Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 36,114 items

Restricted access

John W. Rutland, Joshua Loewenstern, Daniel Ranti, Nadejda M. Tsankova, Christopher P. Bellaire, Joshua B. Bederson, Bradley N. Delman, Raj K. Shrivastava and Priti Balchandani

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic surgery is an effective treatment strategy for pituitary adenomas; however, intrinsic tumor properties such as tumor consistency can challenge or preclude gross-total resection. Preoperative characterization of tumor consistency may help to guide the surgical approach and to predict the extent of resection that is possible. Advanced radiological modalities such as 7T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) may be useful in probing biological tissue properties of pituitary adenomas. The objective of the present study was to examine 7T DWI as a novel method of measuring the consistency of pituitary adenomas.

METHODS

Thirteen patients with pituitary macroadenomas underwent 7T MRI, including a DWI image acquisition. Tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was normalized to the adjacent temporal gray matter ADC. All patients underwent resection, and a single neurosurgeon blinded to ADC values rated tumor firmness from 1 (least firm) to 5 (most firm) using objective criteria. The tumor specimens were evaluated histopathologically for cellularity, collagen content, and vascularity by a neuropathologist who was also blinded to ADC values. The tumor ADC was correlated with intraoperative consistency rating, histopathology, and extent of resection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to identify thresholds to predict tumor consistency.

RESULTS

Corrected ADC values were significantly correlated with both tumor firmness (r = −0.60, p = 0.029) and the extent of trichrome staining (r = −0.72, p = 0.009) such that greater ADC values were associated with both decreased tumor firmness and decreased collagen staining. Correlations between ADC values and tumor vascularity were not significant (r = −0.09, p = 0.78). Corrected ADC values in totally resected tumors (1.54) were greater than those in subtotally resected tumors (0.85) (p = 0.02), and ADC values were greater with moderate tumor cellularity (1.51) than with high tumor cellularity (0.8) (p = 0.035). There was a trend-level association for partial resections to exhibit greater tumor firmness rating (3 vs 1.7; p = 0.051). Finally, the degree of trichrome staining positively correlated with tumor firmness (r = 0.60, p = 0.04). The optimal threshold for predicting intraoperative consistency rating was an ADC ratio of 0.87 (sensitivity 80%, specificity 100%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.90; p = 0.043). The optimal cutoff for distinguishing the extent of resection was 1.19 (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 83.3% AUC 0.833; p = 0.046).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results suggest that a high-resolution ADC of pituitary adenomas is a sensitive measure of tumor consistency. 7T DWI may hold clinical value in the preoperative workup and surgical management of patients with pituitary macroadenomas.

Restricted access

Yang Liu, Yihao Zheng, Adithya S. Reddy, Daniel Gebrezgiabhier, Evan Davis, Joshua Cockrum, Joseph J. Gemmete, Neeraj Chaudhary, Julius M. Griauzde, Aditya S. Pandey, Albert J. Shih and Luis E. Savastano

OBJECTIVE

This study’s purpose was to improve understanding of the forces driving the complex mechanical interaction between embolic material and current stroke thrombectomy devices by analyzing the histological composition and strength of emboli retrieved from patients and by evaluating the mechanical forces necessary for retrieval of such emboli in a middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation model.

METHODS

Embolus analogs (EAs) were generated and embolized under physiological pressure and flow conditions in a glass tube model of the MCA. The forces involved in EA removal using conventional endovascular techniques were described, analyzed, and categorized. Then, 16 embolic specimens were retrieved from 11 stroke patients with large-vessel occlusions, and the tensile strength and response to stress were measured with a quasi-static uniaxial tensile test using a custom-made platform. Embolus compositions were analyzed and quantified by histology.

RESULTS

Uniaxial tension on the EAs led to deformation, elongation, thinning, fracture, and embolization. Uniaxial tensile testing of patients’ emboli revealed similar soft-material behavior, including elongation under tension and differential fracture patterns. At the final fracture of the embolus (or dissociation), the amount of elongation, quantified as strain, ranged from 1.05 to 4.89 (2.41 ± 1.04 [mean ± SD]) and the embolus-generated force, quantified as stress, ranged from 63 to 2396 kPa (569 ± 695 kPa). The ultimate tensile strain of the emboli increased with a higher platelet percentage, and the ultimate tensile stress increased with a higher fibrin percentage and decreased with a higher red blood cell percentage.

CONCLUSIONS

Current thrombectomy devices remove emboli mostly by applying linear tensile forces, under which emboli elongate until dissociation. Embolus resistance to dissociation is determined by embolus strength, which significantly correlates with composition and varies within and among patients and within the same thrombus. The dynamic intravascular weakening of emboli during removal may lead to iatrogenic embolization.

Restricted access

Erica F. Bisson, Praveen V. Mummaneni, John Knightly, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Anshit Goyal, Andrew K. Chan, Jian Guan, Michael Biase, Andrea Strauss, Steven Glassman, Kevin Foley, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Eric Potts, Mark Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Regis W. Haid Jr., Kai-Ming Fu, Michael Y. Wang, Paul Park, Anthony L. Asher and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Loss to follow-up has been shown to bias outcomes assessment among studies utilizing clinical registries. Here, the authors analyzed patients enrolled in a national surgical registry and compared the baseline characteristics of patients captured with those lost to follow-up at 2 years.

METHODS

The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients with grade I lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis undergoing a surgical intervention between July 2014 and June 2016. Only those patients enrolled in a multisite study investigating the impact of fusion on clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among patients with grade I spondylolisthesis were evaluated.

RESULTS

Of the 608 patients enrolled in the study undergoing 1- or 2-level decompression (23.0%, n = 140) or 1-level fusion (77.0%, n = 468), 14.5% (n = 88) were lost to follow-up at 2 years. Patients who were lost to follow-up were more likely to be younger (59.6 ± 13.5 vs 62.6 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.031), be employed (unemployment rate: 53.3% [n = 277] for successful follow-up vs 40.9% [n = 36] for those lost to follow-up, p = 0.017), have anxiety (26.1% [n = 23] vs 16.3% [n = 85], p = 0.026), have higher back pain scores (7.4 ± 2.9 vs 6.6 ± 2.8, p = 0.010), have higher leg pain scores (7.4 ± 2.5 vs 6.4 ± 2.9, p = 0.003), have higher Oswestry Disability Index scores (50.8 ± 18.7 vs 46 ± 16.8, p = 0.018), and have lower EQ-5D scores (0.481 ± 0.2 vs 0.547 ± 0.2, p = 0.012) at baseline.

CONCLUSIONS

To execute future, high-quality studies, it is important to identify patients undergoing surgery for spondylolisthesis who might be lost to follow-up. In a large, prospective registry, the authors found that those lost to follow-up were more likely to be younger, be employed, have anxiety disorder, and have worse PRO scores.

Restricted access

Janelle Cyprich, Dhiraj J. Pangal, Martin Rutkowski, Daniel A. Donoho, Mark Shiroishi, Chia-Shang Jason Liu, John D. Carmichael and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Sociodemographic disparities in health outcomes are well documented, but the effects of such disparities on preoperative presentation of pituitary adenomas (PA) and surgical outcomes following resection are not completely understood. In this study the authors sought to compare the preoperative clinical characteristics and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing PA resection at a private hospital (PH) versus a safety-net hospital (SNH).

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review over a 36-month period of patients with PAs who underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery performed by the same attending neurosurgeon at either a PH or an SNH at a single academic medical institution.

RESULTS

A total of 92 PH patients and 69 SNH patients were included. SNH patients were more likely to be uninsured or have Medicaid (88.4% vs 10.9%, p < 0.0001). A larger percentage of SNH patients were Hispanic (98.7% vs 32.6% p < 0.0001), while PH patients were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (39.1% vs 4.3%, p < 0.0001). SNH patients had a larger mean PA diameter (26.2 vs 22.4 mm, p = 0.0347) and a higher rate of bilateral cavernous sinus invasion (13% vs 4.3%, p = 0.0451). SNH patients were more likely to present with headache (68.1% vs 45.7%, p = 0.0048), vision loss (63.8% vs 35.9%, p < 0.0005), panhypopituitarism (18.8% vs 4.3%, p = 0.0031), and pituitary apoplexy (18.8% vs 7.6%, p = 0.0334). Compared to PH patients, SNH patients were as likely to undergo gross-total resection (73.9% vs 76.1%, p = 0.7499) and had similar rates of postoperative improvement in headache (80% vs 89%, p = 0.14) and vision (82% vs 84%, p = 0.74), but had higher rates of postoperative panhypopituitarism (23% vs 10%, p = 0.04) driven by preoperative endocrinopathies. Although there were no differences in tumor recurrence or progression, loss to follow-up was seen in 7.6% of PH versus 18.6% (p = 0.04) of SNH patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients presenting to the SNH were more often uninsured or on Medicaid and presented with larger, more advanced pituitary tumors. SNH patients were more likely to present with headaches, vision loss, and apoplexy, likely translating to greater improvements in headache and vision observed after surgery. These findings highlight the association between medically underserved populations and more advanced disease states at presentation, and underscore the likely role of academic tertiary multidisciplinary care teams and endoscopic PA resection in somewhat mitigating sociodemographic factors known to portend poorer outcomes, though longer-term follow-up is needed to confirm these findings.

Restricted access

Owen P. Leary, David D. Liu, Michael K. Boyajian, Sohail Syed, Joaquin Q. Camara-Quintana, Tianyi Niu, Konstantina A. Svokos, Joseph Crozier, Adetokunbo A. Oyelese, Paul Y. Liu, Albert S. Woo, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Jared S. Fridley

OBJECTIVE

Wound breakdown and infection are common postoperative complications following resection of spinal neoplasms. Accordingly, it has become common practice at some centers for plastic surgeons to assist with closure of large posterior defects after spine tumor resection. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that plastic surgery closure of complex spinal defects improves wound outcomes following resection of spinal neoplastic disease.

METHODS

Electronic medical records of consecutive patients who underwent resection of a spinal neoplasm between June 2015 and January 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into two subpopulations based on whether the surgical wound was closed by plastic surgery or neurosurgery. Patient demographics, preoperative risk factors, surgical details, and postoperative outcomes were collected in a central database and summarized using descriptive statistics. Outcomes of interest included rates of wound complication, reoperation, and mortality. Known preoperative risk factors for wound complication in spinal oncology were identified based on literature review and grouped categorically. The presence of each category of risk factors was then compared between groups. Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were applied to define associations between individual risk factors and wound complications.

RESULTS

One hundred six patients met inclusion criteria, including 60 wounds primarily closed by plastic surgery and 46 by neurosurgery. The plastic surgery population included more patients with systemic metastases (58% vs 37%, p = 0.029), prior radiation (53% vs 17%, p < 0.001), prior chemotherapy (37% vs 15%, p = 0.014), and sacral region tumors (25% vs 7%, p = 0.012), and more patients who underwent procedures requiring larger incisions (7.2 ± 3.6 vs 4.5 ± 2.6 levels, p < 0.001), prolonged operative time (413 ± 161 vs 301 ± 181 minutes, p = 0.001), and greater blood loss (906 ± 1106 vs 283 ± 373 ml, p < 0.001). The average number of risk factor categories present was significantly greater in the plastic surgery group (2.57 vs 1.74, p < 0.001). Despite the higher relative risk, the plastic surgery group did not experience a significantly higher rate of wound complication (28% vs 17%, p = 0.145), reoperation (17% vs 9%, p = 0.234), or all-cause mortality (30% vs 13%, p = 0.076). One patient died from wound-related complications in each group (p = 0.851). Regression analyses identified diabetes, multilevel instrumentation, and BMI as the factors associated with the greatest wound complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Involving plastic surgery in the closure of spinal wounds after resection of neoplasms may ameliorate expected increases in wound complications among higher-risk patients.

Restricted access

Nguyen Duc Lien, Dang Anh Tuan, Cao Vu Hung, Jacob R. Lepard and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative seizure outcome in children with drug-resistant epilepsy not eligible for focal resection who underwent corpus callosotomy.

METHODS

The study included 16 patients undergoing corpus callosotomy between September 2015 and May 2018. Seizure semiology and frequency, psychomotor status, and video electroencephalography and imaging findings were evaluated for all patients.

RESULTS

Of the 16 patients who underwent callosotomy during the study period, 11 underwent complete callosotomy and 5 underwent anterior only. Seizure improvement greater than 75% was achieved in 37.5% of patients, and another 50% of patients had seizure improvement of 50%–75%. No sustained neurological deficits were observed in these patients. There were no significant complications. Duration of postoperative follow-up ranged from 12 to 44 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Corpus callosotomy is an effective treatment for selected patients with drug-resistant epilepsy not eligible for focal resection in resource-limited settings. Fostering and developing international epilepsy surgery centers should remain a high priority for the neurosurgical community at large.

Restricted access

Denis Mkony, Juma Magogo Mzimbiri, Andreas Leidinger, Christopher M. Bonfield, Scott L. Zuckerman and Roger Härtl

A 3-year-old boy presented after a hyena bite to the skull in Tanzania. A large degloving wound with herniating cerebrum was seen in the right parietotemporal region. A CT scan confirmed a large 8-cm skull defect. The patient was taken for irrigation and debridement, but due to significant tissue loss, the skin could not be closed. CSF leaked from the wound, and two additional operations for attempted closure were undertaken but failed. The plastic surgery team was consulted, but no closure was done because of the procedure’s complexity, lack of resources, and cost. CSF diversion could not be performed due to no available lumbar catheter or external ventricular drain. Meningitis developed, leading to severe hyponatremia and death. The current case highlights both the unique mechanism of a hyena bite requiring neurosurgical intervention and the realities of practicing neurosurgery in a low-resource setting.

Restricted access

Saman Shabani, Mayank Kaushal, Matthew D. Budde, Marjorie C. Wang and Shekar N. Kurpad

Degenerative spondylotic myelopathy is the most common cause of spinal dysfunction, as well as nontraumatic spastic paraparesis and quadriparesis. Although conventional MRI is the gold standard for radiographic evaluation of the spinal cord, it has limited application for determining prognosis and recovery. In the last decade, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which is based on the property of preferential diffusion of water molecules, has gained popularity in evaluating patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The use of DTI allows for evaluation of microstructural changes in the spinal cord not otherwise detected on routine conventional MRI. In this review, the authors describe the application of DTI in CSM evaluation and its role as an imaging biomarker to predict disease severity and prognosis.

Restricted access

Michael P. Catalino and Edward R. Laws Jr.

Harvey Cushing overcame tremendous obstacles to his personal and professional development from 1912 to 1919. These trials could have jeopardized the early and necessary formation of the Society of Neurological Surgeons in 1920. War separated young neurosurgeons pursuing the advancement of this “special field,” but Cushing’s principled mentoring of these aspiring surgeons in the midst of this demanding time was unwavering. This historical vignette is a collection of stories composed to highlight certain trainees during this period in his career. It also puts the mentoring relationship into a context that is often encountered today. There is much to learn from those who endure trials of any kind, but there is much more to learn from those, like Cushing, who inspire perseverance in others during their trials.

Restricted access

Philippe De Vloo, Terhi J. Huttunen, Dalila Forte, Ivana Jankovic, Amy Lee, Mark Hair, Stephanie Cawker, Deepti Chugh, Lucinda Carr, Belinda H. A. Crowe, Matthew Pitt and Kristian Aquilina

OBJECTIVE

Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is effective at permanently reducing spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. The value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in this procedure remains controversial, and its robustness has been questioned. This study describes the authors’ institutional electrophysiological technique (based on the technique of Park et al.), intraoperative findings, robustness, value to the procedure, and occurrence of new motor or sphincter deficits.

METHODS

The authors analyzed electrophysiological data of all children who underwent SDR at their center between September 2013 and February 2019. All patients underwent bilateral SDR through a single-level laminotomy at the conus and with transection of about 60% of the L2–S2 afferent rootlets (guided by intraoperative electrophysiology) and about 50% of L1 afferent roots (nonselectively).

RESULTS

One hundred forty-five patients underwent SDR (64% male, mean age 6 years and 7 months, range 2 years and 9 months to 14 years and 10 months). Dorsal roots were distinguished from ventral roots anatomically and electrophysiologically, by assessing responses on free-running electromyography (EMG) and determining stimulation thresholds (≥ 0.2 mA in all dorsal rootlets). Root level was determined anatomically and electrophysiologically by assessing electromyographic response to stimulation. Median stimulation threshold was lower in sacral compared to lumbar roots (p < 0.001), and 16% higher on the first operated (right) side (p = 0.023), but unrelated to age, sex, or functional status. Similarly, responses to tetanic stimulation were consistent: 87% were graded 3+ or 4+, with similar distributions between sides. This was also unrelated to age, sex, and functional status. The L2–S2 rootlets were divided (median 60%, range 50%–67%), guided by response to tetanic stimulation at threshold amplitude. No new motor or sphincter deficits were observed, suggesting sparing of ventral roots and sphincteric innervation, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

This electrophysiological technique appears robust and reproducible, allowing reliable identification of afferent nerve roots, definition of root levels, and guidance for rootlet division. Only a direct comparative study will establish whether intraoperative electrophysiology during SDR minimizes risk of new motor or sphincter worsening and/or maximizes functional outcome.