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Alberto Cacciola, Antonio Pontoriero, Giuseppe Iatì, Alfredo Conti, Antonino Germanò, Francesca Granata and Stefano Pergolizzi

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Bianca K. den Ottelander, Robbin de Goederen, Marie-Lise C. van Veelen, Stephanie D. C. van de Beeten, Maarten H. Lequin, Marjolein H. G. Dremmen, Sjoukje E. Loudon, Marieke A. J. Telleman, Henriëtte H. W. de Gier, Eppo B. Wolvius, Stephen T. H. Tjoa, Sarah L. Versnel, Koen F. M. Joosten and Irene M. J. Mathijssen

OBJECTIVE

The authors evaluated the long-term outcome of their treatment protocol for Muenke syndrome, which includes a single craniofacial procedure.

METHODS

This was a prospective observational cohort study of Muenke syndrome patients who underwent surgery for craniosynostosis within the first year of life. Symptoms and determinants of intracranial hypertension were evaluated by longitudinal monitoring of the presence of papilledema (fundoscopy), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; with polysomnography), cerebellar tonsillar herniation (MRI studies), ventricular size (MRI and CT studies), and skull growth (occipital frontal head circumference [OFC]). Other evaluated factors included hearing, speech, and ophthalmological outcomes.

RESULTS

The study included 38 patients; 36 patients underwent fronto-supraorbital advancement. The median age at last follow-up was 13.2 years (range 1.3–24.4 years). Three patients had papilledema, which was related to ophthalmological disorders in 2 patients. Three patients had mild OSA. Three patients had a Chiari I malformation, and tonsillar descent < 5 mm was present in 6 patients. Tonsillar position was unrelated to papilledema, ventricular size, or restricted skull growth. Ten patients had ventriculomegaly, and the OFC growth curve deflected in 3 patients. Twenty-two patients had hearing loss. Refraction anomalies were diagnosed in 14/15 patients measured at ≥ 8 years of age.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with Muenke syndrome treated with a single fronto-supraorbital advancement in their first year of life rarely develop signs of intracranial hypertension, in accordance with the very low prevalence of its causative factors (OSA, hydrocephalus, and restricted skull growth). This illustrates that there is no need for a routine second craniofacial procedure. Patient follow-up should focus on visual assessment and speech and hearing outcomes.

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Yun-Sik Dho, Young Jae Kim, Kwang Gi Kim, Sung Hwan Hwang, Kyung Hyun Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Seung Hong Choi and Chul-Kee Park

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to analyze the positional effect of MRI on the accuracy of neuronavigational localization for posterior fossa (PF) lesions when the operation is performed with the patient in the prone position.

METHODS

Ten patients with PF tumors requiring surgery in the prone position were prospectively enrolled in the study. All patients underwent preoperative navigational MRI in both the supine and prone positions in a single session. Using simultaneous intraoperative registration of the supine and prone navigational MR images, the authors investigated the images’ accuracy, spatial deformity, and source of errors for PF lesions. Accuracy was determined in terms of differences in the ability of the supine and prone MR images to localize 64 test points in the PF by using a neuronavigation system. Spatial deformities were analyzed and visualized by in-house–developed software with a 3D reconstruction function and spatial calculation of the MRI data. To identify the source of differences, the authors investigated the accuracy of fiducial point localization in the supine and prone MR images after taking the surface anatomy and age factors into consideration.

RESULTS

Neuronavigational localization performed using prone MRI was more accurate for PF lesions than routine supine MRI prior to prone position surgery. Prone MRI more accurately localized 93.8% of the tested PF areas than supine MRI. The spatial deformities in the neuronavigation system calculated using the supine MRI tended to move in the posterior-superior direction from the actual anatomical landmarks. The average distance of the spatial differences between the prone and supine MR images was 6.3 mm. The spatial difference had a tendency to increase close to the midline. An older age (> 60 years) and fiducial markers adjacent to the cervical muscles were considered to contribute significantly to the source of differences in the positional effect of neuronavigation (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrated the superior accuracy of neuronavigational localization with prone-position MRI during prone-position surgery for PF lesions. The authors recommend that the scan position of the neuronavigational MRI be matched with the surgical position for more precise localization.

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Victor M. Lu, Christopher S. Graffeo, Avital Perry, Lucas P. Carlstrom, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Giuseppe Lanzino, Waleed Brinjikji, Eelco F. M. Wijdicks and Alejandro A. Rabinstein

OBJECTIVE

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and aneurysm rebleeding contribute to morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH); however, the relationship between their impacts on overall functional outcome is incompletely understood.

METHODS

The authors conducted a cohort study of all aSAH during the study period from 2001 to 2016. Primary end points were overall functional outcome and ischemic aSAH sequelae, defined as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), DCI with infarction, symptomatic vasospasm (SV), and global cerebral edema (GCE). Outcomes were compared between the rebleed and nonrebleed cohorts overall and after propensity-score matching (PSM) for risk factors and treatment modality. Univariate and multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses for functional outcomes were performed in the PSM cohort to identify predictors of poor outcome.

RESULTS

Four hundred fifty-five aSAH cases admitted within 24 hours of aneurysm rupture were included, of which 411 (90%) experienced initial aneurysm ruptures only, while 44 (10%) had clinically confirmed rebleeding. In the overall cohort, rebleeding was associated with significantly worse functional outcome, longer intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), and GCE (all p < 0.01); treatment modality, overall LOS, DCI, DCI with infarction, and SV were nonsignificant. In the PSM analysis of 43 matched rebleed and 43 matched nonrebleed cases, only poor functional outcome and GCE remained significantly associated with rebleeding (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Multivariate regression identified that both rebleeding (HR 21.5, p < 0.01) and DCI (HR 10.1, p = 0.01) independently predicted poor functional outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Rebleeding and DCI after aSAH are highly morbid and potentially deadly events after aSAH, which appear to have independent negative impacts on overall functional outcome. Early rebleeding did not significantly affect the risk of delayed ischemic complications.

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Andrej Paľa, Jan Coburger, Moritz Scherer, Hajrullah Ahmeti, Constantin Roder, Florian Gessler, Christine Jungk, Angelika Scheuerle, Christian Senft, Marcos Tatagiba, Michael Synowitz, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Bernd Schmitz and Andreas W. Unterberg

OBJECTIVE

The level of evidence for adjuvant treatment of diffuse WHO grade II glioma (low-grade glioma, LGG) is low. In so-called “high-risk” patients most centers currently apply an early aggressive adjuvant treatment after surgery. The aim of this assessment was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone, chemotherapy (CT) alone, or a combined/consecutive RT+CT, with patients receiving no primary adjuvant treatment after surgery.

METHODS

Based on a retrospective multicenter cohort of 288 patients (≥ 18 years old) with diffuse WHO grade II gliomas, a subgroup analysis of patients with a confirmed isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation was performed. The influence of primary adjuvant treatment after surgery on PFS and OS was assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariate Cox regression models, including age (≥ 40 years), complete tumor resection (CTR), recurrent surgery, and astrocytoma versus oligodendroglioma.

RESULTS

One hundred forty-four patients matched the inclusion criteria. Forty patients (27.8%) received adjuvant treatment. The median follow-up duration was 6 years (95% confidence interval 4.8–6.3 years). The median overall PFS was 3.9 years and OS 16.1 years. PFS and OS were significantly longer without adjuvant treatment (p = 0.003). A significant difference in favor of no adjuvant therapy was observed even in high-risk patients (age ≥ 40 years or residual tumor, 3.9 vs 3.1 years, p = 0.025). In the multivariate model (controlled for age, CTR, oligodendroglial diagnosis, and recurrent surgery), patients who received no adjuvant therapy showed a significantly positive influence on PFS (p = 0.030) and OS (p = 0.009) compared to any other adjuvant treatment regimen. This effect was most pronounced if RT+CT was applied (p = 0.004, hazard ratio [HR] 2.7 for PFS, and p = 0.001, HR 20.2 for OS). CTR was independently associated with longer PFS (p = 0.019). Age ≥ 40 years, histopathological diagnosis, and recurrence did not achieve statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS

In this series of IDH-mutated LGGs, adjuvant treatment with RT, CT with temozolomide (TMZ), or the combination of both showed no significant advantage in terms of PFS and OS. Even in high-risk patients, the authors observed a similar significantly negative impact of adjuvant treatment on PFS and OS. These results underscore the importance of a CTR in LGG. Whether patients ≥ 40 years old should receive adjuvant treatment despite a CTR should be a matter of debate. A potential tumor dedifferentiation by administration of early TMZ, RT, or RT+CT in IDH-mutated LGG should be considered. However, these data are limited by the retrospective study design and the potentially heterogeneous indication for adjuvant treatment.

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Juxiang Wang, Ke Li, Hongjia Li, Chengyi Ji, Ziyao Wu, Huimin Chen and Bin Chen

OBJECTIVE

Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) results in enlarged optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). In this study the authors aimed to assess the association of ONSD and ICP in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) after decompressive craniotomy (DC).

METHODS

ONSDs were measured by ocular ultrasonography in 40 healthy control adults. ICPs were monitored invasively with a microsensor at 6 hours and 24 hours after DC operation in 35 TBI patients. ONSDs were measured at the same time in these patients. Patients were assigned to 3 groups according to ICP levels, including normal (ICP ≤ 13 mm Hg), mildly elevated (ICP = 14–22 mm Hg), and severely elevated (ICP > 22 mm Hg) groups. ONSDs were compared between healthy control adults and TBI cases with DC. Then, the association of ONSD with ICP was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, linear regression analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curves.

RESULTS

Seventy ICP measurements were obtained among 35 TBI patients after DC, including 25, 27, and 18 measurements in the normal, mildly elevated, and severely elevated ICP groups, respectively. Mean ONSDs were 4.09 ± 0.38 mm in the control group and 4.92 ± 0.37, 5.77 ± 0.41, and 6.52 ± 0.44 mm in the normal, mildly elevated, and severely elevated ICP groups, respectively (p < 0.001). A significant linear correlation was found between ONSD and ICP (r = 0.771, p < 0.0001). Enlarged ONSD was a robust predictor of elevated ICP. With an ONSD cutoff of 5.48 mm (ICP > 13 mm Hg), sensitivity and specificity were 91.1% and 88.0%, respectively; a cutoff of 5.83 mm (ICP > 22 mm Hg) yielded sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 81.0%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Ultrasonographic ONSD is strongly correlated with invasive ICP measurements and may serve as a sensitive and noninvasive method for detecting elevated ICP in TBI patients after DC.

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Ian F. Caplan, Gregory Glauser, Stephen Goodrich, H. Isaac Chen, Timothy H. Lucas, John Y. K. Lee, Scott D. McClintock and Neil R. Malhotra

OBJECTIVE

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be associated with negative outcomes and is underdiagnosed. The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a screening tool for OSA that has been validated in both medical and surgical populations. Given that readmission after surgical intervention is an undesirable event, the authors sought to investigate, among patients not previously diagnosed with OSA, the capacity of the STOP-Bang questionnaire to predict 30-day readmissions following craniotomy for a supratentorial neoplasm.

METHODS

For patients undergoing craniotomy for treatment of a supratentorial neoplasm within a multiple-hospital academic medical center, data were captured in a prospective manner via the Neurosurgery Quality Improvement Initiative (NQII) EpiLog tool. Data were collected over a 1-year period for all supratentorial craniotomy cases. An additional criterion for study inclusion was that the patient was alive at 30 postoperative days. Statistical analysis consisted of simple logistic regression, which assessed the ability of the STOP-Bang questionnaire and additional variables to effectively predict outcomes such as 30-day readmission, 30-day emergency department (ED) visit, and 30-day reoperation. The C-statistic was used to represent the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which analyzes the discrimination of a variable or model.

RESULTS

Included in the sample were all admissions for supratentorial neoplasms treated with craniotomy (352 patients), 49.72% (n = 175) of which were female. The average STOP-Bang score was 1.91 ± 1.22 (range 0–7). A 1-unit higher STOP-Bang score accurately predicted 30-day readmissions (OR 1.31, p = 0.017) and 30-day ED visits (OR 1.36, p = 0.016) with fair accuracy as confirmed by the ROC curve (C-statistic 0.60–0.61). The STOP-Bang questionnaire did not correlate with 30-day reoperation (p = 0.805) or home discharge (p = 0.315).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggest that undiagnosed OSA, as assessed via the STOP-Bang questionnaire, is a significant predictor of patient health status and readmission risk in the brain tumor craniotomy population. Further investigations should be undertaken to apply this prediction tool in order to enhance postoperative patient care to reduce the need for unplanned readmissions.

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Matthew E. Eagles, Maria F. Powell, Oliver G. S. Ayling, Michael K. Tso and R. Loch Macdonald

OBJECTIVE

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with death in critically ill patients, but this complication has not been well characterized after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AKI after aSAH and to identify risk factors for renal dysfunction. Secondary objectives were to examine what effect AKI has on patient mortality and functional outcome at 12 weeks post-aSAH.

METHODS

The authors performed a post hoc analysis of the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) trial data set (clinical trial registration no.: NCT00111085, https://clinicaltrials.gov). The primary outcome of interest was the development of AKI, which was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Secondary outcomes of interest were death and a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 2 at 12 weeks post-aSAH. Propensity score matching was used to assess for a significant treatment effect related to clazosentan administration and AKI. Univariate analysis, locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) curves, and stepwise logistic regression models were used to evaluate for associations between baseline or disease-related characteristics and study outcomes.

RESULTS

One hundred fifty-six (38%) of the 413 patients enrolled in the CONSCIOUS-1 trial developed AKI during their ICU stay. A history of hypertension (p < 0.001) and the number of nephrotoxic medications administered (p = 0.029) were independent predictors of AKI on multivariate analysis. AKI was an independent predictor of death (p = 0.028) but not a poor functional outcome (p = 0.21) on multivariate testing. Unresolved renal dysfunction was the strongest independent predictor of death in this cohort (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

AKI is a common complication following aSAH. Patients with premorbid hypertension and those treated with nephrotoxic medications may be at greater risk for renal dysfunction. AKI appears to confer an increased probability of death after aSAH.

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Corentin Dauleac, Timothée Jacquesson and Patrick Mertens

OBJECTIVE

The goal in this study was to describe the overall organization of the spinal arachnoid mater and spinal subarachnoid space (SSAS) as well as its relationship with surrounding structures, in order to highlight spinal cord arachnoid cisterns.

METHODS

Fifteen spinal cords were extracted from embalmed adult cadavers. The organization of the spinal cord arachnoid and SSAS was described via macroscopic observations, optical microscopic views, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. Gelatin injections were also performed to study separated dorsal subarachnoid compartments.

RESULTS

Compartmentalization of SSAS was studied on 3 levels of axial sections. On an axial section passing through the tips of the denticulate ligament anchored to the dura, 3 subarachnoid cisterns were observed: 2 dorsolateral and 1 ventral. On an axial section passing through dural exit/entrance of rootlets, 5 subarachnoid cisterns were observed: 2 dorsolateral, 2 lateral formed by dorsal and ventral rootlets, and 1 ventral. On an axial section passing between the two previous ones, only 1 subarachnoid cistern was observed around the spinal cord. This compartmentalization resulted in the anatomical description of 3 elements: the median dorsal septum, the arachnoid anchorage to the tip of the denticulate ligament, and the arachnoid anchorage to the dural exit/entrance of rootlets. The median dorsal septum already separated dorsal left and right subarachnoid spaces and was described from C1 level to 3 cm above the conus medullaris. This septum was anchored to the dorsal septal vein. No discontinuation was observed in the median dorsal arachnoid septum. At the entrance point of dorsal rootlets in the spinal cord, arachnoid trabeculations were described. Using the SEM, numerous arachnoid adhesions between the ventral surface of the dorsal rootlets and the pia mater over the spinal cord were observed. At the ventral part of the SSAS, no septum was found, but some arachnoid trabeculations between the arachnoid and the pia mater were present and more frequent than in the dorsal part. Laterally, arachnoid was firmly anchored to the denticulate ligaments’ fixation at dural points, and dural exit/entrance of rootlets made a fibrous ring of arachnoidodural adhesions. At the level of the cauda equina, the arachnoid mater surrounded all rootlets together—as a sac and not individually.

CONCLUSIONS

Arachnoid cisterns are organized on each side of a median dorsal septum and compartmentalized in relation with the attachments of denticulate ligament and exit/entrance of rootlets.