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Patrick D. Kelly, Pious D. Patel, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Daniel I. Wolfson, Fakhry Dawoud, Ranbir Ahluwalia, Oscar D. Guillamondegui, and Christopher M. Bonfield

OBJECTIVE

Several scores estimate the prognosis for gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) at the point of hospital admission. However, prognosis may change over the course of the hospital stay. This study measures the accuracy of the Baylor score among patients who have already survived the acute phase of hospitalization and generates conditional outcome curves for the duration of hospital stay for patients with GSWH.

METHODS

Patients in whom GSWH with dural penetration occurred between January 2009 and June 2019 were identified from a trauma registry at a level I trauma center in the southeastern US. The Baylor score was calculated using component variables. Conditional overall survival and good functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4 or 5) curves were generated. The accuracy of the Baylor score in predicting mortality and functional outcome among acute-phase survivors (survival > 48 hours) was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC).

RESULTS

A total of 297 patients were included (mean age 38.0 [SD 15.7] years, 73.4% White, 85.2% male), and 129 patients survived the initial 48 hours of admission. These acute-phase survivors had a decreased mortality rate of 32.6% (n = 42) compared to 68.4% (n = 203) for all patients, and an increased rate of good functional outcome (48.1%; n = 62) compared to the rate for all patients (23.2%; n = 69). Among acute-phase survivors, the Baylor score accurately predicted mortality (AUC = 0.807) and functional outcome (AUC = 0.837). However, the Baylor score generally overestimated true mortality rates and underestimated good functional outcome. Additionally, hospital day 18 represented an inflection point of decreasing probability of good functional outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

During admission for GSWH, surviving beyond the acute phase of 48 hours doubles the rates of survival and good functional outcome. The Baylor score maintains reasonable accuracy in predicting these outcomes for acute-phase survivors, but generally overestimates mortality and underestimates good functional outcome. Future prognostic models should incorporate conditional survival to improve the accuracy of prognostication after the acute phase.

Free access

Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Pious D. Patel, Patrick D. Kelly, Daniel I. Wolfson, Fakhry Dawoud, Ranbir Ahluwalia, Christopher M. Bonfield, and Oscar D. Guillamondegui

OBJECTIVE

Gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) are devastating injuries with a grim prognosis. Several prognostic scores have been created to estimate mortality and functional outcome, including the so-called Baylor score, an uncomplicated scoring method based on bullet trajectory, patient age, and neurological status on admission. This study aimed to validate the Baylor score within a temporally, institutionally, and geographically distinct patient population.

METHODS

Data were obtained from the trauma registry at a level I trauma center in the southeastern US. Patients with a GSWH in which dural penetration occurred were identified from data collected between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2019. Patient demographics, medical history, bullet trajectory, intent of GSWH (e.g., suicide), admission vital signs, Glasgow Coma Scale score, pupillary response, laboratory studies, and imaging reports were collected. The Baylor score was calculated directly by using its clinical components. The ability of the Baylor score to predict mortality and good functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 4 or 5) was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of performance.

RESULTS

A total of 297 patients met inclusion criteria (mean age 38.0 [SD 15.7] years, 73.4% White, 85.2% male). A total of 205 (69.0%) patients died, whereas 69 (23.2%) patients had good functional outcome. Overall, the Baylor score showed excellent discrimination of mortality (AUC = 0.88) and good functional outcome (AUC = 0.90). Baylor scores of 3–5 underestimated mortality. Baylor scores of 0, 1, and 2 underestimated good functional outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

The Baylor score is an accurate and easy-to-use prognostic scoring tool that demonstrated relatively stable performance in a distinct cohort between 2009 and 2019. In the current era of trauma management, providers may continue to use the score at the point of admission to guide family counseling and to direct investment of healthcare resources.

Open access

David T. Asuzu, Rebecca M. Burke, Jeffrey Hakim, Dylan Coss, Min S. Park, Spencer C. Payne, and John A. Jane Jr.

BACKGROUND

Giant pituitary macroadenomas with a diameter >4 cm are rare tumors, accounting for only about 5% of pituitary adenomas. They are more difficult to maximally resect safely owing to limited access as well as encasement of adjacent structures. Acidophil stem cell adenomas are rare immature neoplasms proposed to derive from common progenitor cells of somatotroph and lactotroph cells. These adenomas comprise about 4.3% of surgically removed pituitary adenomas. No previous reports have described acidophil stem cell adenomas that grow to the size of giant macroadenomas. This rare entity poses special challenges given the need for maximal safe resection in an immature neoplasm.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a 21-year-old female who presented with 3 years of progressive visual decline and a giant macroadenoma. She underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for decompression. Given the tumor size and involvement of adjacent critical structures, gross-total resection was not achieved. The authors review the literature on giant pituitary adenomas and provide a discussion on clinical management for this rare entity.

LESSONS

The authors present a very rare case of a giant pituitary adenoma of acidophil stem cell origin and discuss the technical and management challenges in this rare entity.

Open access

Anna L. Huguenard, Yuping Derek Li, Nima Sharifai, Stephanie M. Perkins, Sonika Dahiya, and Michael R. Chicoine

BACKGROUND

Ewing sarcoma is a neoplasm within the family of small round blue cell tumors and most frequently arises from skeletal bone. Primary involvement of the central nervous system in these lesions is extremely rare, with an incidence of 1%.

OBSERVATIONS

A case is presented of a 34-year-old man who presented with left facial numbness, multiple intracranial lesions, a lumbar intradural lesion, and diffuse spinal leptomeningeal involvement. A lumbar laminectomy and biopsy were performed, which revealed the diagnosis of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The patient had a rapidly progressive clinical decline despite total neuroaxis radiation and multiple lines of chemotherapeutic treatments, eventually dying from his disease and its sequelae 6 months after diagnosis.

LESSONS

The authors’ review of 40 cases in the literature revealed only 2 patients with isolated intraaxial cranial lesions, 4 patients with cranial and spine involvement, and an additional 34 patients with spine lesions. The unique characteristics of this patient’s case, including his presentation with diffuse disease and pathology that included a rare V600E BRAF mutation, are discussed in the context of the available literature.

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Camilo A. Molina, Christopher F. Dibble, Sheng-fu Larry Lo, Timothy Witham, and Daniel M. Sciubba

En bloc spinal tumor resections are technically demanding procedures with high morbidity because of the conventionally large exposure area and aggressive resection goals. Stereotactic surgical navigation presents an opportunity to perform the smallest possible resection plan while still achieving an en bloc resection. Augmented reality (AR)–mediated spine surgery (ARMSS) via a mounted display with an integrated tracking camera is a novel FDA-approved technology for intraoperative “heads up” neuronavigation, with the proposed advantages of increased precision, workflow efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. As surgical experience and capability with this technology grow, the potential for more technically demanding surgical applications arises. Here, the authors describe the use of ARMSS for guidance in a unique osteotomy execution to achieve an en bloc wide marginal resection of an L1 chordoma through a posterior-only approach while avoiding a tumor capsule breach. A technique is described to simultaneously visualize the navigational guidance provided by the contralateral surgeon’s tracked pointer and the progress of the BoneScalpel aligned in parallel with the tracked instrument, providing maximum precision and safety. The procedure was completed by reconstruction performed with a quad-rod and cabled fibular strut allograft construct, and the patient did well postoperatively. Finally, the authors review the technical aspects of the approach, as well as the applications and limitations of this new technology.

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Hiroki Hori, Hirokazu Iwamuro, Masayuki Nakano, Takahiro Ouchi, Takashi Kawahara, Takaomi Taira, Keiichi Abe, Ken Iijima, and Toshio Yamaguchi

OBJECTIVE

In transcranial magnetic resonance imaging–guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS), a high skull density ratio (SDR) is advantageous to achieve a sufficiently high temperature at the target. However, it is not easy to estimate the temperature rise because the SDR shows different values depending on the reconstruction filter used. The resolution characteristic of a computed tomography (CT) image depends on a modulation transfer function (MTF) defined by the reconstruction filter. Differences in MTF induce unstable SDRs. The purpose of this study was both to standardize SDR by developing a method to correct the MTF and to enable effective patient screening prior to TcMRgFUS treatment and more accurate predictions of focal temperature.

METHODS

CT images of a skull phantom and five subjects were obtained using eight different reconstruction filters. A frequency filter (FF) was calculated using the MTF of each reconstruction filter, and the validity of SDR standardization was evaluated by comparing the variation in SDR before and after FF correction. Subsequently, FF processing was similarly performed using the CT images of 18 patients who had undergone TcMRgFUS, and statistical analyses were performed comparing the relationship between the SDRs before and after correction and the maximum temperature in the target during TcMRgFUS treatment.

RESULTS

The FF was calculated for each reconstruction filter based on one manufacturer's BONE filter. In the CT images of the skull phantom, the SDR before FF correction with five of the other seven reconstruction filters was significantly smaller than that with the BONE filter (p < 0.01). After FF correction, however, a significant difference was recognized under only one condition. In the CT images of the five subjects, variation of the SDR due to imaging conditions was significantly improved after the FF correction. In 18 cases treated with TcMRgFUS, there was no correlation between SDR before FF correction and maximum temperature (rs = 0.31, p > 0.05); however, a strong positive correlation was observed after FF correction (rs = 0.71, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

After FF correction, the difference in SDR due to the reconstruction filter used is smaller, and the correlation with temperature is stronger. Therefore, the SDR can be standardized by applying the FF, and the maximum temperature during treatment may be predicted more accurately.

Restricted access

Stephen T. Magill, John A. Jane Jr., and Daniel M. Prevedello

Restricted access

Jun Fan, Yi Liu, Jun Pan, Yuping Peng, Junxiang Peng, Yun Bao, Jing Nie, Chaohu Wang, Binghui Qiu, and Songtao Qi

OBJECTIVE

An assessment of the transcranial approach (TCA) and the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for craniopharyngiomas (CPs) according to tumor types has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate both surgical approaches for different types of CPs.

METHODS

A retrospective review of primary resected CPs was performed. A QST classification system based on tumor origin was used to classify tumors into 3 types as follows: infrasellar/subdiaphragmatic CPs (Q-CPs), subarachnoidal CPs (S-CPs), and pars tuberalis CPs (T-CPs). Within each tumor type, patients were further arranged into two groups: those treated via the TCA and those treated via the EEA. Patient and tumor characteristics, surgical outcomes, and postoperative complications were obtained. All variables were statistically analyzed between surgical groups for each tumor type.

RESULTS

A total of 315 patients were included in this series, of whom 87 were identified with Q-CPs (49 treated via TCA and 38 via EEA); 56 with S-CPs (36 treated via TCA and 20 via EEA); and 172 with T-CPs (105 treated via TCA and 67 via EEA). Patient and tumor characteristics were equivalent between both surgical groups in each tumor type. The overall gross-total resection rate (90.5% TCA vs 91.2% EEA, p = 0.85) and recurrence rate (8.9% TCA vs 6.4% EEA, p = 0.35) were similar between surgical groups. The EEA group had a greater chance of visual improvement (61.6% vs 35.8%, p = 0.01) and a decreased risk of visual deterioration (1.6% vs 11.0%, p < 0.001). Of the patients with T-CPs, postoperative hypothalamic status was better in the TCA group than in the EEA group (p = 0.016). Postoperative CSF leaks and nasal complication rates occurred more frequently in the EEA group (12.0% vs 0.5%, and 9.6% vs 0.5%; both p < 0.001). For Q-CPs, EEA was associated with an increased gross-total resection rate (97.4% vs 85.7%, p = 0.017), decreased recurrence rate (2.6% vs 12.2%, p = 0.001), and lower new hypopituitarism rate (28.9% vs 57.1%, p = 0.008). The recurrence-free survival in patients with Q-CPs was also significantly different between surgical groups (log-rank test, p = 0.037). The EEA required longer surgical time for T-CPs (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

CPs could be effectively treated by radical surgery with favorable results. Both TCA and EEA have their advantages and limitations when used to manage different types of tumors. Individualized surgical strategies based on tumor growth patterns are mandatory to achieve optimal outcomes.

Free access

Theodore H. Schwartz and Michael W. McDermott

Restricted access

Ananya Chakravorty, Ronald T. Murambi, and Ravi Kumar V. Cherukuri

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, also known as pseudogout, is a crystalline arthropathy that usually affects large joints and periarticular tissue. Spinal involvement is rare and is usually limited to extradural articular and periarticular structures. Only one case of intradural disease has been previously reported. The authors report the second known case of intradural CPPD deposition disease. An 81-year-old man presented with an 8-week history of urinary and fecal incontinence on the background of long-standing back pain, lower-limb paresthesia, and a known L1 calcified intradural extramedullary mass. Slow growth of the L1 lesion had been documented over several decades on serial CT and MRI. A T12–L2 laminectomy and gross-total resection of the mass was performed. Histopathology demonstrated polarizing rhomboid-shaped crystals consistent with CPPD deposition disease. The patient had significant improvement in bowel and bladder function 6 months postoperatively and made a full recovery. The pathophysiology of intradural involvement remains uncertain. Further case series are required to clarify the true incidence and prognosis of the condition.