Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is typically benign and found in the conus medullaris and/or filum terminale, although rare cases of subcutaneous and extra-axial MPE have been reported. The co-occurrence of MPE, tethered cord syndrome (TCS) with lipoma of the filum terminale, and a dermal sinus tract is extremely rare, with only 6 reported cases in the literature. Here, the authors present the first case, to their knowledge, of an extra-axial, subcutaneous MPE co-presenting with TCS, lipoma of the filum terminale, and a dermal sinus tract and discuss the underlying pathobiology.
A 14-month-old male who presented for evaluation of a dermal sinus tract underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a tethered cord with associated lipoma. At 14 months, the patient underwent spinal cord detethering with resection of his sacral dimple and sinus tract. Histopathological evaluation revealed an incidentally found MPE within the dermal sinus tract.
The authors review the underlying biology of MPEs, tethered cord syndrome, and dermal sinus tracts, and explore possible points of convergence within the developmental pathways that may result in this unique concomitant presentation. Additionally, they suggest that extra-axial MPE may be underappreciated and underdiagnosed; this case suggests that extra-axial MPE may be only effectively diagnosed with histological studies.