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47th Annual Meeting The American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons

Jointly provided by AANS

Open access

Acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis: illustrative case

Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Yosuke Akamatsu, Koji Yoshida, Yasushi Ogasawara, Toshinari Misaki, Shunichi Sasou, Hiromu Konno, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

The authors describe a rare case of acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation that was induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

OBSERVATIONS

An 82-year-old man with a history of immunoglobulin G4–related disease and long-term use of steroids and immunosuppressants was admitted to the authors’ hospital with severe right hemiparesis. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). He underwent thrombectomy, resulting in successful recanalization. However, severe stenosis was evident in the left ICA cavernous segment. Pathological analysis of the retrieved thrombus identified Aspergillus. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sinusitis in the left sphenoid sinus as a possible source of the infection. The patient’s general condition deteriorated during the course of hospitalization due to refractory aspiration pneumonia, and he died 46 days after thrombectomy. Pathological autopsy and histopathological investigation of the left ICA and the left sphenoid sinus showed that Aspergillus had invaded the wall of the left ICA from the adjacent sphenoid sinus. These findings indicate a diagnosis of acute large-vessel occlusion due to infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

LESSONS

Pathological analysis of a retrieved thrombus appears useful for identifying rare stroke etiologies such as fungal infection.

Open access

Bifocal germ cell tumor of pineal germinoma and neurohypophyseal embryonal carcinoma: illustrative case

Yu Naruse, Shinya Jinguji, Ryo Hiruta, Ayako Toda, Kenichiro Nagai, Shingo Kudo, Hideki Sano, Rei Sekine, Osamu Suzuki, Mudathir Bakhit, and Masazumi Fujii

BACKGROUND

Bifocal germ cell tumors, with primarily identical tissue composition, occur concurrently in the neurohypophyseal and pineal regions.

OBSERVATIONS

A 16-year-old male patient exhibited increased intracranial pressure symptoms, with concurrent tumors in the pineal and neurohypophyseal regions, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. His serum human chorionic gonadotropin level was elevated, measuring 506.6 mIU/mL. Upon gross endoscopic examination, the pineal tumor appeared white, whereas the neurohypophyseal tumor appeared red and hemorrhagic. Because of the limited sample size of the latter, a frozen section biopsy was feasible only for the pineal lesion, which indicated the presence of a germinoma. Subsequently, carboplatin and etoposide were administered, resulting in the reduction of the pineal tumor, but no effect was observed in the neurohypophyseal tumor. Histopathological analysis confirmed the pineal lesion as a germinoma, whereas the neurohypophyseal lesion was an embryonal carcinoma. Thus, the treatment was altered to ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE), leading to a response in both tumors. The patient underwent three additional cycles of ICE therapy and high-dose chemotherapy, followed by whole craniospinal irradiation, achieving complete remission.

LESSONS

Although most bifocal germ cell tumors share the same histological tissue, occasional differences may arise, necessitating separate biopsies for accurate assessment.

Open access

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma arising in the pituitary gland: illustrative case

Hang Zhou, Xiaowei Zhang, Xin Jia, Liang Jia, and Qingjiu Zhang

BACKGROUND

The authors describe a 60-year-old female who underwent a correlative examination for an accidental scalp injury, revealing a sellar mass, which was surgically excised and pathologically confirmed to be a non-Hodgkin’s small B-cell lymphoma. These findings in combination with the immunophenotype led to a final diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Previous studies have shown that hematological solid tumors occurring in the pituitary gland are extremely rare, and there are only approximately three other cases of living patients with similarities to this case, all of which had ambiguous expression of subsequent hematological treatment.

OBSERVATIONS

In this case, the authors used an endoscopic approach to completely excise the tumor. Follow-up of the patient was continued after surgery, and the patient is currently receiving standardized treatment with zanubrutinib.

LESSONS

This patient did not have any previous history of tumor, had a good postoperative recovery with a normal quality of life, and still receives hormone replacement and zanubrutinib on a standardized basis. This is a complete case that has not been previously reported and reveals the diagnostic and therapeutic process of rare diseases in the sellar area.

Open access

Intraspinal cervicothoracic junction chondrosarcoma: illustrative case

Matthew T Carr, Margaret Pain, Kevin Kay, and John K Houten

BACKGROUND

Chondrosarcoma is an uncommon spinal tumor that can present as an extraskeletal mass. Rarely, these tumors present as dumbbell tumors through the neural foramina, mimicking schwannomas or neurofibromas.

OBSERVATIONS

A 46-year-old female presented with 2 years of worsening right-arm radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine revealed a peripherally enhancing extramedullary mass through the right T1 foramen and compressing the spinal cord. Computed tomography showed the mass to be partially calcified. She underwent C7–T2 laminectomy and C6–T3 posterior instrumented fusion with gross-total resection of an extradural mass. Pathology revealed a grade I chondrosarcoma. Her symptoms improved postoperatively, with some residual right-arm radicular pain.

LESSONS

Intraspinal extradural dumbbell conventional chondrosarcoma is rare, with only 9 cases, including ours, reported. Patient ages range from 16 to 72 years old, and male sex is more common in these cases. The most common location is the thoracic spine, and our case is the only reported one in the cervicothoracic junction. These tumors often mimic schwannomas on imaging, but chondrosarcoma should remain in the differential diagnosis, because management of these tumors differs. Chondrosarcoma may benefit from more aggressive resection, including en bloc resection, and may require adjuvant radiotherapy.

Open access

Management of shunt dysfunction using noninvasive intracranial pressure waveform monitoring: illustrative case

Raphael Bertani, Caio Perret, Stefan Koester, Paulo Santa Maria, Savio Batista, Sophia de Andrade Cavicchioli, Sany Tomomi de Almeida Rocha Arita, Ruy Monteiro, Gianne Lucchesi, Fernando Augusto Vasconcellos, Matheus Miranda, Wellingson Silva Paiva, and Fernando Gomes Pinto

BACKGROUND

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) treatment consists of using valves for drainage, as it is for hydrocephalus in general. Despite this, complications can occur, putting the patient at risk, and neurological monitoring is crucial.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with NPH 3 years prior and was being treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a programmable valve, presented to the emergency department because of a traumatic brain injury due to a fall from standing height. No previous complications were reported. He had an altered intracranial pressure (ICP) waveform in the emergency room when monitored with the brain4care device, with a P2/P1 ratio of 1.6. Imaging helped to confirm shunt dysfunction. Revision surgery normalized the ratio to 1.0, and the patient was discharged. Upon return after 14 days, an outpatient analysis revealed a ratio of 0.6, indicating improvement.

LESSONS

In selected cases of NPH, noninvasive ICP waveform morphology analysis can be effective as a diagnostic aid, as well as in the pre- and postsurgical follow-up, given the possibility of comparing the values of ICP preoperatively and immediately postoperatively and the outpatient P2/P1 ratio, helping to manage these patients.

Open access

Postnatal myelomeningocele closure in smallest reported neonate: illustrative case

Momin M Mohis, Kevin Cordeiro, Sarah Larson, Catharine Garland, and James A Stadler III

BACKGROUND

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most serious form of spina bifida, a congenital defect in neural tube development. Defect closure in a patient with an extremely low birth weight presents unique challenges and risks; lower birth weight is associated with multiple organ system concerns, homeostasis is difficult, and local tissue is underdeveloped. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is the lowest reported weight (490 g) for a neonate with postnatal MMC repair.

OBSERVATIONS

A preterm male with a prenatally diagnosed lumbosacral MMC and associated Chiari malformation type II was born at 23 weeks 1 day to a 29-year-old mother, gravidity 6 parity 4. The patient was medically stabilized and underwent MMC closure on day of life 5. His weight was 490 g at the time of this repair, and he did not have any surgical complications. At age 16 months, he underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization; he has not required any further hydrocephalus treatments since the last follow-up at 30 months of age.

LESSONS

To the authors’ knowledge, this case is the lowest birth weight ex utero MMC closure reported in the literature. Challenges of prematurity and size required appropriate preoperative stabilization, careful hemostasis and temperature regulation, and meticulous surgical technique.

Open access

Rapid presentation of a de novo intracranial aneurysm: illustrative case

Anthony Diaz, Jimin Shin, and Ketan R Bulsara

BACKGROUND

Intracranial aneurysms are prevalent, particularly with advancing age. De novo aneurysms, occurring independently from the initial lesion, pose a unique challenge because of their unpredictable nature. Although risk factors such as female sex, smoking history, and hypertension have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying de novo aneurysm development remain unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 79-year-old female developed a de novo saccular aneurysm within a year after management of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm. Her complex clinical course involved subarachnoid hemorrhage with diffuse vasospasm, stent occlusion of a dissecting aneurysm, discovery of a right 7- to 8-mm de novo middle cerebral artery aneurysm at the 1-year magnetic resonance angiography follow-up, and successful coil embolization.

LESSONS

This rare occurrence challenges established timelines, as most de novo aneurysms manifest over a longer interval. Studies have attempted to identify risk factors, yet consensus remains elusive, particularly regarding the influence of treatment modality on de novo formation rates.

This unique case urges reconsideration of posttreatment surveillance protocols, proposing shorter intervals for imaging and more vigilant follow-up strategies to detect asymptomatic de novo aneurysms. Timelier identification could significantly impact patient outcomes by averting potential ruptures. This emphasizes the need for further research to delineate effective monitoring and preventive measures for these enigmatic lesions.

Open access

Rare variant of large pediatric glioneuronal tumor with novel MYO5A::NTRK3 fusion: illustrative case

David Chenoweth, Hashim Syed, Nahom Teferi, Meron Challa, Jane E Persons, Kathryn L Eschbacher, Maggie Seblani, and Brian J Dlouhy

BACKGROUND

Glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) comprise a rare class of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms with varying degrees of neuronal and glial differentiation that predominately affect children and young adults. Within the current 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of CNS tumors, GNTs encompass 14 distinct tumor types. Recently, the use of whole-genome DNA methylation profiling has allowed more precise classification of this tumor group.

OBSERVATIONS

A 3-year-old male presented with a 3-month history of increasing head circumference, regression of developmental milestones, and speech delay. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was notable for a large left hemispheric multiseptated mass with significant mass effect and midline shift that was treated with near-total resection. Histological and molecular assessment demonstrated a glioneuronal tumor harboring an MYO5A::NTRK3 fusion. By DNA methylation profiling, this tumor matched to a provisional methylation class known as “glioneuronal tumor kinase-fused” (GNT kinase-fused). The patient was later started on targeted therapy with larotrectinib.

LESSONS

This is the first report of an MYO5A::NTRK3 fusion in a pediatric GNT. GNT kinase-fused is a provisional methylation class not currently included in the WHO classification of CNS tumors. This case highlights the impact of thorough molecular characterization of CNS tumors, especially with the increasing availability of novel gene targeting therapies.

Open access

Successful surgical management of a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome: illustrative case

Fangjun Liu, Mengqing Hu, Daling Ruan, Xiaoling Ruan, Ting Lei, and Xiang’en Shi

BACKGROUND

Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder, poses unique challenges in neurosurgery, given the fragility of vascular structures. Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms in patients with the syndrome are rare and present distinct surgical difficulties, necessitating innovative approaches.

OBSERVATIONS

A 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured SCA aneurysm. Given the lack of a defined aneurysm neck and the small diameter of the SCA, standard clipping and endovascular therapies were unsuitable. A microsurgical approach using microsutures was successfully employed, effectively managing the aneurysm while preserving the parent artery.

LESSONS

This case underscores the efficacy of the microsuture technique in complex neurosurgical scenarios, particularly in patients with connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome. The adaptability of surgical strategies, as demonstrated in this case, is crucial for achieving successful outcomes in patients with unique anatomical challenges.