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Mireille E. Kelley, Jillian E. Urban, Derek A. Jones, Elizabeth M. Davenport, Logan E. Miller, Beverly M. Snively, Alexander K. Powers, Christopher T. Whitlow, Joseph A. Maldjian, and Joel D. Stitzel

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to characterize changes in head impact exposure (HIE) across multiple football seasons and to determine whether changes in HIE correlate with changes in imaging metrics in youth football players.

METHODS

On-field head impact data and pre- and postseason imaging data, including those produced by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), were collected from youth football athletes with at least two consecutive seasons of data. ANCOVA was used to evaluate HIE variations (number of impacts, peak linear and rotational accelerations, and risk-weighted cumulative exposure) by season number. DTI scalar metrics, including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and linear, planar, and spherical anisotropy coefficients, were evaluated. A control group was used to determine the number of abnormal white matter voxels, which were defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the control group mean. The difference in the number of abnormal voxels between consecutive seasons was computed for each scalar metric and athlete. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate relationships between changes in HIE metrics and changes in DTI scalar metrics.

RESULTS

There were 47 athletes with multiple consecutive seasons of HIE, and corresponding imaging data were available in a subsample (n = 19) of these. Increases and decreases in HIE metrics were observed among individual athletes from one season to the next, and no significant differences (all p > 0.05) in HIE metrics were observed by season number. Changes in the number of practice impacts, 50th percentile impacts per practice session, and 50th percentile impacts per session were significantly positively correlated with changes in abnormal voxels for all DTI metrics.

CONCLUSIONS

These results demonstrate a significant positive association between changes in HIE metrics and changes in the numbers of abnormal voxels between consecutive seasons of youth football. Reducing the number and frequency of head impacts, especially during practice sessions, may decrease the number of abnormal imaging findings from one season to the next in youth football.

Open access

Ali A. Alsarah, Omar M. Hussein, and Andrew P. Carlson

BACKGROUND

The authors presented their experience with a case of repeat thrombectomy in a 93-year-old patient who showed a favorable outcome after recurrent large vessel occlusion treated with emergency mechanical thrombectomy.

OBSERVATIONS

Mechanical thrombectomy has been proven to be effective in treating large vessel occlusion types of ischemic stroke. Most of the patient populations involved in the thrombectomy-related studies were younger than 80 years. In addition, recurrent mechanical thrombectomy is not a common procedure in clinical practice. This unusual case demonstrated the potential to achieve a favorable outcome with thrombectomy even in a patient older than 85 years with recurrent large vessel occlusion.

LESSONS

There can be a favorable neurological outcome after one or repeat thrombectomies for geriatric patients older than 90 years, and age should not be a deterrent to treatment.

Open access

Ji-Eyon Kwon, So Young Ji, Kihwan Hwang, Kyu Sang Lee, Gheeyoung Choe, Chae-Yong Kim, and Jung Ho Han

BACKGROUND

Chordomas, which are rare malignant neoplasms arising from notochordal remnants, often cause gradually progressive clinical symptoms. Intradural cranial chordomas (ICCs) are extremely rare and generally have a favorable prognosis. However, the authors reported the case of a primary ICC originating in the pineal gland presenting with recurrent thalamic hemorrhage and displaying an aggressive postoperative clinical course.

OBSERVATIONS

A 41-year-old man arrived at the emergency department with morning headaches and recurrent syncope that had lasted several months. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pineal gland mass causing obstructive hydrocephalus and a subacute hematoma in the right thalamus. Three weeks after an endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed, recurrent hemorrhage was observed in the right thalamus. The tumor was promptly removed surgically. The yellowish-white tumor did not exhibit abundant bleeding. No evidence of intratumoral hemorrhage around the hematoma pocket was found. Histopathological examination revealed the characteristics of a chordoma with minimal vascularity. MRI performed 10 weeks postoperatively for worsening headaches revealed abnormal enhancement of multiple cranial nerves, suggesting leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) of the tumor.

LESSONS

Despite radiotherapy and intrathecal chemotherapy, the patient’s neurological status worsened; he died 2 years postoperatively. A pineal ICC may cause recurrent thalamic hemorrhage and potentially fatal LMS, even in the early postoperative period.

Open access

César Chong, Xavier Wong-Achi, and Cinthya Apolo

BACKGROUND

Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease is a rare and heterogeneous entity that has been associated with autoimmune, hereditary, and malignant diseases. There is controversy about its etiopathogenesis, clinical course, and therapeutic management.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a 61-year-old man with a history of progressive headache without any other symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple irregular lesions with an initial diagnostic impression of meningiomatosis. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the pathology report stated the finding was Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease.

LESSONS

The uniqueness of this case is its rarity. The isolated intracranial location presents many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, with radiological and clinical characteristics similar to those of other central nervous system tumors. There is currently no clear evidence of the pathogenesis and therapeutic management of this condition. Follow-up of these patients will help elucidate the natural history of this condition and the benefits of various treatment modalities.

Open access

Masao Fukumura, Sho Murase, Yuzo Kuroda, Kazutomo Nakazawa, and Yasufumi Gon

BACKGROUND

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a commonly encountered condition in neurological and neurosurgical practice, but the presence of concomitant parkinsonism is extremely rare. Basal ganglia disturbance is a well-known underlying mechanism; however, few cases present with cerebral cortex compression as the cause of symptoms.

OBSERVATIONS

A 52-year-old man was referred to the authors’ hospital with a 5-week history of gait disturbance and suspected Parkinson’s disease. Neurological examination revealed a mask-like face, stooped posture, left-predominant rigidity, and postural instability. The authors initiated dopamine agonist administration, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was scheduled. One week later, MRI showed bilateral CSDHs. The hematomas markedly compressed the bilateral cerebral cortex, whereas the midbrain and basal ganglia structures were intact. The patient underwent burr hole drainage and was discharged after 9 days without sequelae.

LESSONS

CSDH can cause parkinsonism by compressing the cerebral cortex, which is a part of the cortico–basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuit. Surgery leads to positive outcomes, as illustrated by this case, in which cerebral cortex compression caused parkinsonism.

Open access

Meng Huang, Iahn Cajigas, and Steven Vanni

BACKGROUND

Pyogenic spondylodiscitis diminishes spinal structural integrity via disruption of the anterior and middle column, sometimes further compounded by iatrogenic violation of the posterior tension band during initial posterior decompressive surgeries. Although medical management is typically sufficient, refractory infection or progressive deformity may require aggressive debridement and reconstructive arthrodesis. Although anterior debridement plus reconstruction with posterior stabilization is an effective treatment option, existing techniques have limited efficacy for correcting focal deformity, leaving patients at risk for long-term sagittal imbalance, pain, and disability.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of chronic lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis in a patient in whom initial surgical debridement failed and pronounced angular kyphosis and intractable low back pain developed. A novel bipedicular handlebar construct was used to achieve angular correction of the kyphosis through simultaneous anterior interbody grafting and posterior instrumentation with the patient in the lateral position.

LESSONS

Leveraging both pedicle screws at the same level to transmit controlled corrective distraction forces through the segment allows for kyphosis correction without relying on long posterior constructs for cantilever reduction. Simultaneous anterior reconstruction with a posterior short lever arm, bipedicular handlebar construct is an effective technique for achieving high angular correction during circumferential reconstructive approaches to postinfectious focal kyphotic deformities.

Open access

Samantha E. Spellicy, Joseph R. Kilianski III, Rachel Poston, Debra Moore-Hill, and Fernando L. Vale

BACKGROUND

Surgical meshes have found widespread use in neurosurgical practice. While commonly recognized risks of synthetic mesh include infection, exposure of mesh implants, and foreign body reaction, the risk of mesh tethering to neural structures is often overlooked.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented the first case, to their knowledge, of the disentanglement of mesh interfaced to cortical tissue. The patient, a 68-year-old woman, presented with severe intractable seizure disorder and worsening left hand function and incoordination after meningioma resection and cranioplasty 9 years earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated interval progression of macrocystic encephalomalacia involving the right supplementary motor area, with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal extending posteriorly into the right primary motor cortex. Both computed tomography and MRI suggested potential tethering of the cortex to the overlying cranioplasty mesh. Because of the progressive nature of her condition, the decision was made to surgically remove the tethered mesh.

LESSONS

De-tethering brain parenchyma from surgical mesh requires careful microdissection and judicious use of electrocautery to minimize further tissue damage and preserve neurological function. This inadvertent complication evinces the importance of using dural substitutes when unable to primarily repair the dura to prevent scarring and tethering of neural tissues to synthetic cranioplasty materials.

Open access

Yakubu Ibrahim, Yiwei Zhao, Wubo Liu, Suomao Yuan, Yonghao Tian, Lianlei Wang, and Xinyu Liu

BACKGROUND

Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition. Various underlying mechanisms of injury are described in the literature. Here, the authors report an unusual nontraumatic injury mechanism of AAD in a 12-year-old patient.

OBSERVATIONS

A 12-year-old boy presented with intolerable neck pain and numbness in both upper limbs. The patient’s symptoms had started 2 months after the initiation of online classes during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic without a history of trauma. He used a computer for personal study and online classes for prolonged hours with no respite. On physical and radiological evaluation, he was diagnosed with AAD. Before surgery, skull traction was applied to reduce the dislocation and posterior C1 lateral mass screw and C2 pedicle screw fixation was performed. An optimal clinical outcome was achieved with no postoperative complications. A preoperative visual analog scale score of 8.0 was reduced to 0 postoperatively.

LESSONS

A prolonged fixed neck posture is an unusual underlying cause of AAD. Posterior C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw fixation results in an optimal clinical outcome.

Restricted access

Hamidullah Salimi, Hiromitsu Toyoda, Kentaro Yamada, Hidetomi Terai, Masatoshi Hoshino, Akinobu Suzuki, Shinji Takahashi, Koji Tamai, Yusuke Hori, Akito Yabu, and Hiroaki Nakamura

OBJECTIVE

Several studies have examined the relationship between sagittal spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes after spinal surgery. However, the long-term reciprocal changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis after decompression surgery remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate radiographic changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups after minimally invasive lumbar decompression surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively studied the medical records of 110 patients who underwent bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach for lumbar spinal stenosis. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for low-back pain (LBP), leg pain, leg numbness, and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated before surgery and at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups. Sagittal malalignment was defined as a sagittal vertical axis (SVA) ≥ 50 mm.

RESULTS

Compared with baseline, lumbar lordosis significantly increased after decompression surgery at the 2-year (30.2° vs 38.5°, respectively; p < 0.001) and 5-year (30.2° vs 35.7°, respectively; p < 0.001) follow-ups. SVA significantly decreased at the 2-year follow-up compared with baseline (36.1 mm vs 51.5 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in SVA at the 5-year follow-up compared with baseline (50.6 mm vs 51.5 mm, respectively; p = 0.812). At the 5-year follow-up, 82.5% of patients with preoperative normal alignment maintained normal alignment, whereas 42.6% of patients with preoperative malalignment developed normal alignment. Preoperative sagittal malalignment was associated with the VAS score for LBP at baseline and 2-year and 5-year follow-ups and the JOA score at the 5-year follow-up. Postoperative sagittal malalignment was associated with the VAS score for LBP at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups and the VAS score for leg pain at the 5-year follow-up. There was a trend toward deterioration in clinical outcomes in patients with persistent postural malalignment compared with other patients.

CONCLUSIONS

After minimally invasive surgery, spinal sagittal malalignment can convert to normal alignment at both short-term and long-term follow-ups. Sagittal malalignment has a negative impact on the VAS score for LBP and a weakly negative impact on the JOA score after decompression surgery.