made by the medical device and pharmaceutical industry to physicians. Neurosurgery is a technologically advanced field that relies heavily on the latest innovations for complex treatment of its patient population. This study sought to explore the financial relationship between academic neurosurgeons and the industry.

METHODS

OPP data were reviewed for the year 2021 of all faculty neurosurgeons affiliated with a neurosurgery residency program. Trends related to general payments, research payments, associated research funding, ownership and investment interest, name of the companies making payments, monetary amount of payments per company, and number of payments per company were analyzed.

RESULTS

Industry payments to 1151 US academic neurosurgeons were reviewed. These neurosurgeons received $121.4 million in payments. Three hundred thirty-two companies made 18,466 payments. The average payment per neurosurgeon was approximately six-fold higher than that of all other physicians. Vascular and spine subspecialties received the highest payments. A higher proportion of research money was allocated to the Pacific division, while all other categories (including total amount) were higher in the Eastern US. Most financial contributions were made by a small number of companies.

CONCLUSIONS

Neurosurgery has been rated by many as a field fueled by research, innovation, and technology. In 2021, academic neurosurgeons had a strong relationship with the medical device and pharmaceutical industry as reflected in the OPP data. While the true impact on patient care cannot be directly measured, the advancement of the field relies heavily on these collaborations.

Restricted access

An intraoperative accelerometry and real-time analysis tool for magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy

Catherine A. Swytink-Binnema, Alan Coreas, Samuel Pichardo, G. Bruce Pike, and Zelma H. T. Kiss

Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is one of the newest surgical treatments for essential tremor (ET). During this procedure, a lesion is created within the thalamus to mitigate tremor. Targeting is done using a combination of stereotaxy, MR tractography, and sublesional heating, with tremor assessed during the procedure to gauge therapeutic effectiveness. Currently, tremor assessments are done qualitatively, but this approach requires the tremor change to be above a subjective threshold and provides no objective record of surgical tremor progression. Here, the authors present and demonstrate an MR-compatible accelerometer with custom MATLAB analysis code and graphical user interface to record, visualize, and quantify tremor in near real-time. Results can be exported and saved for future review. This method was used in 20 surgeries, with patients experiencing a 50.7% (95% CI −64.1% to −37.3%) improvement in the treated limb per the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. This method does not interrupt the surgery and is quantitative. As research on optimizing MRgFUS treatment for ET continues—for example, the refinement of targeting during sublesional sonications—such quantifying and recording of tremor changes will provide rapid and objective feedback.

Free access

Letter to the Editor. New insights of MRgLITT: a first-line treatment?

Maria Sole Venanzi, Domenico Tortora, Gianluca Piatelli, and Alessandro Consales

Restricted access

Letter to the Editor. Spheno-orbital meningioma

Abbass Amirjamshidi and Kazem Abbasioun