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James C. Dickerson, Katherine L. Harriel, Robert J. Dambrino IV, Lorne I. Taylor, Jordan A. Rimes, Ryan W. Chapman, Andrew S. Desrosiers, Jason E. Tullis and Chad W. Washington

OBJECTIVE

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major focus of patient safety indicators and a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Many practices have employed lower-extremity screening ultrasonography in addition to chemoprophylaxis and the use of sequential compression devices in an effort to reduce poor outcomes. However, the role of screening in directly decreasing pulmonary emboli (PEs) and mortality is unclear. At the University of Mississippi Medical Center, a policy change provided the opportunity to compare independent groups: patients treated under a prior paradigm of weekly screening ultrasonography versus a post–policy change group in which weekly surveillance was no longer performed.

METHODS

A total of 2532 consecutive cases were reviewed, with a 4-month washout period around the time of the policy change. Criteria for inclusion were admission to the neurosurgical service or consultation for ≥ 72 hours and hospitalization for ≥ 72 hours. Patients with a known diagnosis of DVT on admission or previous inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement were excluded. The primary outcome examined was the rate of PE diagnosis, with secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality at discharge, DVT diagnosis rate, and IVC filter placement rate. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

A total of 485 patients met the criteria for the pre–policy change group and 504 for the post–policy change group. Data are presented as screening (pre–policy change) versus no screening (post–policy change). There was no difference in the PE rate (2% in both groups, p = 0.72) or all-cause mortality at discharge (7% vs 6%, p = 0.49). There were significant differences in the lower-extremity DVT rate (10% vs 3%, p < 0.01) or IVC filter rate (6% vs 2%, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Based on these data, screening Doppler ultrasound examinations, in conjunction with standard-of-practice techniques to prevent thromboembolism, do not appear to confer a benefit to patients. While the screening group had significantly higher rates of DVT diagnosis and IVC filter placement, the screening, additional diagnoses, and subsequent interventions did not appear to improve patient outcomes. Ultimately, this makes DVT screening difficult to justify.

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Te Ming Lin, Huai Che Yang, Cheng Chia Lee, Hsiu Mei Wu, Yong Sin Hu, Chao Bao Luo, Wan Yuo Guo, Yi Hsuan Kao, Wen Yuh Chung and Chung Jung Lin

OBJECTIVE

Assessments of hemorrhage risk based on angioarchitecture have yielded inconsistent results, and quantitative hemodynamic studies have been limited to small numbers of patients. The authors examined whether cerebral hemodynamic analysis using quantitative digital subtraction angiography (QDSA) can outperform conventional DSA angioarchitecture analysis in evaluating the risk of hemorrhage associated with supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

METHODS

A cross-sectional study was performed by retrospectively reviewing adult supratentorial AVM patients who had undergone both DSA and MRI studies between 2011 and 2017. Angioarchitecture characteristics, DSA parameters, age, sex, and nidus volume were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and QDSA software analysis was performed on DSA images. Based on the QDSA analysis, a stasis index, defined as the inflow gradient divided by the absolute value of the outflow gradient, was determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to compare diagnostic performances of conventional DSA angioarchitecture analysis and analysis using hemodynamic parameters based on QDSA.

RESULTS

A total of 119 supratentorial AVM patients were included. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and nidus volume, the exclusive deep venous drainage (p < 0.01), observed through conventional angioarchitecture examination using DSA, and the stasis index of the most dominant drainage vein (p = 0.02), measured with QDSA hemodynamic analysis, were independent risk factors for hemorrhage. The areas under the ROC curves for the conventional DSA method (0.75) and QDSA hemodynamics analysis (0.73) were similar. A venous stasis index greater than 2.18 discriminated the hemorrhage group with a sensitivity of 52.6% and a specificity of 81.5%.

CONCLUSIONS

In QDSA, a higher stasis index of the most dominant drainage vein is an objective warning sign associated with supratentorial AVM rupture. Risk assessments of AVMs using QDSA and conventional DSA angioarchitecture were equivalent. Because QDSA is a complementary noninvasive approach without extra radiation or contrast media, comprehensive hemorrhagic risk assessment of cerebral AVMs should include both DSA angioarchitecture and QDSA analyses.

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Robert C. Rennert, Reid Hoshide, Michael G. Brandel, Jeffrey A. Steinberg, Joel R. Martin, Hal S. Meltzer, David D. Gonda, Takanori Fukushima, Alexander A. Khalessi and Michael L. Levy

OBJECTIVE

Lesions of the foramen magnum, inferolateral-to-midclival areas, and ventral pons and medulla are often treated using a far-lateral or extreme-lateral infrajugular transcondylar–transtubercular exposure (ELITE) approach. The development and surgical relevance of critical posterior skull base bony structures encountered during these approaches, including the occipital condyle (OC), hypoglossal canal (HGC), and jugular tubercle (JT), are nonetheless poorly defined in the pediatric population.

METHODS

Measurements from high-resolution CT scans were made of the relevant posterior skull base anatomy (HGC depth from posterior edge of the OC, OC and JT dimensions) from 60 patients (evenly distributed among ages 0–3, 4–7, 8–11, 12–15, 16–18, and > 18 years), and compared between laterality, sex, and age groups by using t-tests and linear regression.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in posterior skull base parameters by laterality, and HGC depth and JT size did not differ by sex. The OC area was significantly larger in males versus females (174.3 vs 152.2 mm2; p = 0.01). From ages 0–3 years to adult, the mean HGC depth increased 27% (from 9.0 to 11.4 mm) and the OC area increased 52% (from 121.4 to 184.0 mm2). The majority of growth for these parameters occurred between the 0–3 year and 4–7 year age groups. Conversely, JT volume increased nearly 3-fold (281%) from 97.4 to 370.9 mm3 from ages 0–3 years to adult, with two periods of substantial growth seen between the 0–3 to 4–7 year and the 12–15 to 16–18 year age groups. Overall, JT growth during pediatric development was significantly greater than increases in HGC depth and OC area (p < 0.05). JT volume remained < 65% of adult size up to age 16.

CONCLUSIONS

When considering a far-lateral or ELITE approach in pediatric patients, standard OC drilling is likely to be needed due to the relative stability of OC and HGC anatomy during development. The JT significantly increases in size with development, yet is only likely to need to be drilled in older children (> 16 years) and adults.

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Michele Rizzi, Martina Revay, Piergiorgio d’Orio, Pina Scarpa, Valeria Mariani, Veronica Pelliccia, Martina Della Costanza, Matteo Zaniboni, Laura Castana, Francesco Cardinale, Giorgio Lo Russo and Massimo Cossu

OBJECTIVE

Surgical treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy originating from the posterior quadrant (PQ) of the brain often requires large multilobar resections, and disconnective techniques have been advocated to limit the risks associated with extensive tissue removal. Few previous studies have described a tailored temporoparietooccipital (TPO) disconnective approach; only small series with short postoperative follow-ups have been reported. The aim of the present study was to present a tailored approach to multilobar PQ disconnections (MPQDs) for epilepsy and to provide details about selection of patients, presurgical investigations, surgical technique, treatment safety profile, and seizure and cognitive outcome in a large, single-center series of patients with a long-term follow-up.

METHODS

In this retrospective longitudinal study, the authors searched their prospectively collected database for patients who underwent MPQD for drug-resistant epilepsy in the period of 2005–2017. Tailored MPQDs were a posteriori grouped as follows: type I (classic full TPO disconnection), type II (partial TPO disconnection), type III (full temporooccipital [TO] disconnection), and type IV (partial TO disconnection), according to the disconnection plane in the occipitoparietal area. A bivariate statistical analysis was carried out to identify possible predictors of seizure outcome (Engel class I vs classes II–IV) among several presurgical, surgical, and postsurgical variables. Preoperative and postoperative cognitive profiles were also collected and evaluated.

RESULTS

Forty-two consecutive patients (29 males, 24 children) met the inclusion criteria. According to the presurgical evaluation (including stereo-electroencephalography in 13 cases), 12 (28.6%), 24 (57.1%), 2 (4.8%), and 4 (9.5%) patients received a type I, II, III, or IV MPQD, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 80.6 months, 76.2% patients were in Engel class I at last contact; at 6 months and 2 and 5 years postoperatively, Engel class I was recorded in 80.9%, 74.5%, and 73.5% of cases, respectively. Factors significantly associated with seizure freedom were the occipital pattern of seizure semiology and the absence of bilateral interictal epileptiform abnormalities at the EEG (p = 0.02). Severe complications occurred in 4.8% of the patients. The available neuropsychological data revealed postsurgical improvement in verbal domains, whereas nonunivocal outcomes were recorded in the other functions.

CONCLUSIONS

The presented data indicate that the use of careful anatomo-electro-clinical criteria in the presurgical evaluation allows for customizing the extent of surgical disconnections in PQ epilepsies, with excellent results on seizures and an acceptable safety profile.

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Alex P. Michael, Matthew W. Weber, Kristin R. Delfino and Venkatanarayanan Ganapathy

OBJECTIVE

While long-term studies have evaluated adjacent-segment disease (ASD) following posterior lumbar spine arthrodesis, no such studies have assessed the incidence and prevalence of ASD following axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF). The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of ASD following AxiaLIF.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 149 patients who underwent two-level index AxiaLIF and had at least 2 years of radiographic and clinical follow-up. ASD and pre- and postoperative lumbar lordosis were evaluated in each patient. ASD was defined as both radiographic and clinically significant disease at a level adjacent to a previous fusion requiring surgical intervention. The mean duration of follow-up was 6.01 years.

RESULTS

Twenty (13.4%) of the 149 patients developed ASD during the data collection period. Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted a disease-free ASD survival rate of 95.3% (95% CI 90.4%–97.7%) at 2 years and 89.1% (95% CI 82.8%–93.2%) at 5 years for two-level fusion. A laminectomy adjacent to a fusion site was associated with 5.1 times the relative risk of developing ASD. Furthermore, the ASD group had significantly greater loss of lordosis than the no-ASD group (p = 0.033).

CONCLUSIONS

Following two-level AxiaLIF, the rate of symptomatic ASD warranting either decompression or arthrodesis was found to be 4.7% at 2 years and 10.9% at 5 years. Adjacent-segment decompression and postoperative loss of lumbar lordosis predicted future development of ASD. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the largest reported cohort of patients to undergo two-level AxiaLIF in the United States.

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Peyton L. Nisson, Ibrahim Hussain, Roger Härtl, Samuel Kim and Ali A. Baaj

OBJECTIVE

An arachnoid web of the spine (AWS) is a rare and oftentimes challenging lesion to diagnose, given its subtle radiographic findings. However, when left untreated, this lesion can have devastating effects on a patient’s neurological function. To date, only limited case reports and series have been published on this topic. In this study, the authors sought to better describe this lesion, performing a systematic literature review and including 2 cases from their institution’s experience.

METHODS

A systematic literature search was performed in September 2018 that queried Ovid MEDLINE (1946–2018), PubMed (1946–2018), Wiley Cochrane Library: Central Register of Controlled Trials (1898–2018), and Thompson Reuters Web of Science: Citation Index (1900–2018), per PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria specified all studies and case reports of patients with an AWS in which any relevant surgery types were considered and applied. Studies on arachnoid cysts and nonhuman populations, and those that did not report patient treatments or outcomes were excluded from the focus review.

RESULTS

A total of 19 records and 2 patients treated by the senior authors were included in the systematic review, providing a total of 43 patients with AWS. The mean age was 52 years (range 28–77 years), and the majority of patients were male (72%, 31/43). A syrinx was present in 67% (29/43) of the cases. All AWSs were located in the thoracic spine, and all but 2 (95%) were located dorsally (1 ventrally and 1 circumferentially). Weakness was the most frequently reported symptom (67%, 29/43), followed by numbness and/or sensory loss (65%, 28/43). Symptoms predominated in the lower extremities (81%, 35/43). It was found that nearly half (47%, 20/43) of patients had been experiencing symptoms for 1 year or longer before surgical intervention was performed, and 35% (15/43) of reports stated that symptoms were progressive in nature. The most commonly used surgical technique was a laminectomy with intradural excision of the arachnoid web (86%, 36/42). Following surgery, 91% (39/43) of patients had reported improvement in their neurological symptoms. The mean follow-up was 9.2 months (range 0–51 months).

CONCLUSIONS

AWS of the spine can be a debilitating disease of the spine with no more than an indentation of the spinal cord found on advanced imaging studies. The authors found this lesion to be reported in twice as many males than females, to be associated with a syrinx more than two-thirds of the time, and to only have been reported in the thoracic spine; over 90% of patients experienced improvement in their neurological function following surgery.

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Mohammad Sadegh Masoudi, Mohammad Ali Hoghoughi, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Shekoofeh Yaghmaei, Maryam Azadegan and Ghazal Ilami

OBJECTIVE

Surgical repair and closure of myelomeningocele (MMC) defects are important and vital, as the mortality rate is as high as 65%–70% in untreated patients. Closure of large MMC defects is challenging for pediatric neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons. The aim of the current study is to report the operative characteristics and outcome of a series of Iranian patients with large MMC defects utilizing the V-Y flap and with latissimus dorsi or gluteal muscle advancement.

METHODS

This comparative study was conducted during a 4-year period from September 2013 to October 2017 in the pediatric neurosurgery department of Shiraz Namazi Hospital, Southern Iran. The authors included 24 patients with large MMC defects who underwent surgery utilizing the bilateral V-Y flap and latissimus dorsi and gluteal muscle advancement. They also retrospectively included 19 patients with similar age, sex, and defect size who underwent surgery using the primary or delayed closure techniques at their center. At least 2 years of follow-up was conducted. The frequency of leakage, necrosis, dehiscence, systemic infection (sepsis, pneumonia), need for ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion, and mortality was compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

The bilateral V-Y flap with muscle advancement was associated with a significantly longer operative duration (p < 0.001) than the primary closure group. Those undergoing bilateral V-Y flaps with muscle advancement had significantly lower rates of surgical site infection (p = 0.038), wound dehiscence (p = 0.013), and postoperative CSF leakage (p = 0.030) than those undergoing primary repair. The bilateral V-Y flap with muscle advancement was also associated with a lower mortality rate (p = 0.038; OR 5.09 [95% CI 1.12–23.1]) than primary closure. In patients undergoing bilateral V-Y flap and muscle advancement, a longer operative duration was significantly associated with mortality (p = 0.008). In addition, surgical site infection (p = 0.032), wound dehiscence (p = 0.011), and postoperative leakage (p = 0.011) were predictors of mortality. Neonatal sepsis (p = 0.002) and postoperative NEC (p = 0.011) were among other predictors of mortality in this group.

CONCLUSIONS

The bilateral V-Y flap with latissimus dorsi or gluteal advancement is a safe and effective surgical approach for covering large MMC defects and is associated with lower rates of surgical site infection, dehiscence, CSF leakage, and mortality. Further studies are required to elucidate the long-term outcomes.

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Adel Elnashar, Smruti K. Patel, Almaz Kurbanov, Kseniya Zvereva, Jeffrey T. Keller and Andrew W. Grande

OBJECTIVE

Percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency rhizotomy (PSR) is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a serious condition that results in lancinating, episodic facial pain. Thorough understanding of the microsurgical anatomy of the foramen ovale (FO) and its surrounding structures is required for efficient, effective, and safe use of this technique. This morphometric study compares anatomical and surgical orientations to identify the variations of the FO and assess cannulation difficulty.

METHODS

Bilateral foramina from 174 adult human dry skulls (348 foramina) were analyzed using anatomical and surgical orientations in photographs from standardized projections. Measurements were obtained for shape, size, adjacent structures, and morphometric variability effect on cannulation. The risk of potential injury to surrounding structures was also assessed.

RESULTS

The authors identified 6 distinctive shapes of the FO and 5 anomalous variants from the anatomical view, and 6 shapes from the surgical view. In measurements of surface area of this foramen obtained using the surgical view, loss (average 18.5% ± 5.7%) was significant compared with the anatomical view. Morphometrically, foramen size varied significantly and obstruction from a calcified pterygoalar ligament occurred in 7.8% of specimens. Importantly, 8% of foramina were difficult to cannulate, thus posing a 12% risk of inadvertent cannulation of the foramen lacerum.

CONCLUSIONS

Significant variability in the FO’s shape and size probably affected its safe and effective cannulation. Preoperative imaging by 3D head CT may be helpful in predicting ease of cannulation and in guiding treatment decisions, such as a percutaneous approach over microvascular decompression or radiosurgery.

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Fengming Lan, Qing Qin, Huiming Yu and Xiao Yue

OBJECTIVE

Although glucose metabolism reengineering is a typical feature of various tumors, including glioma, key regulators of glycolytic reprogramming are still poorly understood. The authors sought to investigate whether glycolysis inhibition by microRNA (miR)–448 increases radiosensitivity in glioma cells.

METHODS

The authors used glioma tissue samples from glioma patients, cells from glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and normal human astrocyte cells, and subcutaneous tumor–bearing U87 cells in mice to examine the effects of signaling regulation by miR-448 in the response of glioma tissues and cells to radiation treatment. Techniques used for investigation included bioinformatics analyses, biochemical assays, luciferase reporter assays, and establishment of subcutaneous tumors in a mouse model. Glucose consumption, LDH activity, and cellular ATP were measured to determine the ability of glioma cells to perform glycolysis. Expression of HIF-1α was measured as a potential target gene of miR-448 in glycolysis.

RESULTS

miR-448 was detected and determined to be significantly downregulated in both glioma tissues from glioma patients and GBM cell lines. Furthermore, miR-448 acted as a tumor-inhibiting factor and suppressed glycolysis in glioma by negatively regulating the activity of HIF-1α signaling and then interfering with its downstream regulators relative to glycolysis, HK1, HK2, and LDHA. Interestingly, overexpression of miR-448 increased the x-radiation sensitivity of glioma cells. Finally, in in vivo experiments, subcutaneous tumor–bearing U87 cells in a mouse model verified that high expression of miR-448 also enhanced glioma radiosensitivity via inhibiting glycolytic factors.

CONCLUSIONS

miR-448 can promote radiosensitivity by inhibiting HIF-1α signaling and then negatively controlling the glycolysis process in glioma. A newly identified miR-448–HIF-1α axis acts as a potentially valuable therapeutic target that may be useful in overcoming radioresistance in glioma treatment.