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Open access

Keita Tominaga, Hidenori Endo, Shin-ichiro Sugiyama, Shin-ichiro Osawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is caused by neurovascular contact along the facial nerve’s root exit zone (REZ). The authors report a rare HFS case that was associated with ipsilateral subclavian steal syndrome (SSS).

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old man with right-sided aortic arch presented with progressing left HFS, which was associated with ipsilateral SSS due to severe stenosis of the left brachiocephalic trunk. Magnetic resonance imaging showed contact between the left REZ and vertebral artery (VA), which had shifted to the left. The authors speculated that the severe stenosis at the left brachiocephalic trunk resulted in the left VA’s deviation, which was the underlying cause of the HFS. The authors performed percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) to dilate the left brachiocephalic trunk. Ischemic symptoms of the left arm improved after PTA, but the HFS remained unchanged. A computational fluid dynamics study showed that the high wall shear stress (WSS) around the site of neurovascular contact decreased after PTA. In contrast, pressure at the point of neurovascular contact increased after PTA.

LESSONS

SSS is rarely associated with HFS. Endovascular treatment for SSS reduced WSS of the neurovascular contact but increased theoretical pressure of the neurovascular contact. Physical release of the neurovascular contact is the best treatment option for HFS.

Open access

Parménides Guadarrama-Ortíz, Ingrid Montes de Oca-Vargas, José Alberto Choreño-Parra, André Garibay-Gracián, Deyanira Capi-Casillas, Alondra Román-Villagomez, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Ulises Palacios-Zúñiga, and Ángel Daniel Prieto-Rivera

BACKGROUND

Preserving the neurological function of sacral nerves during total or partial sacrectomy is challenging.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of an osseous desmoplastic fibroma of the sacrum in a 51-year-old woman. The patient attended the authors’ institution with loss of muscle strength and sensitivity impairment in both legs, gait instability, bowel constipation, urinary incontinence, and weight loss. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed intrapelvic and posterior extension of the tumor but sparing of S1 and the sacroiliac and lumbosacral joints. After a multidisciplinary discussion of the case, a staged anterior–posterior approach to the sacrum was chosen. The abdominal approach allowed full mobilization of the uterus, ovaries, bladder, and colon and protection of iliac vessels. After tumor resection, a synthetic surgical mesh was placed over the sacrum to minimize soft tissue defects. Then, the posterior stage allowed the authors to perform a bicortical osteotomy, achieving wide tumor excision with minimal nerve root injury. Spinopelvic fixation was not necessary, because both sacroiliac and lumbosacral joints remained intact. A few days after the surgery, the patient restarted ambulation and recovered sphincter control.

LESSONS

Multidisciplinary planning and a staged abdominal and posterior approach for partial sacrectomy were fundamental to preserve neurological function in this case.

Open access

Kenta Ujifuku, Eisakua Sadakata, Shiro Baba, Koichi Yoshida, Kensaku Kamada, Minoru Morikawa, Kuniko Abe, Kazuhiko Suyama, Yoichi Nakazato, Isao Shimokawa, and Takayuki Matsuo

BACKGROUND

Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare histologically benign but locally infiltrative myofibroblastic tumor. Primary intracranial aggressive fibromatosis (IAF) can exhibit a clinically malignant course.

OBSERVATIONS

A 22-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with left painful ophthalmoplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left sellar tumor with cavernous sinus invasion. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was performed. The lesion could not be totally resected. An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor was suspected, so steroid pulse therapy was introduced, but it was ineffective. The tumor recurred after a few months, and she complained of visual acuity loss, abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and panhypopituitarism. The lesion was diagnosed as primary IAF by a pathological review. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was performed, and chemotherapies were introduced but ineffective. Her consciousness was disturbed, and MRI showed hypothalamic invasion of the tumor, occlusion and stenosis of carotid arteries, and cerebral stroke. Palliative care was introduced, and she died 32 months after the onset. The autopsy revealed tumor invasion to the cavernous sinus, optic nerve, hypothalamus, pituitary, and tonsillar herniation due to massive cerebral stroke.

LESSONS

Radical resection can be impossible in patients with IAF. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not always effective for residual lesions. Adjuvant therapy for IAF remains to be explored.

Open access

Jeffrey D. Oliver, Noah L. Lessing, Harry M. Mushlin, Joshua R. Olexa, Kenneth M. Crandall, and Charles A. Sansur

BACKGROUND

The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is an important cause of low back pain and referred leg pain (RLP). Pain from SIJ dysfunction may occur in isolation or may result from a combination with lumbosacral area–mediated pain. SIJ fusion is one treatment modality for medically refractory symptoms and may also have a role in the treatment of RLP.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a challenging case of concomitant lumbosacral degenerative disease and SIJ dysfunction in a patient with radiculopathy. They provide clinical characteristics and imaging findings and discuss difficulties in dealing with the intersection of these two distinct diagnoses. In addition, the authors offer a review of the relevant literature, elucidating the role of SIJ dysfunction in causing radicular lower extremity pain, the relationship to concomitant lumbosacral degenerative disease, and outcome data for SIJ fusion as it relates to RLP.

LESSONS

With increasing numbers of patients undergoing spinal instrumentation in the setting of degenerative lumbosacral arthritis, as well as randomized controlled trial data demonstrating the efficacy of SIJ fusion for medically refractory SIJ dysfunction, it is important to recognize the challenges in understanding how both of these patient groups may present with radiculopathy. Failure to do so may result in incorrect patient selection, poor outcomes, and increased morbidity for at-risk patients.

Open access

Noritaka Yonezawa, Yuji Tokuumi, Nobuhiko Komine, Takaaki Uto, Yasumitsu Toribatake, Hideki Murakami, Satoru Demura, and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

BACKGROUND

Early balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) intervention for acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF) has been reported to be more effective than the conservative treatment. However, complications of early BKP intervention are still unknown.

OBSERVATIONS

A 71-year-old patient with OVF of L2 underwent BKP 2 weeks after symptom onset. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph were compatible with new L2 OVF. Although computed tomography (CT) images revealed the atypical destruction of lower endplate of L2 as OVF, L2 BKP was planned. After BKP, his back pain improved dramatically. Two weeks after BKP, his lower back pain recurred. MRI and CT confirmed the diagnosis of infectious spondylitis with paravertebral abscess formation. With adequate antibiotic treatment and rehabilitation, he was symptom-free and completely ambulatory without signs of infection.

LESSONS

Signal changes on the fractured vertebral bodies during initial MRI and fractured vertebral instability on radiograph can mislead the surgeon to interpret the infection as a benign compression fracture. If the patients exhibit unusual destruction of the endplate on CT imaging, “simultaneous-onset” spondylitis with vertebral fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis. To determine the strategy for OVF, preoperative biopsy is recommended if simultaneous-onset spondylitis with vertebral fracture is suspected.

Restricted access

Federico Russo, Marco Valentini, Daniele Sabatino, Michele Cerati, Carla Facco, Paolo Battaglia, Mario Turri-Zanoni, Paolo Castelnuovo, and Apostolos Karligkiotis

OBJECTIVE

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents the greatest public health emergency of this century. The primary mode of viral transmission is droplet transmission through direct contact with large droplets generated during breathing, talking, coughing, and sneezing. However, the virus can also demonstrate airborne transmission through smaller droplets (< 5 μm in diameter) generated during various medical procedures, collectively termed aerosol-generating procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze droplet contamination of healthcare workers and splatter patterns in the operating theater that resulted from endoscopic transnasal procedures in noninfected patients.

METHODS

A prospective nonrandomized microscopic evaluation of contaminants generated during 10 endoscopic transnasal procedures performed from May 14 to June 11, 2020, in the same operating theater was carried out. A dilution of monosodium fluorescein, repeatedly instilled through nasal irrigation, was used as a marker of contaminants generated during surgical procedures. Contaminants were collected on detectors worn by healthcare workers and placed in standard points in the operating theater. Analysis of number, dimensions, and characteristics of contaminants was carried out with fluorescence microscopy.

RESULTS

A total of 70 samples collected from 10 surgical procedures were analyzed. Liquid droplets and solid-tissue fragments were identified as contaminants on all detectors analyzed. All healthcare workers appeared to have been exposed to a significant number of contaminants. A significant degree of contamination was observed in every site of the operating room. The mean (range) diameter of liquid droplets was 4.1 (1.0–26.6) μm and that of solid fragments was 23.6 (3.5–263.3) μm.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic endonasal surgery is associated with the generation of large amounts of contaminants, some of which measure less than 5 μm. All healthcare workers in the surgical room are exposed to a significant and similar risk of contamination; therefore, adequate personal protective equipment should be employed when performing endoscopic endonasal surgical procedures.

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Blake M. Hauser, Samantha E. Hoffman, Saksham Gupta, Mark M. Zaki, Edward Xu, Melissa Chua, Joshua D. Bernstock, Ayaz Khawaja, Timothy R. Smith, Mark R. Proctor, and Hasan A. Zaidi

OBJECTIVE

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can cause significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, and may disproportionately occur in patients with limited mobility following spinal trauma. The authors aimed to characterize the epidemiology and clinical predictors of VTE in pediatric patients following traumatic spinal injuries (TSIs).

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of children who experienced TSI, including spinal fractures and spinal cord injuries, encoded within the National Trauma Data Bank from 2011 to 2014.

RESULTS

Of the 22,752 pediatric patients with TSI, 192 (0.8%) experienced VTE during initial hospitalization. Proportionally, more patients in the VTE group (77%) than in the non-VTE group (68%) presented following a motor vehicle accident. Patients developing VTE had greater odds of presenting with moderate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–4.8) or severe Glasgow Coma Scale scores (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 3.0–6.1), epidural hematoma (aOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.7), and concomitant abdominal (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8–3.3) and/or lower extremity (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.0) injuries. They also had greater odds of being obese (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.5). Neither cervical, thoracic, nor lumbar spine injuries were significantly associated with VTE. However, involvement of more than one spinal level was predictive of VTE (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.7). Spinal cord injury at any level was also significantly associated with developing VTE (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8–3.5). Patients with VTE stayed in the hospital an adjusted average of 19 days longer than non-VTE patients. They also had greater odds of discharge to a rehabilitative facility or home with rehabilitative services (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.8–3.6).

CONCLUSIONS

VTE occurs in a low percentage of hospitalized pediatric patients with TSI. Injury severity is broadly associated with increased odds of developing VTE; specific risk factors include concomitant injuries such as cranial epidural hematoma, spinal cord injury, and lower extremity injury. Patients with VTE also require hospital-based and rehabilitative care at greater rates than other patients with TSI.

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Tizian Rosenstock, Levin Häni, Ulrike Grittner, Nicolas Schlinkmann, Meltem Ivren, Heike Schneider, Andreas Raabe, Peter Vajkoczy, Kathleen Seidel, and Thomas Picht

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to validate the navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)–based risk stratification model. The postoperative motor outcome in glioma surgery may be preoperatively predicted based on data derived by nTMS. The tumor-to-tract distance (TTD) and the interhemispheric resting motor threshold (RMT) ratio (as a surrogate parameter for cortical excitability) emerged as major factors related to a new postoperative deficit.

METHODS

In this bicentric study, a consecutive prospectively collected cohort underwent nTMS mapping with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract prior to surgery of motor eloquent gliomas. The authors analyzed whether the following items were associated with the patient’s outcome: patient characteristics, TTD, RMT value, and diffusivity parameters (fractional anisotropy [FA] and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). The authors assessed the validity of the published risk stratification model and derived a new model.

RESULTS

A new postoperative motor deficit occurred in 36 of 165 patients (22%), of whom 20 patients still had a deficit after 3 months (13%; n3 months = 152). nTMS-verified infiltration of the motor cortex as well as a TTD ≤ 8 mm were confirmed as risk factors. No new postoperative motor deficit occurred in patients with TTD > 8 mm. In contrast to the previous risk stratification, the RMT ratio was not substantially correlated with the motor outcome, but high RMT values of both the tumorous and healthy hemisphere were associated with worse motor outcome. The FA value was negatively associated with worsening of motor outcome. Accuracy analysis of the final model showed a high negative predictive value (NPV), so the preoperative application may accurately predict the preservation of motor function in particular (day of discharge: sensitivity 47.2%, specificity 90.7%, positive predictive value [PPV] 58.6%, NPV 86.0%; 3 months: sensitivity 85.0%, specificity 78.8%, PPV 37.8%, NPV 97.2%).

CONCLUSIONS

This bicentric validation analysis further improved the model by adding the FA value of the corticospinal tract, demonstrating the relevance of nTMS/nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking for clinical decision making.

Open access

Bernardo de Andrada Pereira, Piyanat Wangsawatwong, Jennifer N. Lehrman, Anna G. U. Sawa, Derek P. Lindsey, Scott A. Yerby, Jakub Godzik, Alexis M. Waguespack, Juan S. Uribe, and Brian P. Kelly

OBJECTIVE

S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw fixation effectively enhances stability in long-segment constructs. Although S2AI fixation provides a single transarticular sacroiliac joint fixation (SIJF) point, additional fixation points may provide greater stability and attenuate screw and rod strain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in stability and pedicle screw and rod strain with extended distal S2AI fixation and with supplemental bilateral integration of two sacroiliac joint fusion devices implanted using a traditional minimally invasive surgical approach.

METHODS

Eight L1–pelvis human cadaveric specimens underwent pure moment (7.5 Nm) and compression (400 N) tests under 4 conditions: 1) intact (pure moment loading only); 2) L2–S1 pedicle screw and rod with L5–S1 interbody fusion; 3) added S2AI screws; and 4) added bilateral laterally placed SIJF. Range of motion (ROM), rod strain, and screw-bending moment (S1 and S2AI) were analyzed.

RESULTS

Compared with S1 fixation, S2AI fixation significantly reduced L5–S1 ROM in right lateral bending by 50% (0.11°, p = 0.049) and in compression by 39% (0.22°, p = 0.003). Compared with fixation ending at S1, extending fixation with S2AI significantly decreased sacroiliac joint ROM by 52% (0.28°, p = 0.02) in flexion, by 65% (0.48°, p = 0.04) in extension, by 59% (0.76°, p = 0.02) in combined flexion-extension, and by 36% (0.09°, p = 0.02) in left axial rotation. The addition of S2AI screws reduced S1 screw-bending moment during flexion (0.106 Nm [43%], p = 0.046). With S2AI fixation, posterior L5–S1 primary rod strain increased by 124% (159 μE, p = 0.002) in flexion, by 149% (285 μE, p = 0.02) in left axial rotation, and by 99% (254 μE, p = 0.04) in right axial rotation. Compared with S2AI fixation, the addition of SIJF reduced L5–S1 strain during right axial rotation by 6% (28 μE, p = 0.04) and increased L5–S1 strain in extension by 6% (28 μE, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Long-segment constructs ending with S2AI screws created a more stable construct than those ending with S1 screws, reducing lumbosacral and sacroiliac joint motion and S1 screw-bending moment in flexion. These benefits, however, were paired with increased rod strain at the lumbosacral junction. The addition of SIJF to constructs ending at S2AI did not significantly change SI joint ROM or S1 screw bending and reduced S2AI screw bending in compression. SIJF further decreased L5–S1 rod strain in axial rotation and increased it in extension.

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Thomas J. Zwimpfer, Nicholas Salterio, Michael A. Williams, Richard Holubkov, Heather Katzen, Mark G. Luciano, Abhay Moghekar, Sean J. Nagel, Jeffrey H. Wisoff, James Golomb, Guy M. McKhann, Richard J. Edwards, Mark G. Hamilton, and for the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

OBJECTIVE

The object of this study was to determine the short- and long-term efficacy of primary endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) on cognition and gait in adults with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus.

METHODS

Patients were prospectively accrued through the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network patient registry. Patients with previously untreated congenital or acquired obstructive hydrocephalus were included in this study. Gait velocity was assessed using a 10-m walk test. Global cognition was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Only patients with documented pre- and post-ETV gait analysis and/or pre- and post-ETV MoCA were included.

RESULTS

A total of 74 patients had undergone primary ETV, 42 of whom were analyzed. The remaining 32 patients were excluded, as they could not complete both pre- and post-ETV assessments. The mean age of the 42 patients, 19 (45.2%) of whom were female, was 51.9 ± 17.1 years (range 19–79 years). Most patients were White (37 [88.1%]), and the remainder were Asian. Surgical complications were minor. Congenital etiologies occurred in 31 patients (73.8%), with aqueductal stenosis in 23 of those patients (54.8%). The remaining 11 patients (26.2%) had acquired cases. The gait short-term follow-up cohort (mean 4.7 ± 4.1 months, 35 patients) had a baseline median gait velocity of 0.9 m/sec (IQR 0.7–1.3 m/sec) and a post-ETV median velocity of 1.3 m/sec (IQR 1.1–1.4 m/sec). Gait velocity significantly improved post-ETV with a median within-patient change of 0.3 m/sec (IQR 0.0–0.6 m/sec, p < 0.001). Gait velocity improvements were sustained in the long term (mean 14 ± 2.8 months, 12 patients) with a baseline median velocity of 0.7 m/sec (IQR 0.6–1.3 m/sec), post-ETV median of 1.3 m/sec (IQR 1.1–1.7 m/sec), and median within-patient change of 0.4 m/sec (IQR 0.2–0.6 m/sec, p < 0.001).

The cognitive short-term follow-up cohort (mean 4.6 ± 4.0 months, 38 patients) had a baseline median MoCA total score (MoCA TS) of 24/30 (IQR 23–27) that improved to 26/30 (IQR 24–28) post-ETV. The median within-patient change was +1 point (IQR 0–2 points, p < 0.001). However, this change is not clinically significant. The cognitive long-term follow-up cohort (mean 14 ± 3.1 months, 15 patients) had a baseline median MoCA TS of 23/30 (IQR 22–27), which improved to 26/30 (IQR 25–28) post-ETV. The median within-patient change was +2 points (IQR 1–3 points, p = 0.007), which is both statistically and clinically significant.

CONCLUSIONS

Primary ETV can safely improve symptoms of gait and cognitive dysfunction in adults with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Gait velocity and global cognition were significantly improved, and the worsening of either was rare following ETV.