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Adham M. Khalafallah, Sakibul Huq, Adrian E. Jimenez, Henry Brem and Debraj Mukherjee

OBJECTIVE

Health measures such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the 11-factor modified frailty index (mFI-11) have been employed to predict general medical and surgical mortality, but their clinical utility is limited by the requirement for a large number of data points, some of which overlap or require data that may be unavailable in large datasets. A more streamlined 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) was recently developed to overcome these barriers, but it has not been widely tested in neuro-oncology patient populations. The authors compared the utility of the mFI-5 to that of the CCI and the mFI-11 in predicting postoperative mortality in brain tumor patients.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed a cohort of adult patients from a single institution who underwent brain tumor surgery during the period from January 2017 to December 2018. Logistic regression models were used to quantify the associations between health measure scores and postoperative mortality after adjusting for patient age, race, ethnicity, sex, marital status, and diagnosis. Results were considered statistically significant at p values ≤ 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the relationships between CCI, mFI-11, and mFI-5 and mortality, and DeLong’s test was used to test for significant differences between c-statistics. Spearman’s rho was used to quantify correlations between indices.

RESULTS

The study cohort included 1692 patients (mean age 55.5 years; mean CCI, mFI-11, and mFI-5 scores 2.49, 1.05, and 0.80, respectively). Each 1-point increase in mFI-11 (OR 4.19, p = 0.0043) and mFI-5 (OR 2.56, p = 0.018) scores independently predicted greater odds of 90-day postoperative mortality. Adjusted CCI, mFI-11, and mFI-5 ROC curves demonstrated c-statistics of 0.86 (CI 0.82–0.90), 0.87 (CI 0.83–0.91), and 0.87 (CI 0.83–0.91), respectively, and there was no significant difference between the c-statistics of the adjusted CCI and the adjusted mFI-5 models (p = 0.089) or between the adjusted mFI-11 and the adjusted mFI-5 models (p = 0.82). The 3 indices were well correlated (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The adjusted mFI-5 model predicts 90-day postoperative mortality among brain tumor patients as well as our adjusted CCI and adjusted mFI-11 models. The simplified mFI-5 may be easily integrated into clinical workflows to predict brain tumor surgery outcomes in real time.

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Branden J. Cord, Sreeja Kodali, Sumita Strander, Andrew Silverman, Anson Wang, Fouad Chouairi, Andrew B. Koo, Cindy Khanh Nguyen, Krithika Peshwe, Alexandra Kimmel, Carl M. Porto, Ryan M. Hebert, Guido J. Falcone, Kevin N. Sheth, Lauren H. Sansing, Joseph L. Schindler, Charles C. Matouk and Nils H. Petersen

OBJECTIVE

While the benefit of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) has been clearly established, difficult vascular access may make the intervention impossible or unduly prolonged. In this study, the authors evaluated safety as well as radiographic and functional outcomes in stroke patients treated with MT via direct carotid puncture (DCP) for prohibitive vascular access.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively studied patients from their prospective AIS-LVO database who underwent attempted MT between 2015 and 2018. Patients with prohibitive vascular access were divided into two groups: 1) aborted MT (abMT) after failed transfemoral access and 2) attempted MT via DCP. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Associations with outcome were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression.

RESULTS

Of 352 consecutive patients with anterior circulation AIS-LVO who underwent attempted MT, 37 patients (10.5%) were deemed to have prohibitive vascular access (mean age [± SD] 82 ± 11 years, mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 17 ± 5, with females accounting for 75% of the patients). There were 20 patients in the DCP group and 17 in the abMT group. The two groups were well matched for the known predictors of clinical outcome: age, sex, and admission NIHSS score. Direct carotid access was successfully obtained in 19 of 20 patients. Successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b or 3) was achieved in 16 (84%) of 19 patients in the DCP group. Carotid access complications included an inability to catheterize the carotid artery in 1 patient, neck hematomas in 4 patients, non–flow-limiting common carotid artery (CCA) dissections in 2 patients, and a delayed, fatal carotid blowout in 1 patient. The neck hematomas and non–flow-limiting CCA dissections did not require any subsequent interventions and remained clinically silent. Compared with the abMT group, patients in the DCP group had smaller infarct volumes (11 vs 48 ml, p = 0.04), a greater reduction in NIHSS score (−4 vs +2.9, p = 0.03), and better functional outcome (shift analysis for 3-month modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.02–24.5; p = 0.048).

CONCLUSIONS

DCP for emergency MT in patients with anterior circulation AIS-LVO and prohibitive vascular access is safe and effective and is associated with higher recanalization rates, smaller infarct volumes, and improved functional outcome compared with patients with abMT after failed transfemoral access. DCP should be considered in this patient population.

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Victor M. Lu, Kyle P. O’Connor, Benjamin T. Himes, Desmond A. Brown, Cody L. Nesvick, Ruby G. Siada, Toba N. Niazi, Jonathan Schwartz and David J. Daniels

OBJECTIVE

Glioblastoma (GBM) during infancy is rare, and the clinical outcomes of congenital GBM are not well understood. Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to present a long-term survivor case from the authors’ institution, and establish an integrated cohort of cases across the published literature to better understand the clinical course of this disease in this setting.

METHODS

The authors report the outcomes of an institutional case of congenital GBM diagnosed within the first 3 months of life, and performed a comprehensive literature search for published cases from 2000 onward for an integrated survival analysis. All cases were integrated into 1 cohort, and Kaplan-Meier estimations, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression were used to interrogate the data.

RESULTS

The integrated cohort of 40 congenital GBM cases consisted of 23 (58%) females and 17 (42%) males born at a median gestational age of 38 weeks (range 22–40 weeks). Estimates of overall survival (OS) at 1 month was 67%, at 1 year it was 59%, and at 10 years it was 45%, with statistically superior outcomes for subgroups in which patients survived to be treated by resection and chemotherapy. In the overall cohort, multivariable analysis confirmed resection (p < 0.01) and chemotherapy (p < 0.01) as independent predictors of superior OS. Gestational age > 38 weeks (p < 0.01), Apgar scores ≥ 7 at 5 minutes (p < 0.01), absence of prenatal hydrocephalus (p < 0.01), and vaginal delivery (p < 0.01) were associated with greater odds of surgical diagnosis versus autopsy diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Congenital GBM can deviate from the expected poor prognosis of adult GBM in terms of OS. Both resection and chemotherapy confer statistically superior prognostic advantages in those patients who survive within the immediate postnatal period, and should be first-line considerations in the initial management of this rare disease.

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Long Wang, Lujun Jing, Huaiyu Sun and Xiang’en Shi

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Aswin Chari, Martin M. Tisdall and Hani J. Marcus

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Patrick S. Rollo, Matthew J. Rollo, Ping Zhu, Oscar Woolnough and Nitin Tandon

OBJECTIVE

Traditional stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) entails the use of orthogonal trajectories guided by seizure semiology and arteriography. Advances in robotic stereotaxy and computerized neuronavigation have made oblique trajectories more feasible and easier to implement without formal arteriography. Such trajectories provide access to components of seizure networks not readily sampled using orthogonal trajectories. However, the dogma regarding the relative safety and predictability of orthogonal and azimuth-based trajectories persists, given the absence of data regarding the safety and efficacy of oblique sEEG trajectories. In this study, the authors evaluated the relative accuracy and efficacy of both orthogonal and oblique trajectories during robotic implantation of sEEG electrodes to sample seizure networks.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 150 consecutive procedures in 134 patients, accounting for 2040 electrode implantations. Of these, 837 (41%) were implanted via oblique trajectories (defined as an entry angle > 30°). Accuracy was calculated by comparing the deviation of each electrode at the entry and the target point from the planned trajectory using postimplantation imaging.

RESULTS

The mean entry and target deviations were 1.57 mm and 1.89 mm for oblique trajectories compared with 1.38 mm and 1.69 mm for orthogonal trajectories, respectively. Entry point deviation was significantly associated with entry angle, but the impact of this relationship was negligible (−0.015-mm deviation per degree). Deviation at the target point was not significantly affected by the entry angle. No hemorrhagic or infectious complications were observed in the entire cohort, further suggesting that these differences were not meaningful in a clinical context. Of the patients who then underwent definitive procedures after sEEG, 69 patients had a minimum of 12 months of follow-up, of whom 58 (84%) achieved an Engel class I or II outcome during a median follow-up of 27 months.

CONCLUSIONS

The magnitude of stereotactic errors in this study falls squarely within the range reported in the sEEG literature, which primarily features orthogonal trajectories. The patient outcomes reported in this study suggest that seizure foci are well localized using oblique trajectories. Thus, the selective use of oblique trajectories in the authors’ cohort was associated with excellent safety and efficacy, with no patient incidents, and the findings support the use of oblique trajectories as an effective and safe means of investigating seizure networks.

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Ryan M. Johnson and Brent R. O’Neill

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS) is a rare genetic disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, although most cases result from de novo mutations. Progressive platybasia and basilar impression (BI) can potentiate obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. Limited literature exists on the surgical intervention for hydrocephalus in patients with this condition. The authors present (to their knowledge) the first case of obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis from BI treated with an endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a patient with the complex anatomy of HCS.

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Nataly Raviv, Ami Amin, Tyler J. Kenning, Carlos D. Pinheiro-Neto, David Jones, Vibhavasu Sharma and Maria Peris-Celda

In this report, the authors demonstrated that idiopathic pituitary hyperplasia (PH) can cause complete bitemporal hemianopia and amenorrhea, even in the setting of mild anatomical compression of the optic chiasm and normal pituitary function. Furthermore, complete resolution of symptoms can be achieved with surgical decompression.

PH can occur in the setting of pregnancy or end-organ insufficiency, as well as with medications such as oral contraceptives and antipsychotics, or it can be idiopathic. It is often found incidentally, and surgical intervention is usually unnecessary, as the disorder rarely progresses and can be managed by treating the underlying etiology. Here, the authors present the case of a 24-year-old woman with no significant prior medical history, who presented with bitemporal hemianopia and amenorrhea. Imaging revealed an enlarged pituitary gland that was contacting, but not compressing, the optic chiasm, and pituitary hormone tests were all within normal limits. The patient underwent surgical decompression of the sella turcica and exploration of the gland through an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Pathology results demonstrated PH. A postoperative visual field examination revealed complete resolution of the bitemporal hemianopia, and menstruation resumed 3 days later. The patient remains asymptomatic with no hormonal deficits.

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Enrique Vargas, Matthew S. Susko, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Steve E. Braunstein and Dean Chou

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is utilized to deliver highly conformal, dose-escalated radiation to a target while sparing surrounding normal structures. Spinal SBRT can allow for durable local control and palliation of disease while minimizing the risk of damage to the spinal cord; however, spinal SBRT has been associated with an increased risk of vertebral body fractures. This study sought to compare the fracture rates between SBRT and conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with metastatic spine tumors.

METHODS

Records from patients treated at the University of California, San Francisco, with radiation therapy for metastatic spine tumors were retrospectively reviewed. Vertebral body fracture and local control rates were compared between SBRT and EBRT. Ninety-six and 213 patients were identified in the SBRT and EBRT groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified the need to control for primary tumor histology (p = 0.003 for prostate cancer, p = 0.0496 for renal cell carcinoma). The patient-matched EBRT comparison group was created by matching SBRT cases using propensity scores for potential confounders, including the Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS), the number and location of spine levels treated, sex, age at treatment, duration of follow-up (in months) after treatment, and primary tumor histology. Covariate balance following group matching was confirmed using the Student t-test for unequal variance. Statistical analysis, including propensity score matching and multivariate analysis, was performed using R software and related packages.

RESULTS

A total of 90 patients met inclusion criteria, with 45 SBRT and 45 EBRT matched cases. Balance of the covariates, SINS, age, follow-up time, and primary tumor histology after the matching process was confirmed between groups (p = 0.062, p = 0.174, and 0.991, respectively, along with matched tumor histology). The SBRT group had a higher 5-year rate of vertebral body fracture at 22.22% (n = 10) compared with 6.67% (n = 3) in the EBRT group (p = 0.044). Survival analysis was used to adjust for uneven follow-up time and showed a significant difference in fracture rates between the two groups (p = 0.044). SBRT also was associated with a higher rate of local control (86.67% vs 77.78%).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with metastatic cancer undergoing SBRT had higher rates of vertebral body fractures compared with patients undergoing EBRT, and this difference held up after survival analysis. SBRT also had higher rates of initial local control than EBRT but this difference did not hold up after survival analysis, most likely because of a high percentage of radiosensitive tumors in the EBRT cohort.