Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 38,298 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

Jorge E. Alvernia, Emile Simon, Krishnakant Khandelwal, Cara D. Ramos, Eddie Perkins, Patrick Kim, Patrick Mertens, Raffaella Messina, Gustavo Luzardo, and Orlando Diaz

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper was to identify and characterize all the segmental radiculomedullary arteries (RMAs) that supply the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord.

METHODS

All RMAs from T4 to L5 were studied systematically in 25 cadaveric specimens. The RMA with the greatest diameter in each specimen was termed the artery of Adamkiewicz (AKA). Other supporting RMAs were also identified and characterized.

RESULTS

A total of 27 AKAs were found in 25 specimens. Twenty-two AKAs (81%) originated from a left thoracic or a left lumbar radicular branch, and 5 (19%) arose from the right. Two specimens (8%) had two AKAs each: one specimen with two AKAs on the left side and the other specimen with one AKA on each side. Eight cadaveric specimens (32%) had 10 additional RMAs; among those, a single additional RMA was found in 6 specimens (75%), and 2 additional RMAs were found in each of the remaining 2 specimens (25%). Of those specimens with a single additional RMA, the supporting RMA was ipsilateral to the AKA in 5 specimens (83%) and contralateral in only 1 specimen (17%). The specimens containing 2 additional RMAs were all (100%) ipsilateral to their respective AKAs.

CONCLUSIONS

The segmental RMAs supplying the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord can be unilateral, bilateral, or multiple. Multiple AKAs or additional RMAs supplying a single anterior spinal artery are common and should be considered when dealing with the spinal cord at the thoracolumbar level.

Restricted access

Gloria Kim, Sally El Sammak, Giorgos D. Michalopoulos, William Mualem, Zachariah W. Pinter, Brett A. Freedman, and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Several growth-preserving surgical techniques are employed in the management of early-onset scoliosis (EOS). The authors’ objective was to compare the use of traditional growing rods (TGRs), magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGRs), Shilla growth guidance techniques, and vertically expanding prosthetic titanium ribs (VEPTRs) for the management of EOS.

METHODS

A systematic review of electronic databases, including Ovid MEDLINE and Cochrane, was performed. Outcomes of interest included correction of Cobb angle, T1–S1 distance, and complication rate, including alignment, hardware failure and infection, and planned and unplanned reoperation rates. The percent changes and 95% CIs were pooled across studies using random-effects meta-analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 67 studies were identified, which included 2021 patients. Of these, 1169 (57.8%) patients underwent operations with TGR, 178 (8.8%) Shilla growth guidance system, 448 (22.2%) MCGR, and 226 (11.1%) VEPTR system. The mean ± SD age of the cohort was 6.9 ± 1.2 years. The authors found that the Shilla technique provided the most significant improvement in coronal Cobb angle immediately after surgery (mean [95% CI] 64.2° [61.4°–67.2°]), whereas VEPTR (27.6% [22.7%–33.6%]) and TGR (45% [42.5%–48.5%]) performed significantly worse. VEPTR also performed significantly worse than the other techniques at final follow-up. The techniques also provided comparable gains in T1–S1 height immediately postoperatively (mean [95% CI] 10.5% [9.0%–12.0%]); however, TGR performed better at final follow-up (21.3% [18.6%–24.1%]). Complications were not significantly different among the patients who underwent the Shilla, TGR, MCGR, and VEPTR techniques, except for the rate of infections. The TGR technique had the lowest rate of unplanned reoperations (mean [95% CI] 15% [10%–23%] vs 24% [19%–29%]) but the highest number of planned reoperations per patient (5.31 [4.83–5.82]). The overall certainty was also low, with a high risk of bias across studies.

CONCLUSIONS

This analysis suggested that the Shilla technique was associated with a greater early coronal Cobb angle correction, whereas use of VEPTR was associated with a lower correction rate at any time point. TGR offered the most significant height gain at final follow-up. The complication rates were comparable across all surgical techniques. The optimal surgical approach should be tailored to individual patients, taking into consideration the strengths and limitations of each option.

Restricted access

Dong-Ho Lee, Suk-Kyu Lee, Jae Hwan Cho, Chang Ju Hwang, Choon Sung Lee, Jae Jun Yang, Kook Jong Kim, Jae Hong Park, and Sehan Park

OBJECTIVE

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) provides a limited workspace, and surgeons often need to access the posterior aspect of the vertebral body to achieve sufficient decompression. Oblique resection of the posterior endplate (trumpet-shaped decompression [TSD]) widens the workspace, enabling removal of lesions behind the vertebral body. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oblique posterior endplate resection for wider decompression.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, 227 patients who underwent ACDF for the treatment of cervical myelopathy or radiculopathy caused by spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and were followed up for ≥ 1 year were included. Patient characteristics, fusion rates, subsidence, and patient-reported outcome measures, including the neck pain visual analog scale (VAS) score, arm pain VAS score, and Neck Disability Index (NDI), were assessed. Patients who underwent TSD during ACDF (TSD group) and those who underwent surgery without TSD (non-TSD group) were compared.

RESULTS

Fifty-seven patients (25.1%) were included in the TSD group and 170 patients (74.9%) in the non-TSD group. In the TSD group, 28.2% ± 5.5% of the endplate was resected, and 26.0% ± 6.1% of the region behind the vertebral body could be visualized via the TSD technique. The resection angle was 26.9° ± 5.9°. The fusion rate assessed on the basis of interspinous motion, intragraft bone bridging, and extragraft bone bridging did not significantly differ between the two groups. Furthermore, there were no significant intergroup differences in subsidence. The patient-reported outcome measures at the 1-year follow-up were also not significantly different between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS

TSD widened the workspace during ACDF, and 26% of the region posterior to the vertebral body could be accessed using this technique. The construct stability was not adversely affected by TSD as demonstrated by the similar fusion and subsidence rates among patients who underwent TSD and those who did not. Therefore, TSD can be safely applied during ACDF when compressive lesions extend behind the vertebral body and are not limited to the disc space, enabling adequate decompression without disrupting the construct stability.

Restricted access

Graham W. Johnson, Leon Y. Cai, Derek J. Doss, Jasmine W. Jiang, Aarushi S. Negi, Saramati Narasimhan, Danika L. Paulo, Hernán F. J. González, Shawniqua Williams Roberson, Sarah K. Bick, Catie E. Chang, Victoria L. Morgan, Mark T. Wallace, and Dario J. Englot

OBJECTIVE

In drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy, automated tools for seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization that use brief interictal recordings could supplement presurgical evaluations and improve care. Thus, the authors sought to localize SOZs by training a multichannel convolutional neural network on stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) cortico-cortical evoked potentials.

METHODS

The authors performed single-pulse electrical stimulation in 10 drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients implanted with SEEG. Using 500,000 unique poststimulation SEEG epochs, the authors trained a multichannel 1-dimensional convolutional neural network to determine whether an SOZ had been stimulated.

RESULTS

SOZs were classified with mean sensitivity of 78.1% and specificity of 74.6% according to leave-one-patient-out testing. To achieve maximum accuracy, the model required a 0- to 350-msec poststimulation time period. Post hoc analysis revealed that the model accurately classified unilateral versus bilateral mesial temporal lobe seizure onset, as well as neocortical SOZs.

CONCLUSIONS

This was the first demonstration, to the authors’ knowledge, that a deep learning framework can be used to accurately classify SOZs with single-pulse electrical stimulation–evoked responses. These findings suggest that accurate classification of SOZs relies on a complex temporal evolution of evoked responses within 350 msec of stimulation. Validation in a larger data set could provide a practical clinical tool for the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy.

Restricted access

Anurag Modak, Bharath Raju, Fareed Jumah, Margaret Pain, Gaurav Gupta, and Anil Nanda

The compendia of medical knowledge of the great ancient Indian physicians Suśruta, Caraka, Jīvaka, and Vāgbhaṭa all attest to the practice of neurosurgery and neurology starting in the 1st millennium bce. Although a period of scientific stagnation ensued between the 12th and 20th centuries ce, Indian medical neurosciences once again flourished after India’s independence from British rule in 1947. The pioneers of modern Indian neurosurgery, neurology, and their ancillary fields made numerous scientific and clinical discoveries, advancements, and innovations that proved influential on a global scale. Most importantly, the efforts of Indian neurosurgeons and neurologists were unified at the national level through the Neurological Society of India, which was established in 1951 and enabled an unprecedented degree of collaboration within the aforementioned medical specialties. The growth and success of the Indian model bears several lessons that can be applied to other nations in order to garner better collaboration among neurosurgeons, neurologists, and physicians in related fields. Here, the authors elaborate on the origins, growth, and development of neurosurgery and neurology in India and discuss their current state in order to glean valuable lessons on interdisciplinary collaboration, which forms the basis of the authors’ proposal for the continued growth of societies dedicated to medical neurosciences across the world.

Restricted access

Xiao-Ying Xu, Da Li, Lai-Rong Song, Pan-Pan Liu, Ze-Yu Wu, Liang Wang, Li-Wei Zhang, Jun-Ting Zhang, and Zhen Wu

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors aimed to create a nomogram for precisely predicting the 5-year prospective hemorrhage risk in brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs).

METHODS

Patients with confirmed BSCMs in a single-center prospective observational series from January 2012 to December 2016 were included in the present study for nomogram building and validation. The concordance index (C-index), calibration curves, and decision curve analysis were used to evaluate the predictive accuracy, discriminative ability, and clinical usefulness of the nomogram. Then, a nomogram-based risk stratification model for untreated BSCMs was developed.

RESULTS

In total, 600 patients were included in the study; 417 patients who had been enrolled before July 2015 were divided into the training and validation cohorts, and 183 subsequently enrolled patients were used as the external validation cohort. By applying a backward stepwise procedure in the multivariable Cox model, variables, including prior hemorrhage (HR 1.69), hemorrhage on admission (HR 3.33), lesion size > 1.5 cm (HR 1.84), lesion depth (HR 2.35), crossing the axial midpoint (HR 1.94), and developmental venous anomaly (HR 2.62), were incorporated to develop a nomogram. The Harrell C-index values for a 5-year prospective hemorrhage were 0.752 (95% CI 0.687–0.816), 0.801 (95% CI 0.665–0.936), and 0.758 (95% CI 0.674–0.842) in the training, internal validation, and external validation cohorts, respectively. The nomogram performed well in terms of consistency between prediction and actual observation according to the calibration curve. The patients could be classified into three distinct (low, medium, and high) risk groups using the final score of this nomogram.

CONCLUSIONS

Independent predictors of the 5-year hemorrhage risk in untreated BSCMs were selected to create the first nomogram for predicting individual prospective hemorrhage. The nomogram was able to stratify patients into different risk groups and assist in clinical decision-making.