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Po Ching Chen, Steven A. Messina, Eduardo Castillo, James Baumgartner, Joo Hee Seo, Holly Skinner, Elakkat D. Gireesh and Ki Hyeong Lee
Generalized-onset seizures are usually conceptualized as engaging bilaterally distributed networks with no clear focus. However, the authors previously reported a case series demonstrating that in some patients with generalized-onset seizures, focal seizure onset could be discovered after corpus callosotomy. The corpus callosum is considered to be a major pathway for seizure generalization in this group of patients. The authors hypothesized that, in patients with generalized-onset seizures, the structure of the corpus callosum could be different between patients who have lateralized seizures and those who have nonlateralized seizures after corpus callosotomy. The authors aimed to evaluate the structural difference through statistical analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scalars between these two groups of patients.
Thirty-two patients diagnosed with generalized-onset motor seizures and without an MRI lesion were included in this study. Among them, 16 patients developed lateralized epileptic activities after corpus callosotomy, and the remaining 16 patients continued to have nonlateralized seizures after corpus callosotomy. Presurgical DTI studies were acquired to quantify the structural integrity of the corpus callosum.
The DTI analysis showed significant reduction of fractional anisotropy (FA) and increase in radial diffusivity (RD) in the body of the corpus callosum in the lateralized group compared with the nonlateralized group.
The authors’ findings indicate the existence of different configurations of bilateral epileptic networks in generalized epilepsy. Generalized seizures with focal onset relying on rapid spread through the corpus callosum might cause more structural damage related to demyelination in the corpus callosum, showing reduced FA and increased RD. This study suggests that presurgical DTI analysis of the corpus callosum might predict the seizure lateralization after corpus callosotomy.
Evan Joyce, Michael Karsy, Serge Makarenko, Gretchen M. Oakley and William T. Couldwell
Anterior skull base approaches have included endoscopic or open microsurgical approaches for intracranial pathologies. However, discussion of a combined hybrid, cranioendoscopic approach, leveraging the benefits of both techniques, has been limited. Here we describe a case of a combined endoscopic, endonasal, and open microsurgical frontotemporal approach for resection of a complex anterior skull base lesion. A 62-year-old man with a large meningioma extending intradurally through the cribiform plate and sphenoethmoidal sinuses underwent a cranioendoscopic resection. Surgical techniques, including repair of the anterior skull base defect as well as complication avoidance and the coordination of multiple surgeons, are discussed.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Ti9tUUdWgJc.
Sauson Soldozy, Pedro Norat, Kaan Yağmurlu, Jennifer D. Sokolowski, Khadijeh A. Sharifi, Petr Tvrdik, Min S. Park and M. Yashar S. Kalani
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) presenting with epilepsy significantly impacts patient quality of life, and it should be considered very much a seizure disorder. Although hemorrhage prevention is the primary treatment aim of AVM surgery, seizure control should also be at the forefront of therapeutic management. Several hemodynamic and morphological characteristics of AVM have been identified to be associated with seizure presentation. This includes increased AVM flow, presence of long pial draining vein, venous outflow obstruction, and frontotemporal location, among other aspects. With the advent of high-throughput image processing and quantification methods, new radiographic attributes of AVM-related epilepsy have been identified. With respect to therapy, several treatment approaches are available, including conservative management or interventional modalities; this includes microsurgery, radiosurgery, and embolization or a combination thereof. Many studies, especially in the domain of microsurgery and radiosurgery, evaluate both techniques with respect to seizure outcomes. The advantage of microsurgery lies in superior AVM obliteration rates and swift seizure response. In addition, by incorporating electrophysiological monitoring during AVM resection, adjacent or even remote epileptogenic foci can be identified, leading to extended lesionectomy and improved seizure control. Radiosurgery, despite resulting in reduced AVM obliteration and prolonged time to seizure freedom, avoids the risks of surgery altogether and may provide seizure control through various antiepileptic mechanisms. Embolization continues to be used as an adjuvant for both microsurgery and radiosurgery. In this study, the authors review the latest imaging techniques in characterizing AVM-related epilepsy, in addition to reviewing each treatment modality.
Patrick Schuss, Julia Marx, Valeri Borger, Simon Brandecker, Ági Güresir, Alexis Hadjiathanasiou, Motaz Hamed, Matthias Schneider, Rainer Surges, Hartmut Vatter and Erdem Güresir
Cavernoma-related epilepsy (CRE) is a frequent symptom in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Reports on surgical management and seizure outcome of epileptogenic CCM often focus on intracranial cavernoma in general. Therefore, data on CCMs within the temporal lobe are scarce. The authors therefore analyzed their institutional data.
From 2003 to 2018, 52 patients suffering from CCMs located within the temporal lobe underwent surgery for CRE at University Hospital Bonn. Information on patient characteristics, preoperative seizure history, preoperative evaluation, surgical strategies, postoperative complications, and seizure outcome was assessed and further analyzed. Seizure outcome was assessed 12 months after surgery according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and stratified into favorable (ILAE class I) versus unfavorable (ILAE classes II–VI).
Overall, 47 (90%) of 52 patients with CCMs located in the temporal lobe and CRE achieved favorable seizure outcome. Pure lesionectomy was performed in 5 patients, extended lesionectomy with resection of the hemosiderin rim in 38 patients, and anterior temporal lobectomy in 9 patients with temporal lobe CCM. Specifically, 36 patients (69%) suffered from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), 3 patients (6%) from chronic CRE, and 13 patients (25%) sustained sporadic CRE. In patients with DRE, favorable seizure outcome was achieved in 32 (89%) of 36 patients. Patients with DRE were significantly older than patients with CCM-associated chronic or sporadic seizures (p = 0.02). Furthermore, patients with DRE more often underwent additional amygdalohippocampectomy following the recommendation of presurgical epileptological evaluation.
Favorable seizure outcome is achievable in a substantial number of patients with epileptogenic CCM located in the temporal lobe, even if patients suffered from drug-resistant CRE. For adequate counseling and monitoring, patients with CRE should undergo a thorough pre- and postsurgical evaluation in dedicated epilepsy surgery programs.
Chien-Chen Chou, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chun-Fu Lin, Yi-Hsiu Chen, Syu-Jyun Peng, Fu-Jung Hsiao, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Chien Chen, Hsin-Hung Chen and Yang-Hsin Shih
The semiology of cingulate gyrus epilepsy is varied and may involve the paracentral area, the adjacent limbic system, and/or the orbitofrontal gyrus. Invasive electroencephalography (iEEG) recording is usually required for patients with deeply located epileptogenic foci. This paper reports on the authors’ experiences in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of patients with focal epilepsy originating in the cingulate gyrus.
Eighteen patients (median age 24 years, range 5–53 years) with a mean seizure history of 23 years (range 2–32 years) were analyzed retrospectively. The results of presurgical evaluation, surgical strategy, and postoperative pathology are reported, as well as follow-up concerning functional morbidity and seizures (median follow-up 7 years, range 2–12 years).
Patients with cingulate gyrus epilepsy presented with a variety of semiologies and scalp EEG patterns. Prior to ictal onset, 11 (61%) of the patients presented with aura. Initial ictal symptoms included limb posturing in 12 (67%), vocalization in 5, and hypermotor movement in 4. In most patients (n = 16, 89%), ictal EEG presented as widespread patterns with bilateral hemispheric origin, as well as muscle artifacts obscuring the onset of EEG during the ictal period in 11 patients. Among the 18 patients who underwent resection, the pathology revealed mild malformation of cortical development in 2, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Ib in 4, FCD IIa in 4, FCD IIb in 4, astrocytoma in 1, ganglioglioma in 1, and gliosis in 2. The seizure outcome after surgery was satisfactory: Engel class IA in 12 patients, IIB in 3, IIIA in 1, IIIB in 1, and IVB in 1 at the 2-year follow-up.
In this study, the authors exploited the improved access to the cingulate epileptogenic network made possible by the use of 3D electrodes implanted using stereoelectroencephalography methodology. Under iEEG recording and intraoperative neuromonitoring, epilepsy surgery on lesions in the cingulate gyrus can result in good outcomes in terms of seizure recurrence and the incidence of postoperative permanent deficits.
James K. Liu, Kevin Zhao, Alejandro Vazquez and Jean Anderson Eloy
Tumors of the infratemporal fossa (ITF) are surgically formidable lesions due to their deep location and proximity to critical neurovascular structures. Selecting the optimal surgical corridor for a giant ITF lesion with extensive medial and lateral extension can be challenging due to the limited surgical freedom offered by each individual approach. In this operative video, we demonstrate a case of a 44-year-old female with a giant ITF schwannoma with intracranial extension and erosion of the central skull base. Although we considered several surgical approaches, including a standard binostril endoscopic endonasal approach and an endoscopic Denker’s approach, we eventually chose a combined endoscopic endonasal and sublabial (Caldwell-Luc) transmaxillary approach. This combined approach provides significantly greater surgical freedom than a pure endonasal route to the lateral ITF. The sublabial Caldwell-Luc corridor provides a more direct “head-on” trajectory to the target of the lateral ITF than the pure endonasal route. This combined approach provides a multiportal, multicorridor access, allowing for more surgical freedom and preservation of the piriform aperture and nasolacrimal duct. This case illustrates the versatility of the combined endoscopic endonasal and sublabial transmaxillary approach for giant ITF tumors with significant lateral extension. The technical nuances and surgical concepts are demonstrated in this operative video manuscript.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/gy-pkjLdDgE.
James K. Liu, Kevin Zhao and Jean Anderson Eloy
Craniopharyngioma is a rare and benign intracranial tumor of the sellar and suprasellar region. Historically, these tumors were mostly accessed through transcranial corridors and resected with microsurgical techniques. Endoscopic endonasal surgery has recently gained popularity in the treatment of these tumors and has shown at least comparable results to transcranial approaches. The endoscopic endonasal approach provides direct midline access through a transplanum transtuberculum corridor and gives excellent visualization of the undersurface of the optic chiasm to allow safe bimanual sharp dissection of the tumor from the hypothalamus. In this operative video, we demonstrate the case of a 56-year-old female who had a complex craniopharyngioma with solid and cystic components extending superolaterally into the right frontal lobe. This lesion was invasive and partially encased the right optic nerve, optic chiasm, and anterior communicating artery complex. Although a traditional transcranial approach could have been utilized, we elected for an endoscopic endonasal approach for a maximal safe near-total resection, preserving the neurovascular structures. The patient underwent radiation therapy with favorable regression of the residual tumor on subsequent imaging studies. This case illustrates the feasibility of a combined strategy of maximal safe endoscopic endonasal resection followed by early radiation therapy for a complex, invasive cystic and solid craniopharyngioma. The technical nuances of safe bimanual microsurgical dissection of tumor adhesions off of critical neurovascular structures are demonstrated.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/z0AINLpRZGs.