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Caroline Chung, Dheerendra Prasad, Michael Torrens, Ian Paddick, Patrick Hanssens, Douglas Kondziolka and David A. Jaffray

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Kalman Katlowitz, Mia Ko, Alon Y. Mogilner and Michael Pourfar

OBJECTIVE

The efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD)–related tremor has been well established. However, the relative impact on arm, leg, and chin tremor has been less clearly elucidated. The authors evaluated the distribution of tremors in a PD cohort undergoing STN DBS and sought to evaluate the differential impact of DBS as a function of tremor location.

METHODS

A retrospective study of patients with PD with tremor who underwent DBS surgery between 2012 and 2016 was performed to evaluate the impact of STN stimulation on overall and regional tremor scores.

RESULTS

Across 66 patients the authors found an average of 78% overall reduction in tremor after 6 months. In this cohort, the authors found that tremor reduction was somewhat better for arm than for leg tremors, especially in instances of higher preoperative tremor (84% vs 71% reduction, respectively, for initial tremor scores ≥ 2). No significant difference in response was found between patients with medication-responsive versus medication-nonresponsive tremors.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that although DBS improved tremor in all regions, the improvement was not uniform between chin, arm, and leg—even within the same patient. The reasons behind these differing responses are speculative but suggest that STN DBS may more reliably reduce arm tremors than leg tremors.

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Pierre Bourdillon, Claude-Edouard Châtillon, Alexis Moles, Sylvain Rheims, Hélène Catenoix, Alexandra Montavont, Karine Ostrowsky-Coste, Sebastien Boulogne, Jean Isnard and Marc Guénot

OBJECTIVE

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) was first developed in the 1950s by Jean Talairach using 2D angiography and a frame-based, orthogonal approach through a metallic grid. Since then, various other frame-based and frameless techniques have been described. In this study the authors sought to compare the traditional orthogonal Talairach 2D angiographic approach with a frame-based 3D robotic procedure that included 3D angiographic interoperative imaging guidance. MRI was used for both procedures during surgery, but MRI preplanning was done only in the robotic 3D technique.

METHODS

All study patients suffered from drug-resistant focal epilepsy and were treated at the same center by the same neurosurgical team. Fifty patients who underwent the 3D robotic procedure were compared to the same number of historical controls who had previously been successfully treated with the Talairach orthogonal procedure. The effectiveness and absolute accuracy, as well as safety, of the two procedures were compared. Moreover, in the 3D robotic group, the reliability of the preoperative MRI to avoid vascular structures was evaluated by studying the rate of trajectory modification following the coregistration of the intraoperative 3D angiographic data onto the preoperative MRI-based trajectory plans.

RESULTS

Effective accuracy (96.5% vs 13.7%) and absolute accuracy (1.15 mm vs 4.00 mm) were significantly higher in the 3D robotic group than in the Talairach orthogonal group. Both procedures showed excellent safety results (no major complications). The rate of electrode modification after 3D angiography was 43.8%, and it was highest for frontal and insular locations.

CONCLUSIONS

The frame-based, 3D angiographic, robotic procedure described here provided better accuracy for SEEG implantations than the traditional Talairach approach. This study also highlights the potential safety advantage of trajectory planning using intraoperative frame-based 3D angiography over preoperative MRI alone.

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Jonathan A. Forbes

OBJECTIVE

Active-duty neurosurgical coverage has been provided at Bagram Air Force Base in Afghanistan since 2007. Early operative logs were reflective of a large number of surgical procedures performed to treat battlefield injuries. However, with maturation of the war effort, the number of operations for battlefield injuries has decreased with time. Consequently, procedures performed for elective neurosurgical humanitarian care (NHC) increased in number and complexity prior to closure of the Korean Hospital in 2015, which resulted in effective termination of NHC at Bagram. Monthly neurosurgical caseloads for deployed personnel have dropped precipitously since this time, renewing a debate as to whether the benefits of providing elective NHC in Afghanistan outweigh the costs of such a strategy. To date, there is a paucity of information in the literature discussing the overall context of such a determination.

METHODS

The author retrospectively reviewed his personal database of all patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures at Bagram during his deployment there from April 17 to October 29, 2014. Standardized clinical parameters had been recorded in the ABNS NeuroLog system. All cases of nonelective surgical care for battlefield injuries were identified and excluded. Records of all other procedures, which represented elective NHC delivered during this period, were accessed to extract salient clinical and radiological data.

RESULTS

During the 6-month deployment, 49 patients (29 male and 20 female, age range 18 months to 63 years) were treated by the author in elective NHC. Procedures were performed for spinal degenerative disease (n = 28), cranial tumors (n = 11), pediatric conditions (n = 6), Pott’s disease (n = 2), peripheral nerve impingement (n = 1), and adult hydrocephalus (n = 1). The duration of follow-up ranged from 3 to 23 weeks. Complications referable to surgery included asymptomatic, unilateral lumbar screw fracture detected 3 months postoperatively and treated with revision of hardware (n = 1); wound infection requiring cranial flap explantation and staged cranioplasty (n = 1); and unanticipated return to the operating room for resection of residual tumor in a patient with a solitary metastatic lesion involving the mesial temporal lobe/ambient cistern (n = 1). There were no instances of postoperative neurological decline.

CONCLUSIONS

Elective NHC can be safely and effectively implemented in the deployed setting. Benefits of a military strategy that supports humanitarian care include strengthening of the bond between the US/Afghan military communities and the local civilian population as well as maintenance of skills of the neurosurgical team during the sometimes-lengthy intervals between cases in which emergent neurosurgical care is provided for treatment of battlefield injuries.

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Myung Soo Youn, Jong Ki Shin, Tae Sik Goh, Seung Min Son and Jung Sub Lee

OBJECTIVE

Various minimally invasive techniques have been described for the decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, few reports have described the results of endoscopic posterior decompression (EPD) with laminectomy performed under local anesthesia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of EPD performed under local anesthesia in patients with LSS and to compare the procedural outcomes in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis.

METHODS

Fifty patients (28 female and 22 male) who underwent EPD under local anesthesia were included in this study. Patients were assessed before surgery and were followed up with regular outpatient visits (at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) outcome questionnaire. Radiological outcomes were assessed by measuring lumbar lordosis, disc-wedging angle, percentage of vertebral slippage, and disc height index on plain standing radiographs.

RESULTS

The VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores were significantly improved at 1 month after surgery compared to the baseline mean values, and the improved scores were maintained over the 2-year follow-up period. Radiological progression was found in 2 patients during the follow-up period. Patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis had no significant differences in their clinical and radiological outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

EPD performed under local anesthesia is effective for LSS treatment. Similar favorable outcomes can be obtained in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis using this approach.

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Nirmeen Zagzoog, Ahmed Attar, Radwan Takroni, Mazen B. Alotaibi and Kesh Reddy

OBJECTIVE

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is commonly used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) with positive clinical outcomes. Fully endoscopic MVD (E-MVD) has been proposed as an effective minimally invasive alternative, but a comparative review of the two approaches has not been conducted. The authors performed a meta-analysis of studies, comparing patient outcome rates and complications for the open versus the endoscopic technique.

METHODS

The PubMed/MEDLINE and Ovid databases were searched for studies published from database inception to 2017. The search terms used included, but were not limited to, “open microvascular decompression,” “microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia,” and “endoscopic decompression for trigeminal neuralgia.” Criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis were established as follows: adult patients, clinical studies with ≥ 10 patients (excluding case studies to obtain a higher volume of outcome rates), utilization of open MVD or E-MVD to treat TN, craniotomy and retrosigmoid incision, English-language studies, and articles that listed pain relief outcomes (complete, very good, partial, or absent), recurrence rate (number of patients), and complications (paresis, hearing loss, CSF leakage, cerebellar damage, infection, death). Relevant references from the chosen articles were also included.

RESULTS

From a larger pool of 1039 studies, 23 articles were selected for review: 13 on traditional MVD and 10 on E-MVD. The total number of patients was 6749, of which 5783 patients (and 5802 procedures) had undergone MVD and 993 patients (and procedures) had undergone E-MVD. Analyzed data included postoperative pain relief outcome (complete or good pain relief vs partial or no pain relief), and rates of recurrence and complications including facial paralysis, weakness, or paresis; hearing loss; auditory and facial nerve damage; cerebrospinal fluid leakage; infection; cerebellar damage; and death.

Good pain relief was achieved in 81% of MVD patients and 88% of E-MVD patients, with a mean recurrence rate of 14% and 9%, respectively. Average rates of reported complications were statistically lower in E-MVD than in MVD approaches, including facial paresis or weakness, hearing loss, cerebellar damage, infection, and death, whereas cerebrospinal fluid leakage was similar. The overall incidence of complications was 19% for MVD and 8% for E-MVD.

CONCLUSIONS

The reviewed literature revealed similar clinical outcomes with respect to pain relief for MVD and E-MVD. The recurrence rate was lower in E-MVD studies, though not significantly so, and the incidence of complications, notably facial paresis and hearing loss, were statistically higher for MVD than for E-MVD. Based on these results, the use of endoscopy to perform MVD for TN appears to offer at least as good a surgical outcome as the more commonly used open MVD, with the possible added advantages of having a shorter operative time, smaller craniotomy, and lower recurrence rates. The authors advise caution in interpreting these data given the asymmetry in the sample size between the two groups and the relative novelty of the E-MVD approach.

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Satoshi Suehiro, Takanori Ohnishi, Daisuke Yamashita, Shohei Kohno, Akihiro Inoue, Masahiro Nishikawa, Shiro Ohue, Junya Tanaka and Takeharu Kunieda

OBJECTIVE

High invasiveness of malignant gliomas frequently causes early local recurrence of the tumor, resulting in extremely poor outcome. To control such recurrence, novel therapies targeted toward infiltrating glioma cells around the tumor border are required. Here, the authors investigated the antitumor activity of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) combined with a sonosensitizer, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), on malignant gliomas to explore the possibility for clinical use of 5-ALA–mediated SDT (5-ALA-SDT).

METHODS

In vitro cytotoxicity of 5-ALA-SDT was evaluated in U87 and U251 glioma cells and in U251Oct-3/4 glioma stemlike cells. Treatment-related apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured and the role of ROS in treatment-related cytotoxicity was examined by analysis of the effect of pretreatment with the radical scavenger edaravone. Effects of 5-ALA-SDT with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on tumor growth, survival of glioma-transplanted mice, and histological features of the mouse brains were investigated.

RESULTS

The 5-ALA-SDT inhibited cell growth and changed cell morphology, inducing cell shrinkage, vacuolization, and swelling. Flow cytometric analysis and TUNEL staining indicated that 5-ALA-SDT induced apoptotic cell death in all gliomas. The 5-ALA-SDT generated significantly higher ROS than in the control group, and inhibition of ROS generation by edaravone completely eliminated the cytotoxic effects of 5-ALA-SDT. In the in vivo study, 5-ALA-SDT with HIFU greatly prolonged survival of the tumor-bearing mice compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Histologically, 5-ALA-SDT produced mainly necrosis of the tumor tissue in the focus area and induced apoptosis of the tumor cells in the perifocus area around the target of the HIFU-irradiated field. The proliferative activity of the entire tumor was markedly decreased. Normal brain tissues around the ultrasonic irradiation field of HIFU remained intact.

CONCLUSIONS

The 5-ALA-SDT was cytotoxic toward malignant gliomas. Generation of ROS by the SDT was thought to promote apoptosis of glioma cells. The 5-ALA-SDT with HIFU induced tumor necrosis in the focus area and apoptosis in the perifocus area of the HIFU-irradiated field, whereas the surrounding brain tissue remained normal, resulting in longer survival of the HIFU-treated mice compared with that of untreated mice. These results suggest that 5-ALA-SDT with HIFU may present a less invasive and tumor-specific therapy, not only for a tumor mass but also for infiltrating tumor cells in malignant gliomas.

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Leland Rogers, Peixin Zhang, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Minesh P. Mehta and on behalf of the authors