Browse

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 32,775 items

Restricted access

Masaomi Koyanagi, Akira Ishii, Hirotoshi Imamura, Tetsu Satow, Kazumichi Yoshida, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Takayuki Kikuchi, Yohei Takenobu, Mitsushige Ando, Jun C. Takahashi, Ichiro Nakahara, Nobuyuki Sakai and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Long-term follow-up results of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) by means of coil embolization remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of rupture, retreatment, stroke, and death in patients with coiled UIAs who were followed for up to 20 years at multiple stroke centers.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed data from cases in which patients underwent coil embolization between 1995 and 2004 at 4 stroke centers. In collecting the late (≥ 1 year) follow-up data, postal questionnaires were used to assess whether patients had experienced rupture or retreatment of a coiled aneurysm or any stroke or had died.

RESULTS

Overall, 184 patients with 188 UIAs were included. The median follow-up period was 12 years (interquartile range 11–13 years, maximum 20 years). A total of 152 UIAs (81%) were followed for more than 10 years. The incidence of rupture was 2 in 2122 aneurysm-years (annual rupture rate 0.09%). Nine of the 188 patients with coiled UIAs (4.8%) underwent additional treatment. In 5 of these 9 cases, the first retreatment was performed more than 5 years after the initial treatment. Large aneurysms were significantly more likely to require retreatment. Nine strokes occurred over the 2122 aneurysm-years. Seventeen patients died in this cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates a low risk of rupture of coiled UIAs with long-term follow-up periods of up to 20 years. This suggests that coiling of UIAs could prevent rupture for a long period of time. However, large aneurysms might need to be followed for a longer time.

Restricted access

Saisanjana Kalagara, Adam E. M. Eltorai, Wesley M. Durand, J. Mason DePasse and Alan H. Daniels

OBJECTIVE

Hospital readmission contributes substantial costs to the healthcare system. The purpose of this investigation was to create a predictive machine learning model to identify lumbar laminectomy patients at risk for postoperative hospital readmission.

METHODS

Patients who had undergone a lumbar laminectomy procedure in the period from 2011 to 2014 were isolated from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database. Demographic characteristics and clinical factors, including complications, comorbidities, length of stay, age, and body mass index, were analyzed in relation to whether or not the patients had been readmitted to the hospital within 30 days after their procedure by utilizing independent-samples t-tests. Supervised gradient boosting machine learning was then used to create two models to predict readmission—one with all collected patient variables and one with only the variables known prior to hospital discharge.

RESULTS

A total of 26,869 patients were evaluated, 5.59% (1501 patients) of whom had an unplanned readmission to the hospital within 30 days of their procedure. Readmitted patients were older and had a greater number of complications and comorbidities, longer operative time, longer hospital stay, higher BMI, and higher work relative value unit (RVU) operation score (p < 0.01). They also had a worse health status prior to surgery (p < 0.01) and were more likely to be sent to a skilled discharge destination postoperatively (p < 0.01). The model with all patient variables accurately identified 49.6% of readmissions with an overall accuracy of 95.33% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.8059), with postdischarge complications and comorbidities as the most important predictors. The predictive model built with only clinical information known predischarge identified 40.5% of readmitted patients with an accuracy of 79.55% (AUC = 0.6901), with discharge destination, comorbidities, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification as the most influential factors in identifying readmitted patients.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors analyzed hospital readmissions following laminectomy and developed predictive models to identify readmitted patients with an accuracy of over 95% using all variables and over 79% when using only predischarge variables. Using only the variables available predischarge, the authors created a model capable of predicting 40% of the readmitted patients. This study provides data that will assist in the development of predictive models for readmission and the creation of interventions to prevent readmission in high-risk patients.

Full access

Hussein Fathalla, Ahmed Ashry and Ahmed El-Fiki

OBJECTIVE

Managing penetrating military brain injuries in a war zone setting is different than managing common civilian penetrating brain injuries. Triage, i.e., deciding on which patients to treat or not treat, and which to be flown back home, is essential to avoid wasting valuable limited resources. In this study the authors aim to identify reliable predictors of mortality and poor outcome to help develop a protocol for treating their patients in the battlefield. They also demonstrate all the lessons learned from their collective experience regarding some of the controversial management issues.

METHODS

This study was a retrospective review of 102 patients with penetrating military missile head injuries treated by the authors in various facilities in northern Sinai between 2011 and 2018. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, imaging characteristics, postoperative complications, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were recorded for each patient. Several variables associated with mortality and poor outcome that were derived from the literature were analyzed, in addition to variables obtained by direct observation by the authors over time.

RESULTS

There were 50 patients (49%) with GOS score of 1 (death), 12 patients (11.8%) with GOS score of 2 (survivors in persistent vegetative state), and 40 survivors (39.2%) with varying degrees of disability on the last follow-up evaluation. The authors identified an anatomical danger zone that was found to predict mortality when traversed. Bilateral dilated fixed pupils and low Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission were also found to be independent predictors of mortality and poor outcome. Based on these findings, a protocol was developed for managing these patients in the war zone.

CONCLUSIONS

Managing military penetrating head injuries in the war zone is different than civilian gunshot head injuries encountered by most neurosurgeons in urban cities. The authors developed a simple protocol for managing military penetrating injuries in the war zone. They also describe important lessons learned from this experience.

Restricted access

Benjamin Gory, Mikael Mazighi, Raphael Blanc, Julien Labreuche, Michel Piotin, Francis Turjman and Bertrand Lapergue

OBJECTIVE

Several randomized trials have been focused on patients with anterior circulation stroke, whereas few data on posterior circulation stroke are available. Thus, new mechanical thrombectomy (MT) strategies, including a direct-aspiration first-pass technique (ADAPT), remain to be evaluated in basilar artery occlusion (BAO) patients. The authors here assessed the influence of reperfusion on outcome in BAO patients and examined whether ADAPT improves the reperfusion rate compared with stent retriever devices.

METHODS

Three comprehensive stroke centers prospectively collected individual data from BAO patients treated with MT. Baseline characteristics as well as radiographic and clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 MT strategies. The primary outcome measure was the rate of successful reperfusion, defined as a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) grade of 2b–3. Favorable outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2.

RESULTS

Among the 100 adult patients included in the study, 46 were treated with first-line ADAPT (median age 61 years, IQR 53–71 years; stent-retriever rescue therapy was secondarily used in 12 [26.1%]) and 54 were treated with a primary stent retriever (median age 67 years, IQR 53–78 years). There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the 2 treatment groups, except for the rate of diabetes (19.6% vs 5.7%, respectively, p = 0.035). Successful reperfusion was achieved in 79% of the overall study sample. Overall, the rate of favorable outcome was 36.8% and 90-day all-cause mortality was 44.2%. Successful reperfusion positively impacted favorable outcome (OR 4.57, 95% CI 1.24–16.87, p = 0.023). A nonsignificant trend toward a higher successful reperfusion rate (unadjusted OR 2.56, 95% CI 0.90–7.29, p = 0.071) and a significantly higher rate of complete reperfusion (mTICI grade 3; unadjusted OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.14–5.86, p = 0.021) was found in the ADAPT group. The procedure duration was also significantly lower in the ADAPT group (median 45 minutes, IQR 34 to 62 minutes vs 56 minutes, IQR 40 to 90 minutes; p = 0.05), as was the rate of periprocedural complications (4.3% vs 25.9%, p = 0.003). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (0.0% vs 4.0%, p = 0.51) and 90-day all-cause mortality (46.7% vs 42.0%, p = 0.65) were similar in the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Among BAO patients, successful reperfusion is a strong predictor of a 90-day favorable outcome, and the choice of ADAPT as the first-line strategy achieves a significantly higher rate of complete reperfusion with a shorter procedure duration.

Full access

Dusan Urgosik and Roman Liscak

OBJECTIVE

Ablative procedures are still useful in the treatment of intractable pain despite the proliferation of neuromodulation techniques. In the paper the authors present the results of Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GKT) in various pain syndromes.

METHODS

Between 1996 and 2016, unilateral GKT was performed in 30 patients suffering from various severe pain syndromes in whom conservative treatment had failed. There were 20 women and 10 men in the study population, with a median age of 80 years (range 53–89 years). The pain syndromes consisted of 8 patients with classic treatment-resistant trigeminal neuralgia (TN), 6 with postherpetic TN, 5 with TN and constant pain, 1 with TN related to multiple sclerosis, 3 with trigeminal neuropathic pain, 4 with thalamic pain, 1 with phantom pain, 1 with causalgic pain, and 1 with facial pain. The median follow-up period was 24 months (range 12–180 months). Invasive procedures for pain release preceded GKT in 20 patients (microvascular decompression, glycerol rhizotomy, balloon microcompression, Gamma Knife irradiation of the trigeminal root, and radiofrequency thermolesion). The Leksell stereotactic frame, GammaPlan software, and T1- and T2-weighted sequences acquired at 1.5 T were used for localization of the targeted medial thalamus, namely the centromedian (CM) and parafascicularis (Pf) nucleus. The CM/Pf complex was localized 4–6 mm lateral to the wall of the third ventricle, 8 mm posterior to the midpoint, and 2–3 mm superior to the intercommissural line. GKT was performed using the Leksell Gamma Knife with an applied dose ranging from 145 to 150 Gy, with a single shot, 4-mm collimator. Pain relief after radiation treatment was evaluated. Decreased pain intensity to less than 50% of the previous level was considered successful.

RESULTS

Initial successful results were achieved in 13 (43.3%) of the patients, with complete pain relief in 1 of these patients. Relief was achieved after a median latency of 3 months (range 2–12 months). Pain recurred in 4 (31%) of 13 patients after a median latent interval of 24 months (range 22–30 months). No neurological deficits were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that GKT in patients suffering from severe pain syndromes is a relatively successful and safe method that can be used even in severely affected patients. The only risk of GT for the patients in this study was failure of treatment, as no clinical side effects were observed.

Restricted access

Tomoya Kamide, Halima Tabani, Michael M. Safaee, Jan-Karl Burkhardt and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

While most paraclinoid aneurysms can be clipped with excellent results, new postoperative visual deficits are a concern. New technology, including flow diverters, has increased the popularity of endovascular therapy. However, endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms is not without procedural risks, is associated with higher rates of incomplete aneurysm occlusion and recurrence, and may not address optic nerve compression symptoms that surgical debulking can. The increasing endovascular management of paraclinoid aneurysms should be justified by comparisons to surgical benchmarks. The authors, therefore, undertook this study to define patient, visual, and aneurysm outcomes in the most common type of paraclinoid aneurysm: ophthalmic artery (OphA) aneurysms.

METHODS

Results from microsurgical clipping of 208 OphA aneurysms in 198 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, aneurysm morphology (size, calcification, etc.), clinical characteristics, and patient outcomes were recorded and analyzed.

RESULTS

Despite 20% of these aneurysms being large or giant in size, complete aneurysm occlusion was accomplished in 91% of 208 cases, with OphA patency preserved in 99.5%. The aneurysm recurrence rate was 3.1% and the retreatment rate was 0%. Good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 0–2) were observed in 96.2% of patients overall and in all 156 patients with unruptured aneurysms. New visual field defects (hemianopsia or quadrantanopsia) were observed in 8 patients (3.8%), decreased visual acuity in 5 (2.4%), and monocular blindness in 9 (4.3%). Vision improved in 9 (52.9%) of the 17 patients with preoperative visual deficits.

CONCLUSIONS

The most important risk associated with clipping OphA aneurysms is a new visual deficit. Meticulous microsurgical technique is necessary during anterior clinoidectomy, aneurysm dissection, and clip application to optimize visual outcomes, and aggressive medical management postoperatively might potentially decrease the incidence of delayed visual deficits. As the results of endovascular therapy and specifically flow diverters become known, they warrant comparison with these surgical benchmarks to determine best practices.

Full access

Takashi Shuto, Atsuya Akabane, Masaaki Yamamoto, Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yasunori Sato, Jun Kawagishi, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Hidefumi Jokura, Shoji Yomo, Osamu Nagano and Hidefumi Aoyama

OBJECTIVE

Previous Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife Society studies (JLGK0901) demonstrated the noninferiority of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone as the initial treatment for patients with 5–10 brain metastases (BMs) compared with those with 2–4 BMs in terms of overall survival and most secondary endpoints. The authors studied the aforementioned treatment outcomes in a subset of patients with BMs from non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

METHODS

Patients with initially diagnosed BMs treated with SRS alone were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Major inclusion criteria were the existence of up to 10 tumors with a maximum diameter of less than 3 cm each, a cumulative tumor volume of less than 15 cm3, and no leptomeningeal dissemination in patients with a Karnofsky Performance Scale score of 70% or better.

RESULTS

Among 1194 eligible patients, 784 with NSCLC were categorized into 3 groups: group A (1 tumor, n = 299), group B (2–4 tumors, n = 342), and group C (5–10 tumors, n = 143). The median survival times were 13.9 months in group A, 12.3 months in group B, and 12.8 months in group C. The survival curves of groups B and C were very similar (hazard ratio [HR] 1.037; 95% CI 0.842–1.277; p < 0.0001, noninferiority test). The crude and cumulative incidence rates of neurological death, deterioration of neurological function, newly appearing lesions, and leptomeningeal dissemination did not differ significantly between groups B and C. SRS-induced complications occurred in 145 (12.1%) patients during the median post-SRS period of 9.3 months (IQR 4.1–17.4 months), including 46, 54, 29, 11, and 5 patients with a Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grade 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 complication, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of adverse effects in groups A, B, and C 60 months after SRS were 13.5%, 10.0%, and 12.6%, respectively (group B vs C: HR 1.344; 95% CI 0.768–2.352; p = 0.299). The 60-month post-SRS rates of neurocognitive function preservation were 85.7% or higher, and no significant differences among the 3 groups were found.

CONCLUSIONS

In this subset analysis of patients with NSCLC, the noninferiority of SRS alone for the treatment of 5–10 versus 2–4 BMs was confirmed again in terms of overall survival and secondary endpoints. In particular, the incidence of neither post-SRS complications nor neurocognitive function preservation differed significantly between groups B and C. These findings further strengthen the already-reported noninferiority hypothesis of SRS alone for the treatment of patients with 5–10 BMs.

Restricted access

Manish Kuchakulla, Ashish H. Shah, Valerie Armstrong, Sarah Jernigan, Sanjiv Bhatia and Toba N. Niazi

OBJECTIVE

Carotid body tumors (CBTs), extraadrenal paragangliomas, are extremely rare neoplasms in children that often require multimodal surgical treatment, including preoperative anesthesia workup, embolization, and resection. With only a few cases reported in the pediatric literature, treatment paradigms and surgical morbidity are loosely defined, especially when carotid artery infiltration is noted. Here, the authors report two cases of pediatric CBT and provide the results of a systematic review of the literature.

METHODS

The study was divided into two sections. First, the authors conducted a retrospective review of our series of pediatric CBT patients and screened for patients with evidence of a CBT over the last 10 years (2007–2017) at a single tertiary referral pediatric hospital. Second, they conducted a systematic review, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, of all reported cases of pediatric CBTs to determine the characteristics (tumor size, vascularity, symptomatology), treatment paradigms, and complications.

RESULTS

In the systematic review (n = 21 patients [includes 19 cases found in the literature and 2 from the authors’ series]), the mean age at diagnosis was 11.8 years. The most common presenting symptoms were palpable neck mass (62%), cranial nerve palsies (33%), cough or dysphagia (14%), and neck pain (19%). Metastasis occurred only in 5% of patients, and 19% of cases were recurrent lesions. Only 10% of patients presented with elevated catecholamines and associated sympathetic involvement. Preoperative embolization was utilized in 24% of patients (external carotid artery in 4 and external carotid artery and vertebral artery in 1). Cranial nerve palsies (cranial nerve VII [n = 1], IX [n = 1], X [n = 4], XI [n = 1], and XII [n = 3]) were the most common cause of surgical morbidity (33% of cases). The patients in the authors’ illustrative cases underwent preoperative embolization and balloon test occlusion followed by resection, and both patients suffered from transient Horner’s syndrome after embolization.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical management of CBTs requires an extensive preoperative workup, anesthesia, and multimodal surgical management. Due to a potentially high rate of surgical morbidity and vascularity, balloon test occlusion with embolization may be necessary in select patients prior to resection. Careful thorough preoperative counseling is vital to preparing families for the intensive management of these children.

Restricted access

Kavelin Rumalla, Kyle A. Smith, Vijay Letchuman, Mrudula Gandham, Rachana Kombathula and Paul M. Arnold

OBJECTIVE

Posttraumatic seizures (PTSs) are the most common complication following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may lead to posttraumatic epilepsy. PTS is well described in the adult literature but has not been studied extensively in children. Here, the authors utilized the largest nationwide registry of pediatric hospitalizations to report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with PTS in pediatric TBI.

METHODS

The authors queried the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) using ICD-9-CM codes to identify all patients (age < 21 years) who had a primary diagnosis of TBI (850.xx–854.xx) and a secondary diagnosis of PTS (780.33, 780.39). Parameters of interest included patient demographics, preexisting comorbidities, hospital characteristics, nature of injury (open/closed), injury type (concussion, laceration/contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, or epidural hematoma), loss of consciousness (LOC), surgical management (Clinical Classification Software code 1 or 2), discharge disposition, in-hospital complications, and in-hospital mortality. The authors utilized the IBM SPSS statistical package (version 24) for univariate comparisons, as well as the identification of independent risk factors for PTS in multivariable analysis (alpha set at < 0.05).

RESULTS

The rate of PTS was 6.9% among 124,444 unique patients hospitalized for TBI. The utilization rate of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) was 0.3% and increased between 2003 (0.1%) and 2012 (0.7%). The most common etiologies of TBI were motor vehicle accident (n = 50,615), accidental fall (n = 30,847), and blunt trauma (n = 13,831). However, the groups with the highest rate of PTS were shaken infant syndrome (41.4%), accidental falls (8.1%), and cycling accidents (7.4%). In multivariable analysis, risk factors for PTS included age 0–5 years (compared with 6–10, 11–15, and 16–20 years), African American race (OR 1.4), ≥ 3 preexisting comorbidities (OR 4.0), shaken infant syndrome (OR 4.4), subdural hematoma (OR 1.6), closed-type injury (OR 2.3), brief LOC (OR 1.4), moderate LOC (OR 1.5), and prolonged LOC with baseline return (OR 1.8). Surgically managed patients were more likely to experience PTS (OR 1.5) unless they were treated within 24 hours of admission (OR 0.8). PTS was associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital complications (OR 1.7) and adverse (nonroutine) discharge disposition (OR 1.2), but not in-hospital mortality (OR 0.5). The overall utilization rate of cEEG was 1.3% in PTS patients compared with 0.2% in patients without PTS. Continuous EEG monitoring was associated with higher rates of diagnosed PTS (35.4% vs 6.8%; OR 4.9, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

PTS is common in children with TBI and is associated with adverse outcomes. Independent risk factors for PTS include younger age (< 5 years), African American race, increased preexisting comorbidity, prolonged LOC, and injury pattern involving cortical exposure to blood products. However, patients who undergo urgent surgical evacuation are less likely to develop PTS.

Full access

Alana Tooze and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Pituitary adenomas and the treatment required for the underlying neuropathology have frequently been associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanisms for these impairments remain the subject of much debate. The authors evaluated cognitive outcomes in patients treated with or without Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for an underlying pituitary adenoma.

METHODS

This was a retrospective, institutional review board–approved, single-institution study. A total of 51 patients (23 male, 28 female) treated for pituitary adenoma were included in this neurocognitive study. Twenty-one patients underwent GKRS following transsphenoidal surgery, 22 patients were treated with transsphenoidal surgery alone, and eight patients were conservatively managed or were treated with medical management alone. Comparisons using psychometric tests of general intellectual abilities, memory, and executive functions were made between the treatment groups, between male and female patients, and between patients with Cushing’s disease and those with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA).

RESULTS

The entire patient sample, the NFA group, and the GKRS group scored significantly below expected on measures of both immediate and delayed memory, particularly for visually presented information (p ≤ 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the patients with Cushing’s disease and those with NFA (t ≤ 0.56, p ≥ 0.52). In those who underwent GKRS, memory scores were not significantly different from those in the patients who did not undergo GKRS (t ≤ 1.32, p ≥ 0.19). Male patients across the sample were more likely to demonstrate impairments in both immediate memory (t = −3.41, p = 0.003) and delayed memory (t = −3.80, p = 0.001) than were female patients (t ≤ 1.09, p ≥ 0.29). There were no impairments on measures of general intellectual functioning or executive functions in any patient group. The potential contributions of tumor size and hormone levels are discussed.

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, pituitary adenoma patients demonstrated relative impairment in anterograde memory. However, GKRS did not lead to adverse effects for immediate or delayed memory in pituitary adenoma patients. Cognitive assessment of pituitary adenoma patients is important in their longitudinal care.