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Open access

Constantin Tuleasca, Rabih Aboukais, Quentin Vannod-Michel, Xavier Leclerc, Nicolas Reyns, and Jean-Paul Lejeune

BACKGROUND

Meningiomas are the most commonly encountered nonglial primary intracranial tumors. The authors report on the usefulness of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) during microsurgical resection of meningiomas located close to eloquent areas or dural sinuses and on the feasibility of further radiation therapy.

OBSERVATIONS

Six patients benefited from this approach. The mean follow-up period after surgery was 3.3 (median 3.2, range 2.1–4.6) years. Five patients had no postoperative neurological deficit, of whom two with preoperative motor deficit completely recovered. One patient with preoperative left inferior limb deficit partially recovered. The mean interval between surgery and radiation therapy was 15.8 (median 16.9, range 1.4–40.5) months. Additional radiation therapy was required in five cases after surgery. The mean preoperative tumor volume was 38.7 (median 27.5, range 8.6–75.6) mL. The mean postoperative tumor volume was 1.2 (median 0.8, range 0–4.3) mL. At the last follow-up, all tumors were controlled.

LESSONS

The use of iMRI was particularly helpful to (1) decide on additional tumor resection according to iMRI findings during the surgical procedure; (2) evaluate the residual tumor volume at the end of the surgery; and (3) judge the need for further radiation and, in particular, the feasibility of single-fraction radiosurgery.

Open access

Lisa B. E. Shields, Vasudeva G. Iyer, Yi Ping Zhang, and Christopher B. Shields

BACKGROUND

Person-in-the-barrel syndrome is characterized by bilateral brachial diplegia, intact cranial nerves, and preserved lower-extremity strength. Most cases are due to bilateral supratentorial brain lesions at the border zone of the anterior and middle cerebral artery vascular territories. This condition has been observed with spinal pathology, primarily involving vascular dissection and thromboembolism.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors’ case is the first in the literature to highlight person-in-the-barrel syndrome immediately following cervical spine surgery. Weakness of the deltoids, biceps, infraspinatus, and brachioradialis was observed bilaterally postoperatively. Electromyograph (EMG)-nerve conduction velocity (NCV) studies revealed a cervical radiculopathy involving C5 and C6 bilaterally with denervation of the deltoids, biceps, and brachioradialis. Within 8 months of cervical spine surgery, the patient regained improvement of the bilateral brachial diplegia.

LESSONS

EMG/NCV studies play a valuable role in detecting cervical radiculopathy after cervical spine surgery in patients with bilateral brachial diplegia. The authors postulate that this condition may have occurred following neck hyperextension during cervical cage placement, increasing the foraminal stenosis at C4–5 and C5–6 and worsening the C5 and C6 radiculopathy. Spinal surgeons should be cognizant of person-in-the-barrel syndrome that may ensue following cervical spine surgery and promptly identify and treat this condition to offer the best prognosis for a favorable patient outcome.

Open access

Nidal B. Omar, Gustavo Chagoya, Dario Marotta, Galal Elsayed, and Mark R. Harrigan

BACKGROUND

Most of the published literature pertaining to blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is focused on extracranial arterial injury. Studies of intracranial arterial injury are relatively uncommon.

OBSERVATIONS

The clinical course of a patient who sustained an injury to the right posterior communicating artery followed by infarction due to vasospasm after severe traumatic brain injury is presented, along with a focused literature review.

LESSONS

Intracranial BCVI is uncommon, and this report may serve to raise awareness of BCVI management and the importance of recognizing symptomatic vasospasm due to BCVI.

Open access

Takanori Nozawa, Kouichirou Okamoto, Shinji Nakazato, Kunio Motohashi, Tomoaki Suzuki, Kotaro Morita, Hideki Tashi, Kei Watanabe, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Masato Watanabe, Hiroyuki Kawashima, and Yukihiko Fujii

BACKGROUND

Bow hunter’s syndrome or stroke (BHS) is characterized by rotational vertebrobasilar insufficiency elicited by rotation of the neck. It is caused by dynamic and reversible occlusion of the vertebral artery (VA). Reversible symptoms of rotational vertebrobasilar insufficiency are described as bow hunter’s syndrome, although brain infarction is rarely reported as bow hunter’s stroke.

OBSERVATIONS

A 70-year-old man experienced repeated cerebellar infarctions three times in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) distribution of the nondominant right VA connecting the basilar artery. The onset of symptoms indicating cerebellar infarcts and the patient’s head position changes were unrelated. Dynamic digital angiography (DA) revealed that the nondominant right VA was occluded by an osteophyte from the C4 vertebral body, and the right PICA branches were shown to be passing through the distal right VA from the left VA. These findings were observed when the patient’s head was tilted to the right. An arterio-arterial embolic mechanism was suggested as the cause of repeated cerebellar infarctions.

LESSONS

Transient nondominant VA occlusion has been rarely reported as a cause of BHS when the head is tilted. To confirm the diagnosis of BHS, additional head tilt is recommended when performing dynamic DA in patients with a cervical osteophyte.

Open access

Kevin K. Kumar, Linden E. Fornoff, Robert L. Dodd, Michael P. Marks, and David S. Hong

BACKGROUND

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) are rare congenital intracranial vascular lesions that represent 30% of all pediatric vascular anomalies. These lesions are associated with severe manifestations, including congestive heart failure, hydrocephalus, and spontaneous hemorrhage. The mainstay of management is medical stabilization followed by endovascular embolization of the lesion. Although VGAM was first reported in 1937, there are few published cases demonstrating spontaneous regression of the lesion.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a 31-month-old female who presented with an incidentally found VGAM. After initial evaluation, including magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, the patient was lost to follow-up. Upon her return to the clinic at age 12 years, the previously identified VGAM was absent, indicative of involution of the lesion. The patient remained asymptomatic and met appropriate developmental milestones during this interval.

LESSONS

This report adds a rare case of the spontaneous resolution of VGAM to the literature. This case may suggest the presence of VGAMs that are asymptomatic, undetected, and regress within the pediatric population. Future studies may benefit from identifying imaging and angiographic findings predictive of spontaneous regression. There may be a role for conservative management in particular cases of asymptomatic and medically stable children with VGAMs.

Open access

Smrithi Sathish, M. Manoranjitha Kumari, Shyama S. Prem, and Gopalakrishnan M. Sasidharan

BACKGROUND

A 46-year-old female, a patient with a relapsed carcinoma in her ovary, had undergone ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vermian metastasis. Two weeks after the shunt surgery, she complained of discomfort in the neck. There was subcutaneous emphysema along the shunt track without tenderness or signs of inflammation. She was afebrile, and her vital parameters were stable.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors ruled out pneumothorax and airway trauma as potential sources of emphysema. They tapped the shunt chamber and detected gram-negative bacilli. Ascitic fluid culture grew gas-forming Escherichia coli.

LESSONS

Although some amount of air can get trapped in the subcutaneous plane during the tunneling procedure of a VP shunt tube insertion, the reappearance of a new, large column of air along the shunt track can be an ominous sign of shunt infection. The shunt became contaminated by bacteria of gut origin, which seeded the ascitic fluid, and a florid bacterial growth ascended up the shunt track, producing gas along the subcutaneous plane. Physicians should consider this rare etiology in their differential diagnoses of subcutaneous emphysema following VP shunt surgery.

Open access

Ryuichi Noda, Tomohiro Inoue, Sho Tsunoda, and Atsuya Akabane

BACKGROUND

Immunoglobulin G4–related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) accounts for 22% of Japanese lymphoproliferative orbital disease and occurs in 4%–34% of patients with IgG4-related disease, according to the largest case series published to date. Because the optic nerve mass often appears as a tumor-like lesion, it is important, although difficult, to differentiate IgG4-ROD from other orbital tumors and diseases, and biopsy is essential for diagnosis. Here, the authors describe the surgical management of an IgG4-ROD case.

OBSERVATIONS

A 63-year-old man presented to the authors’ hospital with proptosis and visual impairment. Ophthalmic examination revealed intraocular hypertension. IgG4-related disease with an ophthalmic lesion was suspected on the basis of a blood test and imaging studies. Transcranial biopsy with extraorbital decompression was performed. The patient’s symptoms, including visual impairment, improved 3 days after operation, and his IgG4-related disease resolved after corticosteroid treatment.

LESSONS

The standard treatment for IgG4-related disease is systemic corticosteroid therapy. However, this treatment should not be administered to patients with IgG4-ROD who a high risk of blindness. In this case, the authors completed a diagnostic and symptom-relieving transcranial biopsy without affecting the patient’s aesthetic characteristics. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report extraorbital decompression via a transcranial approach as a surgical option for IgG4-ROD.

Restricted access

Alvaro Ibaseta, Rafa Rahman, Nicholas S. Andrade, Richard L. Skolasky, Khaled M. Kebaish, Daniel M. Sciubba, and Brian J. Neuman

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine the concurrent validity, discriminant ability, and responsiveness of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) and to calculate minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) for PROMIS scores.

METHODS

The authors used data obtained in 186 surgical patients with ASD. Concurrent validity was determined through correlations between preoperative PROMIS scores and legacy measure scores. PROMIS discriminant ability between disease severity groups was determined using the preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) value as the anchor. Responsiveness was determined through distribution- and anchor-based methods, using preoperative to postoperative changes in PROMIS scores. MCIDs were estimated on the basis of the responsiveness analysis.

RESULTS

The authors found strong correlations between PROMIS Pain Interference and ODI and the Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire Pain component; PROMIS Physical Function and ODI; PROMIS Anxiety and Depression domains and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey version 2, Physical and Mental Components, Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire Mental Health component (anxiety only), 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire (anxiety only), and 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire; PROMIS Fatigue and 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire; and PROMIS Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles (i.e., Social Satisfaction) and ODI. PROMIS discriminated between disease severity groups in all domains except between none/mild and moderate Anxiety, with mean differences ranging from 3.7 to 8.4 points. PROMIS showed strong responsiveness in Pain Interference; moderate responsiveness in Physical Function and Social Satisfaction; and low responsiveness in Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Sleep Disturbance. Final PROMIS MCIDs were as follows: –6.3 for Anxiety, –4.4 for Depression, –4.6 for Fatigue, –5.0 for Pain Interference, 4.2 for Physical Function, 5.7 for Social Satisfaction, and –3.5 for Sleep Disturbance.

CONCLUSIONS

PROMIS is a valid assessment of patient health, can discriminate between disease severity levels, and shows responsiveness to changes after ASD surgery. The MCIDs provided herein may help clinicians interpret postoperative changes in PROMIS scores, taking into account the fact that they are pending external validation.

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Visish M. Srinivasan, Caroline C. Hadley, Akash J. Patel, Bruce L. Ehni, Howard L. Weiner, Ganesh Rao, Frederick F. Lang Jr., Raymond E. Sawaya, and Daniel Yoshor

The development of neurosurgery at Baylor College of Medicine began with the medical school’s relocation to the new Texas Medical Center in Houston in 1943. An academic service was organized in 1949 as a section of neurosurgery within Baylor’s Department of Surgery. Soon the practice, led by Dr. George Ehni, evolved to include clinical services at Methodist, Jefferson Davis (forerunner of Ben Taub), Texas Children’s, the Veterans Affairs, and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hospitals. A neurosurgery residency program was established in 1954. As the clinical practice expanded, neurosurgery was upgraded from a section to a division and then to a department. It has been led by four chiefs/chairs over the past 60 years—Dr. George Ehni (1959–1979), Dr. Robert Grossman (1980–2004), Dr. Raymond Sawaya (2005–2014), and Dr. Daniel Yoshor (2015–2020). Since the 1950s, the department has drawn strength from its robust residency program, its research base in the medical school, and its five major hospital affiliates, which have largely remained unchanged (with the exception of Baylor St. Luke’s Medical Center replacing Methodist in 2004). The recent expansion of the residency program to 25 accredited positions and the growing strength of relationships with the “Baylor five” hospitals affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine portend a bright future.

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Erin J. Torell, Tyler S. Pistone, and Andrew P. Gard

The Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Nebraska Medical Center has grown considerably from one neurosurgeon in 1923 into a first-class department with diverse subspecialty care and innovative faculty. Founding neurosurgeon Dr. J. Jay Keegan, a student of Harvey Cushing, instituted a legacy of clinical and research excellence that he passed on to his successors. The department created a lecture series to honor Keegan’s pioneering techniques and impact in the field, featuring prominent neurosurgeons from across the country. Keegan’s successors, such as Dr. Lyal Leibrock, grew the department through a unique partnership with private practice. The current faculty has continued the tradition of exceptional resident training and innovative patient care.