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Silky Chotai, Alan R. Tang, Jake R. McDermott, Bradley S. Guidry, Candace J. Grisham, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Peter J. Morone, Reid C. Thompson, and Lola B. Chambless

OBJECTIVE

Excision of intracranial meningiomas often requires resection or coagulation of the dura mater. The choice of dural closure technique is individualized and based on surgeon preference. The objective of this study was to determine outcomes following various dural closure techniques for supratentorial meningiomas.

METHODS

A retrospective, single-center cohort study was performed for patients who underwent excision of supratentorial meningiomas from 2000 to 2019. Outcomes including operative time, postoperative in-hospital complications, readmission, causes of readmission including surgical site infection, pseudomeningocele, need for shunt surgery, and imaging appearance of pseudomeningocele on long-term follow-up imaging were compared. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted.

RESULTS

A total of 353 patients who had complete clinical and operative data available for review were included. Of these patients, 227 (64.3%) had nonsutured dural graft reconstruction and 126 (35.7%) had sutured dural repair, including primary closure, artificial dura, or pericranial graft. There was significant variability in using nonsutured dural reconstruction compared with sutured dural repair technique among surgeons (p < 0.001). Tumors with sagittal sinus involvement were more likely to undergo nonsutured closure (n = 79, 34.8%) than dural repair (n = 26, 20.6%) (p = 0.003). There were no other differences in preoperative imaging findings or WHO grade. Frequency of surgical site infection and pseudomeningocele, need for shunt surgery, and recurrence were similar between those undergoing nonsutured and those undergoing sutured dural repair. The mean operative time for the study cohort was 234.9 (SD 106.6) minutes. The nonsutured dural reconstruction group had a significantly shorter mean operative time (223.9 [SD 99.7] minutes) than the sutured dural repair group (254.5 [SD 115.8] minutes) (p = 0.015). In a multivariable linear regression analysis, after controlling for tumor size and sinus involvement, nonsutured dural graft reconstruction was associated with a 36.8-minute reduction (95% CI −60.3 to −13.2 minutes; p = 0.002) in operative time.

CONCLUSIONS

Dural reconstruction using a nonsutured graft and sutured dural repair exhibit similar postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing resection for supratentorial meningiomas. Although sutured grafts may sometimes be necessary, nonsutured graft reconstruction for most supratentorial meningioma resections may suffice. The decreased operative time associated with nonsutured grafts may ultimately result in cost savings. These findings should be taken into consideration when selecting a dural reconstruction technique for supratentorial meningioma.

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Soliman Oushy, Hannah E. Gilder, Cody L. Nesvick, Giuseppe Lanzino, Bruce E. Pollock, David J. Daniels, and Edward S. Ahn

OBJECTIVE

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in children, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the rate of AVM recurrence in children is significantly higher than in adults. The aim of this study was to define the risk of delayed pediatric AVM (pAVM) recurrence following confirmed radiological obliteration. Further understanding of this risk could inform the role of long-term radiological surveillance.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of ruptured and unruptured pAVM cases treated at a single tertiary care referral center between 1994 and 2019. Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and AVM recurrence were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 102 pediatric patients with intracranial AVMs, including 52 (51%) ruptured cases, were identified. The mean patient age at presentation was 11.2 ± 4.4 years, and 51 (50%) patients were female. The mean nidus size was 2.66 ± 1.44 cm. The most common Spetzler-Martin grades were III (32%) and II (31%). Stereotactic radiosurgery was performed in 69.6% of patients. AVM obliteration was radiologically confirmed in 68 (72.3%) of 94 patients with follow-up imaging, on angiography in 50 (73.5%) patients and on magnetic resonance imaging in 18 (26.5%). AVM recurrence was identified in 1 (2.3%) of 43 patients with long-term surveillance imaging over a mean follow-up of 54.7 ± 38.9 months (range 2–153 months). This recurrence was identified in a boy who had presented with a ruptured AVM and had been surgically treated at 5 years of age. The AVM recurred 54 months after confirmed obliteration on surveillance digital subtraction angiography. Two other cases of presumed AVM recurrence following resection in young children were excluded from recurrence analysis because of incomplete sets of imaging available for review.

CONCLUSIONS

AVM recurrence following confirmed obliteration on imaging is a rare phenomenon, though it occurs more frequently in the pediatric population. Regular long-term follow-up with dedicated surveillance angiography is recommended even after obliteration following resection.

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Jie Yang, Fengli Li, Zhongming Qiu, Yan Wang, Jun Luo, Youlin Wu, Guoyong Zeng, Yue Wan, Shuai Liu, Chengsong Yue, Jiaxing Song, Weidong Luo, Chang Liu, Linyu Li, Ruidi Sun, Jiacheng Huang, Hongfei Sang, Chenhao Zhao, Qingwu Yang, and Wenjie Zi

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment (EVT) plus standard medical treatment (SMT) in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) within 6 hours of the estimated occlusion time, based on a Chinese population.

METHODS

The authors selected patients from the Endovascular Treatment of Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion Study (BASILAR) registry, which was a nationwide prospective registry, within 6 hours after the estimated time of onset of a stroke in acute BAO. Patients were divided into the SMT-alone group or the EVT+SMT group according to treatment modalities. The primary outcome was a favorable functional outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score between 0 and 3 at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death at 90 days and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

RESULTS

The authors assessed 590 patients for eligibility. Of these patients, 127 received SMT alone and 463 were treated with EVT plus SMT. EVT was associated with a higher rate of a favorable functional outcome (adjusted OR 3.804, 95% CI 1.890–7.658; p < 0.001) and a lower proportion of deaths at 90 days (adjusted OR 0.364, 95% CI 0.223–0.594; p < 0.001). Lower age (adjusted OR 0.978, 95% CI 0.960–0.997; p = 0.022); lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (adjusted OR 0.926, 95% CI 0.902–0.950; p < 0.001); higher baseline posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (adjusted OR 1.681, 95% CI 1.424–1.984; p < 0.001); absence of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR 0.482, 95% CI 0.267–0.871; p = 0.016); and modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores 2b–3 (adjusted OR 5.117, 95% CI 2.304–11.367; p < 0.001) were independent factors for a favorable outcome in the EVT+SMT group.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the study design, patients with acute BAO who received EVT within 6 hours were associated with improved favorable outcome and decreased deaths compared with patients who received SMT. Predictors of desirable outcome in patients undergoing EVT included lower age, lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, higher baseline posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, absence of diabetes mellitus, and modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores 2b–3.

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Kelly B. Mahaney, Chandana Buddhala, Mounica Paturu, Diego M. Morales, Christopher D. Smyser, David D. Limbrick Jr., Santosh E. Gummidipundi, Summer S. Han, and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) following preterm intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is among the most severe sequelae of extreme prematurity and a significant contributor to preterm morbidity and mortality. The authors have previously shown hemoglobin and ferritin to be elevated in the lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neonates with PHH. Herein, they evaluated CSF from serial ventricular taps to determine whether neonates with PHH following severe initial ventriculomegaly had higher initial levels and prolonged clearance of CSF hemoglobin and hemoglobin degradation products compared to those in neonates with PHH following moderate initial ventriculomegaly.

METHODS

In this observational cohort study, CSF samples were obtained from serial ventricular taps in premature neonates with severe IVH and subsequent PHH. CSF hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron, total bilirubin, and total protein were quantified using ELISA. Ventriculomegaly on cranial imaging was assessed using the frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR) and was categorized as severe (FOHR > 0.6) or moderate (FOHR ≤ 0.6).

RESULTS

Ventricular tap CSF hemoglobin (mean) and ferritin (initial and mean) were higher in neonates with severe versus moderate initial ventriculomegaly. CSF hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron, total bilirubin, and total protein decreased in a nonlinear fashion over the weeks following severe IVH. Significantly higher levels of CSF ferritin and total iron were observed in the early weeks following IVH in neonates with severe initial ventriculomegaly than in those with initial moderate ventriculomegaly.

CONCLUSIONS

Among preterm neonates with PHH following severe IVH, elevated CSF hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron were associated with more severe early ventricular enlargement (FOHR > 0.6 vs ≤ 0.6 at first ventricular tap).

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Shih-Shan Lang, Nankee K. Kumar, Chao Zhao, David Y. Zhang, Alexander M. Tucker, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Avi A. Gajjar, Chong Tae Kim, Ian Yuan, Susan Sotardi, Todd J. Kilbaugh, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death in the pediatric population. While intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is the gold standard in acute neurocritical care following pediatric severe TBI, brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) monitoring may also help limit secondary brain injury and improve outcomes. The authors hypothesized that pediatric patients with severe TBI and ICP + PbtO2 monitoring and treatment would have better outcomes than those who underwent ICP-only monitoring and treatment.

METHODS

Patients ≤ 18 years of age with severe TBI who received ICP ± PbtO2 monitoring at a quaternary children’s hospital between 1998 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. The relationships between conventional measurements of TBI were evaluated, i.e., ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and PbtO2. Differences were analyzed between patients with ICP + PbtO2 versus ICP-only monitoring on hospital and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) length of stay (LOS), length of intubation, Pediatric Intensity Level of Therapy scale score, and functional outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Score–Extended (GOS-E) scale at 6 months postinjury.

RESULTS

Forty-nine patients, including 19 with ICP + PbtO2 and 30 with ICP only, were analyzed. There was a weak negative association between ICP and PbtO2 (β = −0.04). Conversely, there was a strong positive correlation between CPP ≥ 40 mm Hg and PbtO2 ≥ 15 and ≥ 20 mm Hg (β = 0.30 and β = 0.29, p < 0.001, respectively). An increased number of events of cerebral PbtO2 < 15 mm Hg or < 20 mm Hg were associated with longer hospital (p = 0.01 and p = 0.022, respectively) and PICU (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively) LOS, increased duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.015 when PbtO2 < 15 mm Hg), and an unfavorable 6-month GOS-E score (p = 0.045 and p = 0.022, respectively). An increased number of intracranial hypertension episodes (ICP ≥ 20 mm Hg) were associated with longer hospital (p = 0.007) and PICU (p < 0.001) LOS and longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). Lower minimum hourly and average daily ICP values predicted favorable GOS-E scores (p < 0.001 for both). Patients with ICP + PbtO2 monitoring experienced longer PICU LOS (p = 0.018) compared to patients with ICP-only monitoring, with no significant GOS-E score difference between groups (p = 0.733).

CONCLUSIONS

An increased number of cerebral hypoxic episodes and an increased number of intracranial hypertension episodes resulted in longer hospital LOS and longer duration of mechanical ventilator support. An increased number of cerebral hypoxic episodes also correlated with less favorable functional outcomes. In contrast, lower minimum hourly and average daily ICP values, but not the number of intracranial hypertension episodes, were associated with more favorable functional outcomes. There was a weak correlation between ICP and PbtO2, supporting the importance of multimodal invasive neuromonitoring in pediatric severe TBI.

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Zong-Yu Yu, Ming-Hsuan Chung, Peng-Wei Wang, Yi-Chieh Wu, Hsiang-Chih Liao, and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

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Nikita Lakomkin, Anthony L. Mikula, Zachariah W. Pinter, Elizabeth Wellings, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Kristen M. Scheitler, Zach Pennington, Nathan J. Lee, Brett A. Freedman, Arjun S. Sebastian, Jeremy L. Fogelson, Mohamad Bydon, Michelle J. Clarke, and Benjamin D. Elder

OBJECTIVE

Patients with ankylosing spinal disorders (ASDs), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), have been shown to experience significantly increased rates of postoperative complications. Despite this, very few risk stratification tools have been validated for this population. As such, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of adverse events and mortality in ASD patients undergoing surgery for 3-column fractures.

METHODS

All adult patients with a documented history of AS or DISH who underwent surgery for a traumatic 3-column fracture between 2000 and 2020 were identified. Perioperative variables, including comorbidities, time to diagnosis, and number of fused segments, were collected. Three instruments, including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), modified frailty index (mFI), and Injury Severity Score (ISS), were computed for each patient. The primary outcomes of interest included 1-year mortality, as well as postoperative complications.

RESULTS

A total of 108 patients were included, with a mean ± SD age of 73 ± 11 years. Of these, 41 (38%) experienced at least 1 postoperative complication and 22 (20.4%) died within 12 months after surgery. When the authors controlled for potential known confounders, the CCI score was significantly associated with postoperative adverse events (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00–1.42, p = 0.045) and trended toward significance for mortality (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.97–1.45, p = 0.098). In contrast, mFI score and ISS were not significantly predictive of either outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Complications in spine trauma patients with ASD may be driven by comorbidity burden rather than operative or injury-related factors. The CCI may be a valuable tool for the evaluation of this unique population.

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Hirotaka Hasegawa, Akitoshi Inoue, Ahmed Helal, Kosuke Kashiwabara, and Fredric B. Meyer

OBJECTIVE

Pineal cyst (PC) is a relatively common true cyst in the pineal gland. Its long-term natural course remains ill defined. This study aims to evaluate the long-term natural history of PC and examine MRI risk factors for cyst growth and shrinkage to help better define which patients might benefit from surgical intervention.

METHODS

The records and MRI of 409 consecutive patients with PC were retrospectively examined (nonsurgical cohort). Cyst growth and shrinkage were defined as a ≥ 2-mm increase and decrease in cyst diameter in any direction, respectively. In addition to size, MRI signal intensity ratios were analyzed.

RESULTS

The median radiological follow-up period was 10.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 6.4–14.3 years). The median change in maximal diameter was −0.6 mm (IQR −1.5 to 1.3 mm). During the observation period, cyst growth was confirmed in 21 patients (5.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only age (odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–0.99, p < 0.01) was significantly associated with cyst growth. No patient required resection during the observation period. Cyst shrinkage was confirmed in 57 patients (13.9%). Multivariate analysis revealed that maximal diameter (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12–1.35, p < 0.01) and cyst CSF T2 signal intensity ratio (OR 9.06, 95% CI 1.38–6.62 × 101, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with cyst shrinkage.

CONCLUSIONS

Only 5% of PCs, mainly in patients younger than 50 years of age, have the potential to grow, while cyst shrinkage is more likely to occur across all age groups. Younger age is associated with cyst growth, while larger diameter and higher signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging are associated with shrinkage. Surgery is rarely needed for PCs, despite the possibility of a certain degree of growth.

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Pedram Maleknia, Ashritha Reddy Chalamalla, Anastasia Arynchyna-Smith, Leon Dure, Donna Murdaugh, and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

Little is known about the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with hydrocephalus. In this study, the authors assessed the prevalence of ADHD and its association with clinical and demographic factors, including intellectual disability (ID), a potential factor that can confound the diagnosis of ADHD.

METHODS

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of children 6–12 years of age with hydrocephalus using parent telephone surveys. The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q) and the National Institute for Children’s Health Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale were used to screen for ID and ADHD, respectively. Among children without ID, the authors identified those with ADHD and calculated a prevalence estimate and 95% confidence interval (Wald method). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare children with ADHD with those without ADHD based on demographics, family income, parental educational, etiology of hydrocephalus, and primary treatment. As a secondary analysis, the authors compared subjects with ID with those without using the same variables. Multivariable analysis was used to identify factors with independent association with ADHD and ID.

RESULTS

A total of 147 primary caregivers responded to the telephone questionnaire. Seventy-two children (49%) met the cutoff score for ID (CAIDS-Q). The presence of ID was significantly associated with lower family income (p < 0.001). Hydrocephalus etiology (p = 0.051) and initial treatment (p = 0.06) approached significance. Of children without ID (n = 75), 25 demonstrated a likely diagnosis of ADHD on the NICHQ, yielding a prevalence estimate of 0.33 (95% CI 0.22–0.44). No clinical or demographic variable showed significant association with ADHD.

CONCLUSIONS

These data indicate that the prevalence of ADHD among children with hydrocephalus (33%) is higher than among the general population (estimated prevalence in Alabama is 12.5%). ID is also common (49%). Routine screening for ADHD and ID in children with hydrocephalus may help to ensure that adequate resources are provided to optimize functional outcomes across development.