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Vesna Malinova, Bogdan Iliev, Ioannis Tsogkas, Veit Rohde, Marios-Nikos Psychogios and Dorothee Mielke

OBJECTIVE

The severity of early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) correlates with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and outcome. A disruption of the blood-brain barrier is part of EBI pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to assess tissue permeability (PMB) by CT perfusion (CTP) in the acute phase after aSAH and its impact on DCI and outcome.

METHODS

CTP was performed on day 3 after aSAH. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of all CTP parameters, including PMB, were performed. The areas with increased PMB were documented. The value of an early PMB increase as a predictor of DCI and outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) grade 3 to 24 months after aSAH was assessed. Possible associations of increased PMB with the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score (SEBES) and with early perfusion deficits, as radiographic EBI markers, were evaluated.

RESULTS

A total of 69 patients were enrolled in the study. An increased PMB on early CTP was detected in 10.1% (7/69) of all patients. A favorable outcome (mRS grade ≤ 2) occurred in 40.6% (28/69) of all patients. DCI was detected in 25% (17/69) of all patients. An increased PMB was a predictor of DCI (logistic regression, p = 0.03) but not of outcome (logistic regression, p = 0.40). The detection of increased PMB predicted DCI with a sensitivity of 25%, a specificity of 94%, a positive predictive value of 57%, and a negative predictive value of 79% (chi-square test p = 0.03). Early perfusion deficits were seen in 68.1% (47/69) of the patients, a finding that correlated with DCI (p = 0.005) but not with the outcome. No correlation was found between the SEBES and increased PMB.

CONCLUSIONS

Changes in PMB can be detected by early CTP after aSAH, which correlates with DCI. Future studies are needed to evaluate the time course of PMB changes and their interaction with therapeutic measures.

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Simone A. Dijkland, Blessing N. R. Jaja, Mathieu van der Jagt, Bob Roozenbeek, Mervyn D. I. Vergouwen, Jose I. Suarez, James C. Torner, Michael M. Todd, Walter M. van den Bergh, Gustavo Saposnik, Daniel W. Zumofen, Michael D. Cusimano, Stephan A. Mayer, Benjamin W. Y. Lo, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Diederik W. J. Dippel, Tom A. Schweizer, R. Loch Macdonald and Hester F. Lingsma

OBJECTIVE

Differences in clinical outcomes between centers and countries may reflect variation in patient characteristics, diagnostic and therapeutic policies, or quality of care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence and magnitude of between-center and between-country differences in outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

The authors analyzed data from 5972 aSAH patients enrolled in randomized clinical trials of 3 different treatments from the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) repository, including data from 179 centers and 20 countries. They used random effects logistic regression adjusted for patient characteristics and timing of aneurysm treatment to estimate between-center and between-country differences in unfavorable outcome, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1–3 (severe disability, vegetative state, or death) or modified Rankin Scale score of 4–6 (moderately severe disability, severe disability, or death) at 3 months. Between-center and between-country differences were quantified with the median odds ratio (MOR), which can be interpreted as the ratio of odds of unfavorable outcome between a typical high-risk and a typical low-risk center or country.

RESULTS

The proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome was 27% (n = 1599). The authors found substantial between-center differences (MOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16–1.52), which could not be explained by patient characteristics and timing of aneurysm treatment (adjusted MOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11–1.44). They observed no between-country differences (adjusted MOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00–1.40).

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical outcomes after aSAH differ between centers. These differences could not be explained by patient characteristics or timing of aneurysm treatment. Further research is needed to confirm the presence of differences in outcome after aSAH between hospitals in more recent data and to investigate potential causes.

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Elke Butterbrod, Karin Gehring, Eduard H. Voormolen, Paul R. A. M. Depauw, Willy-Anne Nieuwlaat, Geert-Jan M. Rutten and Margriet M. Sitskoorn

OBJECTIVE

Patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) can suffer from cognitive dysfunction. However, the literature on longitudinal cognitive follow-up of patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is limited. This study was performed to investigate perioperative cognitive status and course in patients with NFPAs.

METHODS

Patients underwent computerized neuropsychological assessment 1 day before (n = 45) and 3 months after (n = 36) EETS. Performance in 7 domains was measured with a computerized test battery (CNS Vital Signs) and standardized using data from a healthy control group. The authors conducted analyses of cognitive performance at both time points and changes pre- to post-ETSS on a group and an individual level. Linear multiple regression analyses were employed to investigate predictors of cognitive performance.

RESULTS

On average, patients scored significantly lower in 6 of 7 cognitive domains before and after surgery than controls. Impairment proportions were significantly higher among patients (56% before surgery, 63% after surgery) than among controls. Patients showed no change over time in group-level (mean) performance, but 28% of individual patients exhibited cognitive improvement and 28% exhibited cognitive decline after surgery. Hormonal deficiency showed a positive correlation with verbal memory before surgery. Postoperative performances in all cognitive domains were predicted by preoperative performances.

CONCLUSIONS

Cognitive impairment was present before and after EETS in over half of NFPA patients. Individual patients showed diverse postoperative cognitive courses. Monitoring of cognitive functioning in clinical trajectories and further identification of disease-related and psychological predictors of cognition are warranted.

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Hiroyuki Kurihara, Koji Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Takayuki Funatsu, Go Matsuoka, Yoshihiro Omura, Yoshikazu Okada and Takakazu Kawamata

Surgical treatments for moyamoya disease (MMD) include direct revascularization procedures with proven efficacy, for example, superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass, STA to anterior cerebral artery bypass, occipital artery (OA) to MCA bypass, or OA to posterior cerebral artery bypass. In cases with poor development of the parietal branch of the STA, the posterior auricular artery (PAA) is often developed and can be used as the bypass donor artery. In this report, the authors describe double direct bypass performed using only the PAA as the donor in the initial surgery for MMD.

In the authors’ institution, MMD is routinely treated with an STA-MCA double bypass. Some patients, however, have poor STA development, and in these cases the PAA is used as the donor artery. The authors report the use of the PAA in the treatment of 4 MMD patients at their institution from 2013 to 2016. In all 4 cases, a double direct bypass was performed, with transposition of the PAA as the donor artery. Good patency was confirmed in all cases via intraoperative indocyanine green angiography and postoperative MRA or cerebral angiography. The mean blood flow measurement during surgery was 58 ml/min. No patients suffered a stroke after revascularization surgery.

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Andrea Fanelli, Frederick W. Vonberg, Kerri L. LaRovere, Brian K. Walsh, Edward R. Smith, Shenandoah Robinson, Robert C. Tasker and Thomas Heldt

OBJECTIVE

In the search for a reliable, cooperation-independent, noninvasive alternative to invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in children, various approaches have been proposed, but at the present time none are capable of providing fully automated, real-time, calibration-free, continuous and accurate ICP estimates. The authors investigated the feasibility and validity of simultaneously monitored arterial blood pressure (ABP) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) waveforms to derive noninvasive ICP (nICP) estimates.

METHODS

Invasive ICP and ABP recordings were collected from 12 pediatric and young adult patients (aged 2–25 years) undergoing such monitoring as part of routine clinical care. Additionally, simultaneous transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography–based MCA CBFV waveform measurements were performed at the bedside in dedicated data collection sessions. The ABP and MCA CBFV waveforms were analyzed in the context of a mathematical model, linking them to the cerebral vasculature’s biophysical properties and ICP. The authors developed and automated a waveform preprocessing, signal-quality evaluation, and waveform-synchronization “pipeline” in order to test and objectively validate the algorithm’s performance. To generate one nICP estimate, 60 beats of ABP and MCA CBFV waveform data were analyzed. Moving the 60-beat data window forward by one beat at a time (overlapping data windows) resulted in 39,480 ICP-to-nICP comparisons across a total of 44 data-collection sessions (studies). Moving the 60-beat data window forward by 60 beats at a time (nonoverlapping data windows) resulted in 722 paired ICP-to-nICP comparisons.

RESULTS

Greater than 80% of all nICP estimates fell within ± 7 mm Hg of the reference measurement. Overall performance in the nonoverlapping data window approach gave a mean error (bias) of 1.0 mm Hg, standard deviation of the error (precision) of 5.1 mm Hg, and root-mean-square error of 5.2 mm Hg. The associated mean and median absolute errors were 4.2 mm Hg and 3.3 mm Hg, respectively. These results were contingent on ensuring adequate ABP and CBFV signal quality and required accurate hydrostatic pressure correction of the measured ABP waveform in relation to the elevation of the external auditory meatus. Notably, the procedure had no failed attempts at data collection, and all patients had adequate TCD data from at least one hemisphere. Last, an analysis of using study-by-study averaged nICP estimates to detect a measured ICP > 15 mm Hg resulted in an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83, with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 86% for a detection threshold of nICP = 15 mm Hg.

CONCLUSIONS

This nICP estimation algorithm, based on ABP and bedside TCD CBFV waveform measurements, performs in a manner comparable to invasive ICP monitoring. These findings open the possibility for rational, point-of-care treatment decisions in pediatric patients with suspected raised ICP undergoing intensive care.

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Andreas Fahlström, Henrietta Nittby Redebrandt, Hugo Zeberg, Jiri Bartek Jr., Andreas Bartley, Lovisa Tobieson, Maria Erkki, Amel Hessington, Ebba Troberg, Sadia Mirza, Parmenion P. Tsitsopoulos and Niklas Marklund

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to develop the first clinical grading scale for patients with surgically treated spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

METHODS

A nationwide multicenter study including 401 ICH patients surgically treated by craniotomy and evacuation of a spontaneous supratentorial ICH was conducted between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015. All neurosurgical centers in Sweden were included. All medical records and neuroimaging studies were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were identified by logistic regression. A risk stratification scale (the Surgical Swedish ICH [SwICH] Score) was developed using weighting of independent predictors based on strength of association.

RESULTS

Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p = 0.00015), ICH volume ≥ 50 mL (p = 0.031), patient age ≥ 75 years (p = 0.0056), prior myocardial infarction (MI) (p = 0.00081), and type 2 diabetes (p = 0.0093). The Surgical SwICH Score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: GCS score 15–13 (0 points), 12–5 (1 point), 4–3 (2 points); age ≥ 75 years (1 point); ICH volume ≥ 50 mL (1 point); type 2 diabetes (1 point); prior MI (1 point). Each increase in the Surgical SwICH Score was associated with a progressively increased 30-day mortality (p = 0.0002). No patient with a Surgical SwICH Score of 0 died, whereas the 30-day mortality rates for patients with Surgical SwICH Scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 5%, 12%, 31%, and 58%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The Surgical SwICH Score is a predictor of 30-day mortality in patients treated surgically for spontaneous supratentorial ICH. External validation is needed to assess the predictive value as well as the generalizability of the Surgical SwICH Score.

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Iyan Younus, Mina M. Gerges, Saniya S. Godil, Rafael Uribe-Cardenas, Georgiana A. Dobri, Rohan Ramakrishna and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative sellar hematoma is an uncommon complication of endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for pituitary adenoma that often requires emergency surgical evacuation. Sellar hematomas can cause mass effect and compress parasellar structures, leading to clinically significant symptoms such as visual impairment and severe headache. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with reoperation for postoperative hematoma after EETS for pituitary adenoma.

METHODS

The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of EETS for pituitary adenoma over 13 years at Weill Cornell Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and identified cases that required reoperation for confirmed hematoma. They also reviewed clinical and radiographic data of a consecutive series of patients undergoing EETS for pituitary adenoma who did not have postoperative hematoma, which served as the control group. Demographic data and risk factors were compared between the groups using univariate and multivariate analyses via binary logistic regression.

RESULTS

Among a cohort of 583 patients undergoing EETS for pituitary adenoma, 9 patients (1.5%) required operation for sellar hematoma evacuation. All 9 patients with reoperation for sellar hematoma presented with worsening in their vision, and severe headache was present in 67%. New postoperative endocrine dysfunction developed in 78%. Clot evacuation improved vision in 88%. The mean time to hematoma evacuation was 4.5 days. The median length of stay for patients with sellar hematoma was 8 days (range 4–210 days) compared with a median length of stay of 3 days (range 1–32 days) for the control patients (p < 0.005). Significant risk factors in univariate analysis were tumor diameter ≥ 30 mm (p < 0.005), suprasellar extension (p < 0.005), tumor volume (p < 0.005), cavernous sinus invasion (p < 0.05), gonadotroph histology (p < 0.05), antiplatelet use (p < 0.05), and elevated BMI (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, tumor diameter ≥ 30 mm (OR 4.555, CI 1.30–28.90; p < 0.05) and suprasellar extension (OR 1.048, CI 1.01–1.10; p < 0.05) were found to be the only independent predictors of sellar hematoma. The incidence of hematoma in tumors ≥ 30 mm was 5% (7/139).

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative sellar hematoma requiring reoperation is a rare phenomenon after transsphenoidal surgery, often presenting with visual loss and headache. Clot evacuation results in improvement in vision, but long-term endocrinopathy often ensues. Tumor diameter ≥ 30 mm and suprasellar extent are the most reliable risk factors. Close postoperative scrutiny should be given to patients at high risk.

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Chris Labaki, Joeffroy Otayek, Abir Massaad, Ziad Bakouny, Mohammad Karam, Cyril Hanna, Anthony Kassab, Aren Joe Bizdikian, Georges Mjaess, Aya Karam, Wafa Skalli, Ismat Ghanem and Ayman Assi

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine if the apical vertebra (AV) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most rotated vertebra in the scoliotic segment.

METHODS

A total of 158 patients with AIS (Cobb angle range 20°–101°) underwent biplanar radiography with 3D reconstructions of the spine and calculation of vertebral axial rotations. The type of major curvature was recorded (thoracic, thoracolumbar, or lumbar), and both major and minor curvatures were included. The difference of levels (DL) between the level of maximal vertebral rotation (LMVR) and the AV was calculated as follows: DL = 0 if LMVR and AV were the same, DL = 1 if LMVR was directly above or below the AV, and DL = 2 if LMVR was separated by 1 vertebra or more from the AV. To investigate which factors explained the divergence of the LMVR from the AV, multinomial models were computed.

RESULTS

The distribution of the DL was as follows: for major curvatures, 143 were DL = 0, 11 were DL = 1, and 4 were DL = 2; and for minor curvatures, 53 were DL = 0, 9 were DL = 1, and 31 were DL = 2. The determinants of a DL = 2 (compared with DL = 0) were lumbar curvature (compared with thoracic; adjusted OR 0.094, p = 0.001), major curvature (compared with minor; adjusted OR 0.116, p = 0.001), and curvatures with increasing apical vertebral rotation (adjusted OR 0.788, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

This study showed that the AV is the most rotated vertebra in the majority of major curvatures, while in minor curvatures, the most rotated vertebra appears to be the junctional vertebra between major and minor curvatures in a significant proportion of cases.

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Michael Y. Wang, Stacie Tran, G. Damian Brusko, Robert Eastlack, Paul Park, Pierce D. Nunley, Adam S. Kanter, Juan S. Uribe, Neel Anand, David O. Okonkwo, Khoi D. Than, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Praveen V. Mummaneni and the MIS-ISSG Group

OBJECTIVE

The past decade has seen major advances in techniques for treating more complex spinal disorders using minimally invasive surgery (MIS). While appealing from the standpoint of patient perioperative outcomes, a major impediment to adoption has been the significant learning curve in utilizing MIS techniques.

METHODS

Data were retrospectively analyzed from a multicenter series of adult spinal deformity surgeries treated at eight tertiary spine care centers in the period from 2008 to 2015. All patients had undergone a less invasive or hybrid approach for a deformity correction satisfying the following inclusion criteria at baseline: coronal Cobb angle ≥ 20°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm, or pelvic tilt > 20°. Analyzed data included baseline demographic details, severity of deformity, surgical metrics, clinical outcomes (numeric rating scale [NRS] score and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), radiographic outcomes, and complications. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was required for study inclusion.

RESULTS

Across the 8-year study period, among 222 patients, there was a trend toward treating increasingly morbid patients, with the mean age increasing from 50.7 to 62.4 years (p = 0.013) and the BMI increasing from 25.5 to 31.4 kg/m2 (p = 0.12). There was no statistical difference in the severity of coronal and sagittal deformity treated over the study period. With regard to radiographic changes following surgery, there was an increasing emphasis on sagittal correction and, conversely, less coronal correction. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes over the 8-year period, and meaningful improvements were seen in all years (ODI range of improvement: 15.0–26.9). Neither were there statistically significant differences in major complications; however, minor complications were seen less often as the surgeons gained experience (p = 0.064). Operative time was decreased on average by 47% over the 8-year period.

Trends in surgical practice were seen as well. Total fusion construct length was unchanged until the last year when there was a marked decrease in conjunction with a decrease in interbody levels treated (p = 0.004) while obtaining a higher degree of sagittal correction, suggesting more selective but powerful interbody reduction methods as reflected by an increase in the lateral and anterior column resection techniques being utilized.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of minimally invasive methods for adult spinal deformity surgery has evolved over the past decade. Experienced surgeons are treating older and more morbid patients with similar outcomes. A reliance on selective, more powerful interbody approaches is increasing as well.

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Intekhab Alam, Varidh Katiyar, Revanth Goda, Harish Chandrappa, Raghav Singla and Ravi Sharma