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Shunsaku Goto, Takashi Izumi, Masahiro Nishihori, Tasuku Imai, Yoshio Araki, Fumiaki Kanamori, Kenji Uda, Kinya Yokoyama, and Ryuta Saito

OBJECTIVE

The protocol for antiplatelet therapy after stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) for intracranial aneurysms is not well established. In particular, the indications for single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) discontinuation remain controversial. The authors investigated the long-term outcomes of SAPT discontinuation after SACE among patients at a single institution.

METHODS

Patients who underwent SACE during the period from 2010 to 2020 and who were followed up for > 1 year were included in this study. The delayed ischemic and hemorrhagic complication rates were examined during follow-up. Moreover, the risk factors of antiplatelet therapy reduction or discontinuation and the outcomes of SAPT discontinuation were examined.

RESULTS

In total, 240 patients were included in the analysis. The average patient age was 60.3 years, and the average follow-up period was 46.7 months. Nine (3.8%) patients presented with symptomatic delayed ischemic complication, and 3 (1.3%) patients experienced a decline in modified Rankin Scale score. The stent configuration (T- or Y-stent) was the only risk factor associated with delayed ischemic complication (p < 0.001). SAPT was discontinued in 147 (71.7%) of 205 patients who were followed up for > 2 years, and no ischemic complications were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

It is safe to discontinue SAPT in patients without ischemic complications and with stable intraaneurysmal signals on MRA 2 years after SACE. The T- or Y-stent is a high-risk factor for delayed ischemic complications, and antiplatelet therapy reduction or discontinuation should be cautiously considered.

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Ron Gadot, Nora Vanegas Arroyave, Huy Dang, Adrish Anand, Ricardo A. Najera, Lisa Yutong Taneff, Steven Bellows, Arjun Tarakad, Joseph Jankovic, Andreas Horn, Ben Shofty, Ashwin Viswanathan, and Sameer A. Sheth

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson disease (PD) is traditionally performed with awake intraoperative testing and/or microelectrode recording. Recently, however, the procedure has been increasingly performed under general anesthesia with image-based verification. The authors sought to compare structural and functional networks engaged by awake and asleep PD-DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and correlate them with clinical outcomes.

METHODS

Levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), pre- and postoperative motor scores on the Movement Disorders Society–Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (MDS-UPDRS III), and total electrical energy delivered (TEED) at 6 months were retroactively assessed in patients with PD who received implants of bilateral DBS leads. In subset analysis, implanted electrodes were reconstructed using the Lead-DBS toolbox. Volumes of tissue activated (VTAs) were used as seed points in group volumetric and connectivity analysis.

RESULTS

The clinical courses of 122 patients (52 asleep, 70 awake) were reviewed. Operating room and procedure times were significantly shorter in asleep cases. LEDD reduction, MDS-UPDRS III score improvement, and TEED at the 6-month follow-up did not differ between groups. In subset analysis (n = 40), proximity of active contact, VTA overlap, and desired network fiber counts with motor STN correlated with lower DBS energy requirement and improved motor scores. Discriminative structural fiber tracts involving supplementary motor area, thalamus, and brainstem were associated with optimal clinical improvement. Areas of highest structural and functional connectivity with VTAs did not significantly differ between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared to awake STN DBS, asleep procedures can achieve similarly optimal targeting—based on clinical outcomes, electrode placement, and connectivity estimates—in more efficient procedures and shorter operating room times.

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Shameer Aslam, Natesan Damodaran, Ramiah Rajeshkannan, Manjit Sarma, Siby Gopinath, and Ashok Pillai

OBJECTIVE

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has assumed an essential role in the presurgical evaluation of epileptogenic foci in drug-resistant epilepsy by identifying the hypometabolic cerebral cortex. The authors herein designed a pilot study to test a novel technique of PET asymmetry after anatomical symmetrization coregistered to MRI (PASCOM), utilizing interhemispheric metabolic asymmetry on interictal fluorine 18–labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET to better localize the epileptogenic zone.

METHODS

The authors analyzed interictal FDG-PET scans from 23 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, mean (± SD) age 20.9 ± 13.1 years old, who had an Engel class I postsurgical outcome while followed up for > 12 months. T1-weighted and FLAIR MRI were used to create a patient-specific, structurally symmetrical template. The asymmetry index (AI) image was computed to detect the cerebral region of hypometabolism using different z-score threshold criteria to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The detected regions were compared with the resection cavity on postoperative MRI using predefined anatomical labels. PASCOM was compared with the visual analysis of FDG-PET by a nuclear medicine consultant blinded to other clinical data (VIS) and visual analysis during multidisciplinary team discussion (MDT). The efficacy of each technique was compared based on a performance score (S), sensitivity, specificity, and correct lateralization of epileptogenicity.

RESULTS

The mean S was maximum (1.30 ± 1.23) for AI images when thresholded at z > 4 and retaining the cluster of more than 100 voxels containing the peak AI value (Z4C) with 73.03% sensitivity and 96.43% specificity. The mean S was minimum for VIS (0.27 ± 0.31). The mean sensitivity was maximum for MDT (85.04%) and minimum for Z5C (AI images thresholded at z > 5 and clustered; 59.47%), whereas the mean specificity was maximum for Z5C (97.77%) and minimum for VIS (64.60%). Z3C (AI images thresholded at z > 3 and clustered) and Z4C were able to correctly identify the side of epileptogenicity in all the patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The PASCOM technique with a Z4C threshold had a maximum performance score with good sensitivity and specificity in localizing and lateralizing the epileptogenic zone. The described technique outperformed the conventional visual analysis of FDG-PET and hence warrants further prospective verification.

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Yi Wang, Maki Sakaguchi, Hemragul Sabit, Sho Tamai, Toshiya Ichinose, Shingo Tanaka, Masashi Kinoshita, Yasuo Uchida, Sumio Ohtsuki, and Mitsutoshi Nakada

OBJECTIVE

An extracellular matrix such as collagen is an essential component of the tumor microenvironment. Collagen alpha-2(I) chain (COL1A2) is a chain of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha-1 chains and one alpha-2 chain. The authors’ proteomics data showed that COL1A2 is significantly higher in the blood of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) compared with healthy controls. COL1A2 has many different functions in various types of cancers. However, the functions of COL1A2 in GBM are poorly understood. In this study, the authors analyzed the functions of COL1A2 and its signaling pathways in GBM.

METHODS

Surgical specimens and GBM cell lines (T98, U87, and U251) were used. The expression level of COL1A2 was examined using GBM tissues and normal brain tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The clinical significance of these levels was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and small hairpin RNA of COL1A2 were transfected into GBM cell lines to investigate the function of COL1A2 in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry was introduced to analyze the alteration of cell cycles. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the underlying mechanisms.

RESULTS

The expression level of COL1A2 was upregulated in GBM compared with normal brain tissues. A higher expression of COL1A2 was correlated with poor progression-free survival and overall survival. COL1A2 inhibition significantly suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, likely due to G1 arrest. The invasion ability was notably deteriorated by inhibiting COL1A2. Cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4, which are involved in the cell cycle, were all downregulated after blockade of COL1A2 in vitro and in vivo. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor reduced the expression of COL1A2. Although downregulation of COL1A2 decreased the protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, Akt activator can phosphorylate Akt in siRNA-treated cells. This finding suggests that Akt phosphorylation is partially dependent on COL1A2.

CONCLUSIONS

COL1A2 plays an important role in driving GBM progression. COL1A2 inhibition attenuated GBM proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrest, indicating that COL1A2 could be a promising therapeutic target for GBM treatment.

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John P. Andrews, Nathan Cahn, Benjamin A. Speidel, Jason E. Chung, Deborah F. Levy, Stephen M. Wilson, Mitchel S. Berger, and Edward F. Chang

OBJECTIVE

Broca’s aphasia is a syndrome of impaired fluency with retained comprehension. The authors used an unbiased algorithm to examine which neuroanatomical areas are most likely to result in Broca’s aphasia following surgical lesions.

METHODS

Patients were prospectively evaluated with standardized language batteries before and after surgery. Broca’s area was defined anatomically as the pars opercularis and triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. Broca’s aphasia was defined by the Western Aphasia Battery language assessment. Resections were outlined from MRI scans to construct 3D volumes of interest. These were aligned using a nonlinear transformation to Montreal Neurological Institute brain space. A voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) algorithm was used to test for areas statistically associated with Broca’s aphasia when incorporated into a resection, as well as areas associated with deficits in fluency independent of Western Aphasia Battery classification. Postoperative MRI scans were reviewed in blinded fashion to estimate the percentage resection of Broca’s area compared to areas identified using the VLSM algorithm.

RESULTS

A total of 289 patients had early language evaluations, of whom 19 had postoperative Broca’s aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed an area that was highly correlated (p < 0.001) with Broca’s aphasia, spanning ventral sensorimotor cortex and supramarginal gyri, as well as extending into subcortical white matter tracts. Reduced fluency scores were significantly associated with an overlapping region of interest. The fluency score was negatively correlated with fraction of resected precentral, postcentral, and supramarginal components of the VLSM area.

CONCLUSIONS

Broca’s aphasia does not typically arise from neurosurgical resections in Broca’s area. When Broca’s aphasia does occur after surgery, it is typically in the early postoperative period, improves by 1 month, and is associated with resections of ventral sensorimotor cortex and supramarginal gyri.

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Heidi McAlpine and Katharine J. Drummond

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Alexandra Valetopoulou, Maria Constantinides, Simon Eccles, Juling Ong, Richard Hayward, David Dunaway, Noor ul Owase Jeelani, Greg James, and Adikarige Haritha Dulanka Silva

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic strip craniectomy with postoperative molding helmet therapy (ESC-H) and spring-assisted cranioplasty (SAC) are commonly used minimally invasive techniques for correction of nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis, but it is unclear which, if either, is superior. Therefore, the authors undertook a systematic review to compare ESC-H with SAC for the surgical management of nonsyndromic single-suture sagittal craniosynostosis.

METHODS

Studies were identified through a systematic and comprehensive search of four databases (Embase, MEDLINE, and two databases in the Cochrane Library). Databases were searched from inception until February 19, 2021. Pediatric patients undergoing either ESC-H or SAC for the management of nonsyndromic single-suture sagittal craniosynostosis were included. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses, single-patient case reports, mixed cohorts of nonsyndromic and syndromic patients, mixed cohorts of different craniosynostosis types, and studies in which no outcomes of interest were reported were excluded. Outcomes of interest included reoperations, blood transfusion, complications, postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission, operative time, estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, and cephalic index. Pooled summary cohort characteristics were calculated for each outcome of interest. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The study was reported in accordance with the 2020 PRISMA statement.

RESULTS

Twenty-two studies were eligible for inclusion in the review, including 1094 patients, of whom 605 (55.3%) underwent ESC-H and 489 (44.7%) underwent SAC for nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis. There was no difference between the pooled estimates of the ESC-H and SAC groups for operative time, length of stay, estimated blood loss, and cephalic index. There was no difference between the groups for reoperation rate and complication rate. However, ESC-H was associated with a higher blood transfusion rate and higher postoperative ICU admission.

CONCLUSIONS

The available literature does not demonstrate superiority of either ESC-H or SAC, and outcomes are broadly similar for the treatment of nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis. However, the evidence is limited by single-center retrospective studies with low methodological quality. There is a need for international multicenter randomized controlled trials comparing both techniques to gain definitive and generalizable data.

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Jorge E. Alvernia, Miguel Enrique Berbeo Calderón, Jorge Cespedes, John Vargas, Matthew Grady, Luis C. Cadavid, Enrique Osorio Fonseca, and Adolfo Cumplido Posada

Ernesto Bustamante Zuleta (1922–2021) was an impactful Colombian neurosurgeon whose legacy is inextricably linked with the development of the neurosurgery specialty in Colombia. His detail-oriented approach to treatment complemented his reputation for mastery of the neurosciences. Never simply confined to the operating theater, this calm and considerate physician felt compelled to teach during his entire career. The result of his teaching made a lasting imprint on an entire generation of neurosurgeons who subsequently established a high standard of neurosurgical care in Colombia. A true pioneer, Bustamante comprehensively engaged in his field, from founding the country’s first residency program in neurosurgery to successfully implementing technology in his procedures, performing many of Colombia’s first neurosurgical interventions, and publishing extensively across various categories of medical science. This historical reflection highlights his enduring contributions to the field and considers his legacy through the witness testimony of many of his students and collaborators. The hope is that his contributions may be acknowledged in full, as he was a reserved person who never boasted of his own accomplishments. The authors also hope that those who did not have the opportunity to know him would be informed by the historical context of the development of Colombian neurosurgery and inspired by his conviction and altruism.

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Joshua Pepper, William B. Lo, Shakti Agrawal, Rana Mohamed, Jo Horton, Selina Balloo, Sunny Philip, Ashish Basnet, Welege Samantha Buddhika Wimalachandra, Andrew Lawley, Stefano Seri, and A. Richard Walsh

OBJECTIVE

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in children. Among very young children, one-third are resistant to medical treatment, and lack of effective treatment may result in adverse outcomes. Although functional hemispherotomy is an established treatment for epilepsy, its outcome in the very young child has not been widely reported. In this study the authors investigated seizure and developmental results after hemispherotomy in children younger than 3 years.

METHODS

The authors reviewed a prospective database of all children younger than 3 years with medically intractable epilepsy who underwent functional hemispherotomy at the authors’ institution during the period between 2012 and 2020. Demographic data, epilepsy history, underlying etiology, operative and transfusion details, and seizure and developmental outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS

Twelve patients were included in this study. The mean age (± SD) at seizure onset was 3 ± 2.6 months and at surgery was 1.3 ± 0.77 years, with a mean follow-up of 4 years. Diagnoses included hemimegalencephaly (n = 5), hemidysplasia (n = 2), hypoxic/hemorrhagic (n = 2), traumatic (n = 1), Sturge-Weber syndrome (n = 1), and mild hemispheric structural abnormality with EEG/PET correlates (n = 1). Eleven patients achieved an Engel class I outcome, and 1 patient achieved Engel class IV at last follow-up. No deaths, infections, cerebrovascular events, or unexpected long-term neurological deficits were recorded. All children progressed neurodevelopmentally following surgery, but their developmental levels remained behind their chronological age, with an overall mean composite Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale score of 58 (normal: 86–114, low: < 70). One patient required insertion of a subdural peritoneal shunt, 1 patient required dural repair for a CSF fluid leak, and 1 patient required aspiration of a pseudomeningocele. In 2 patients, both of whom weighed less than 5.7 kg, the first operation was incomplete due to blood loss.

CONCLUSIONS

Hemispherotomy in children younger than 3 years offers excellent seizure control and an acceptable risk-to-benefit ratio in well-selected patients. Families of children weighing less than 6 kg should be counseled regarding the possibility of staged surgery. Postoperatively, children continue to make appropriate, despite delayed, developmental progress.

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Luyuan Li, Kenji Ibayashi, Anthony Piscopo, Carolina Deifelt Streese, Haiming Chen, Jeremy D. W. Greenlee, and David M. Hasan

OBJECTIVE

Endovascular electroencephalography (evEEG) uses the cerebrovascular system to record electrical activity from adjacent neural structures. The safety, feasibility, and efficacy of using the Woven EndoBridge Aneurysm Embolization System (WEB) for evEEG has not been investigated.

METHODS

Seventeen participants undergoing awake WEB endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms were included. After WEB deployment and before detachment, its distal deployment wire was connected to an EEG receiver, and participants performed a decision-making task for 10 minutes. WEB and scalp recordings were captured.

RESULTS

All patients underwent successful embolization and evEEG with no complications. Event-related potentials were detected on scalp EEG in 9/17 (53%) patients. Of these 9 patients, a task-related low-gamma (30–70 Hz) response on WEB channels was captured in 8/9 (89%) cases. In these 8 patients, the WEB was deployed in 2 middle cerebral arteries, 3 anterior communicating arteries, the terminal internal carotid artery, and 2 basilar tip aneurysms. Electrocardiogram artifact on WEB channels was present in 12/17 cases.

CONCLUSIONS

The WEB implanted within cerebral aneurysms of awake patients is capable of capturing task-specific brain electrical activities. Future studies are warranted to establish the efficacy of and support for evEEG as a tool for brain recording, brain stimulation, and brain-machine interface applications.