Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 36,245 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Hamidullah Salimi, Hiromitsu Toyoda, Kentaro Yamada, Hidetomi Terai, Masatoshi Hoshino, Akinobu Suzuki, Shinji Takahashi, Koji Tamai, Yusuke Hori, Akito Yabu, and Hiroaki Nakamura

OBJECTIVE

Several studies have examined the relationship between sagittal spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes after spinal surgery. However, the long-term reciprocal changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis after decompression surgery remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate radiographic changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups after minimally invasive lumbar decompression surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively studied the medical records of 110 patients who underwent bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach for lumbar spinal stenosis. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for low-back pain (LBP), leg pain, leg numbness, and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated before surgery and at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups. Sagittal malalignment was defined as a sagittal vertical axis (SVA) ≥ 50 mm.

RESULTS

Compared with baseline, lumbar lordosis significantly increased after decompression surgery at the 2-year (30.2° vs 38.5°, respectively; p < 0.001) and 5-year (30.2° vs 35.7°, respectively; p < 0.001) follow-ups. SVA significantly decreased at the 2-year follow-up compared with baseline (36.1 mm vs 51.5 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in SVA at the 5-year follow-up compared with baseline (50.6 mm vs 51.5 mm, respectively; p = 0.812). At the 5-year follow-up, 82.5% of patients with preoperative normal alignment maintained normal alignment, whereas 42.6% of patients with preoperative malalignment developed normal alignment. Preoperative sagittal malalignment was associated with the VAS score for LBP at baseline and 2-year and 5-year follow-ups and the JOA score at the 5-year follow-up. Postoperative sagittal malalignment was associated with the VAS score for LBP at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups and the VAS score for leg pain at the 5-year follow-up. There was a trend toward deterioration in clinical outcomes in patients with persistent postural malalignment compared with other patients.

CONCLUSIONS

After minimally invasive surgery, spinal sagittal malalignment can convert to normal alignment at both short-term and long-term follow-ups. Sagittal malalignment has a negative impact on the VAS score for LBP and a weakly negative impact on the JOA score after decompression surgery.

Restricted access

Madeline B. Karsten, Edward R. Smith, and R. Michael Scott

OBJECTIVE

There are limited reports on long-term morbidity in pediatric patients who have undergone surgical revascularization for moyamoya disease (MMD). Here, the authors report long-term morbidity and mortality in a population of pediatric patients who underwent pial synangiosis for MMD from 1988 through 2016.

METHODS

A single-center retrospective review of the hospital and personal operative databases of the senior authors was carried out to identify all patients who were treated for MMD at Boston Children’s Hospital between 1988 and 2016, and who experienced any episode of late morbidity or mortality, which the authors defined as an event resulting in significant neurological deficit or death occurring more than 1 year after revascularization surgery. Hospital records were reviewed to determine pertinent demographic data, the initial mode of patient presentation, and associated comorbidities. Radiographic studies, when available, were reviewed for documentation of the diagnosis and for confirmation of the late complication, and the literature on this topic was reviewed.

RESULTS

In total, 460 patients with MMD underwent surgery between 1988 and 2016 using the pial synangiosis surgical technique; 15 (3.3%) of these patients (9 females and 6 males) experienced documented late death (n = 14) or severe morbidity (n = 1). The median age at revascularization surgery was 8.0 years (range 1–21 years). The causes of these late complications were grouped into three etiologies: intraventricular or intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 8), systemic complications related to associated comorbidities or preoperative disabilities (n = 5), and the development of malignant brain tumors (n = 2). Four patients whose MMD was associated with a history of cranial radiation therapy died. These events occurred from as early as 2 years to as late as 27 years postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

The risk of late morbidities and mortality following pial synangiosis for MMD in the pediatric patient appeared to be low. Nevertheless, the occurrence of catastrophic cerebrovascular events, particularly intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage in the otherwise neurologically stable revascularized patient, was concerning. Although there is value in long-term surveillance of patients who have undergone surgery for MMD, from both a neurological and a general medical standpoint, particularly in patients with the risk factor of prior cranial radiation therapy, it is not clear from the data how the late deaths in this population could have been prevented.

Restricted access

Luke G. F. Smith, E. Antonio Chiocca, Gregory J. Zipfel, Adam G. F. Smith, Michael W. Groff, Regis W. Haid, and Russell R. Lonser

OBJECTIVE

The Neurosurgery Research and Education Foundation (NREF) provides research support for in-training and early career neurosurgeon-scientists. To define the impact of this funding, the authors assessed the success of NREF awardees in obtaining subsequent National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding.

METHODS

NREF in-training (Research Fellowship [RF] for residents) and early career awards/awardees (Van Wagenen Fellowship [VW] and Young Clinician Investigator [YCI] award for neurosurgery faculty) were analyzed. NIH funding was defined by individual awardees using the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting tool (1985–2014).

RESULTS

Between 1985 and 2014, 207 unique awardees were supported by 218 NREF awards ($9.84 million [M] in funding), including 117 RF ($6.02 M), 32 VW ($1.68 M), and 69 YCI ($2.65 M) awards. Subspecialty funding included neuro-oncology (79 awards; 36% of RF, VW, and YCI awards), functional (53 awards; 24%), vascular (37 awards; 17%), spine (22 awards; 10%), pediatrics (18 awards; 8%), trauma/critical care (5 awards; 2%), and peripheral nerve (4 awards; 2%). These awardees went on to receive $353.90 M in NIH funding that resulted in an overall NREF/NIH funding ratio of 36.0:1 (in dollars). YCI awardees most frequently obtained later NIH funding (65%; $287.27 M), followed by VW (56%; $41.10 M) and RF (31%; $106.59 M) awardees. YCI awardees had the highest NREF/NIH funding ratio (108.6:1), followed by VW (24.4:1) and RF (17.7:1) awardees. Subspecialty awardees who went on to obtain NIH funding included vascular (19 awardees; 51% of vascular NREF awards), neuro-oncology (40 awardees; 51%), pediatrics (9 awardees; 50%), functional (25 awardees; 47%), peripheral nerve (1 awardees; 25%), trauma/critical care (2 awardees; 20%), and spine (2 awardees; 9%) awardees. Subspecialty NREF/NIH funding ratios were 56.2:1 for vascular, 53.0:1 for neuro-oncology, 47.6:1 for pediatrics, 34.1:1 for functional, 22.2:1 for trauma/critical care, 9.5:1 for peripheral nerve, and 0.4:1 for spine. Individuals with 2 NREF awards achieved a higher NREF/NIH funding ratio (83.3:1) compared to those with 1 award (29.1:1).

CONCLUSIONS

In-training and early career NREF grant awardees are an excellent investment, as a significant portion of these awardees go on to obtain NIH funding. Moreover, there is a potent multiplicative impact of NREF funding converted to NIH funding that is related to award type and subspecialty.

Restricted access

Adham M. Khalafallah, Adrian E. Jimenez, Nathan A. Shlobin, Collin J. Larkin, Debraj Mukherjee, Corinna C. Zygourakis, Sheng-Fu Lo, Daniel M. Sciubba, Ali Bydon, Timothy F. Witham, Nader S. Dahdaleh, and Nicholas Theodore

OBJECTIVE

Although fellowship training is becoming increasingly common in neurosurgery, it is unclear which factors predict an academic career trajectory among spinal neurosurgeons. In this study, the authors sought to identify predictors associated with academic career placement among fellowship-trained neurological spinal surgeons.

METHODS

Demographic data and bibliometric information on neurosurgeons who completed a residency program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education between 1983 and 2019 were gathered, and those who completed a spine fellowship were identified. Employment was denoted as academic if the hospital where a neurosurgeon worked was affiliated with a neurosurgical residency program; all other positions were denoted as nonacademic. A logistic regression model was used for multivariate statistical analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 376 fellowship-trained spinal neurosurgeons were identified, of whom 140 (37.2%) held academic positions. The top 5 programs that graduated the most fellows in the cohort were Cleveland Clinic, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, University of Miami, Barrow Neurological Institute, and Northwestern University. On multivariate analysis, increased protected research time during residency (OR 1.03, p = 0.044), a higher h-index during residency (OR 1.12, p < 0.001), completing more than one clinical fellowship (OR 2.16, p = 0.024), and attending any of the top 5 programs that graduated the most fellows (OR 2.01, p = 0.0069) were independently associated with an academic career trajectory.

CONCLUSIONS

Increased protected research time during residency, a higher h-index during residency, completing more than one clinical fellowship, and attending one of the 5 programs graduating the most fellowship-trained neurosurgical spinal surgeons independently predicted an academic career. These results may be useful in identifying and advising trainees interested in academic spine neurosurgery.

Restricted access

Mohammed A. Fouda, Emily L. Day, David Zurakowski, R. Michael Scott, Edward R. Smith, Karen J. Marcus, and Katie P. Fehnel

OBJECTIVE

The goal in this study was to outline unique differences between radiation-induced and nonradiation-induced pediatric meningiomas and to identify independent risk factors of tumor recurrence/progression.

METHODS

This is a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric meningiomas diagnosed and surgically treated at the authors’ institution between 1993 and 2017. Multivariable Cox regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for tumor recurrence/progression.

RESULTS

Thirty-five patients were identified. The primary etiology was nonradiation-induced (n = 24: n = 3 with neurofibromatosis type 2) or radiation-induced (n = 11: acute lymphoblastic leukemia [n = 5], medulloblastoma [n = 4], germ cell tumor [n = 1], and primitive neuroectodermal tumor [n = 1]) meningioma. The mean age at time of diagnosis was 10.7 ± 5.7 years for nonradiation-induced and 17.3 ± 3.5 years for radiation-induced meningiomas. Overall, 8/24 patients with nonradiation-induced meningioma experienced either recurrence or progression of the tumor. Of the 8 patients with tumor recurrence or progression, the pathological diagnosis was clear cell meningioma (n = 3: 2 recurrent and 1 progressive); grade I (n = 2 progressive); grade I with atypical features (n = 2: 1 recurrent and 1 progressive); or atypical meningioma (n = 1 recurrent). None of the patients with radiation-induced meningioma experienced recurrence or progression. Predictors of tumor recurrence/progression by univariate analysis included age at time of diagnosis ≤ 10 years (p = 0.002), histological subtype clear cell meningioma (p = 0.003), and primary etiology nonradiation-induced meningioma (p = 0.04), and there was a notable trend with elevated MIB-1 staining index (SI) (p = 0.09). There was no significant difference between nonradiation-induced and radiation-induced meningiomas (p = 0.258), although there was a trend between recurrent and nonrecurrent meningiomas (p = 0.09). Multivariate Cox regression, adjusted for length of follow-up, identified younger age at diagnosis (p = 0.004) and a higher MIB-1 SI (p = 0.044) as independent risk factors for recurrence. Elevated MIB-1 SI statistically correlated with atypia (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant statistical correlation between tumor recurrence/progression and atypia (p = 0.2).

CONCLUSIONS

Younger patient age and higher MIB-1 SI are independent risk factors for recurrence. Atypia was not a predictor of recurrence.

Restricted access

Mark Bigder, Omar Choudhri, Mihir Gupta, Santosh Gummidipundi, Summer S. Han, Ephraim W. Church, Steven D. Chang, Richard P. Levy, Huy M. Do, Michael P. Marks, and Gary K. Steinberg

OBJECTIVE

Microsurgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can be aided by staged treatment consisting of stereotactic radiosurgery followed by resection in a delayed fashion. This approach is particularly useful for high Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade lesions because radiosurgery can reduce flow through the AVM, downgrade the SM rating, and induce histopathological changes that additively render the AVM more manageable for resection. The authors present their 28-year experience in managing AVMs with adjunctive radiosurgery followed by resection.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated for cerebral AVMs at their institution between January 1990 and August 2019. All patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (with or without embolization), followed by resection, were included in the study. Of 1245 patients, 95 met the eligibility criteria. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between key variables and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

The majority of lesions treated (53.9%) were high grade (SM grade IV–V), 31.5% were intermediate (SM grade III), and 16.6% were low grade (SM grade I–II). Hemorrhage was the initial presenting sign in half of all patients (49.5%). Complete resection was achieved among 84% of patients, whereas 16% had partial resection, the majority of whom received additional radiosurgery. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–2 were achieved in 79.8% of patients, and 20.2% had poor (mRS scores 3–6) outcomes. Improved (44.8%) or stable (19%) mRS scores were observed among 63.8% of patients, whereas 36.2% had a decline in mRS scores. This includes 22 patients (23.4%) with AVM hemorrhage and 6 deaths (6.7%) outside the perioperative period but prior to AVM obliteration.

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a useful adjunct in the presurgical management of cerebral AVMs. Multimodal therapy allowed for high rates of AVM obliteration and acceptable morbidity rates, despite the predominance of high-grade lesions in this series of patients.

Restricted access

Julia R. Schneider, Amrit K. Chiluwal, Mohsen Nouri, Giyarpuram N. Prashant, and Amir R. Dehdashti

OBJECTIVE

The retrosigmoid (RS) approach is a classic route used to access deep-seated brainstem cavernous malformation (CM). The angle of access is limited, so alternatives such as the transpetrosal presigmoid retrolabyrinthine (TPPR) approach have been used to overcome this limitation. Here, the authors evaluated a modification to the RS approach, horizontal fissure dissection by using the RS transhorizontal (RSTH) approach.

METHODS

Relevant clinical parameters were evaluated in 9 patients who underwent resection of lateral pontine CM. Cadaveric dissection was performed to compare the TPPR approach and the RSTH approach.

RESULTS

Five patients underwent the TPPR approach, and 4 underwent the RSTH approach. Dissection of the horizontal fissure allowed for access to the infratrigeminal safe entry zone, with a direct trajectory to the middle cerebellar peduncle similar to that used in TPPR exposure. Operative time was longer in the TPPR group. All patients had a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at the last follow-up. Cadaveric dissection confirmed increased anteroposterior working angle and middle cerebellar peduncle exposure with the addition of horizontal fissure dissection.

CONCLUSIONS

The RSTH approach leads to a direct lateral path to lateral pontine CM, with similar efficacy and shorter operative time compared with more extensive skull base exposure. The RSTH approach could be considered a valid alternative for resection of selected pontine CM.

Restricted access

Chencai Wang, Benjamin M. Ellingson, Sabah Islam, Azim Laiwalla, Noriko Salamon, and Langston T. Holly

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate cerebral reorganization, both structurally and functionally, occurring in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) after surgical decompression.

METHODS

In the current observational study of 19 patients, high-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI scans were obtained pre- and postoperatively in patients with DCM and healthy controls (HCs). The resting-state functional MRI data were utilized to perform region-of-interest (ROI)–to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel functional connectivity (FC) analysis and were similarly compared between and within cohorts. Macroscopic structural plasticity was evaluated by assessing for changes in cortical thickness within the DCM cohort after decompression surgery.

RESULTS

Prior to surgery, FC patterns were significantly different between DCM patients and HCs in cerebral areas responsible for postural control, motor regulation, and perception and integration of sensory information. Significantly stronger FC between the cerebellum and frontal lobes was identified in DCM patients postoperatively compared with DCM patients preoperatively. Additionally, increased FC between the cerebellum and primary sensorimotor areas was found to be positively associated with neurological improvement in patients with DCM. No macroscopic structural changes were observed in the DCM patients after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

These results support the authors’ hypothesis that functional changes within the brain are associated with effective postoperative recovery, particularly in regions associated with motor regulation and with perception and integration of sensory information. In particular, increased FC between the cerebellum and the primary sensorimotor after surgery appears to be associated with neurological improvement. Macroscopic morphological changes may be too subtle to be detected within 3 months after surgery.

Open access

Yi-Hsuan Kuo, Po-Kuei Hsu, Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, and Tsung-Hsi Tu

BACKGROUND

Pancoast tumors are a wide range of tumors located in the apex of the lung. Traditional surgery for Pancoast neurogenic tumors frequently involves extensive approaches, whether anterior or posterior or a combination, in which osteotomies are sometimes required. In this study, the authors proposed a less invasive surgical strategy using the standard Cloward’s approach for complete resection of a schwannoma arising from the T1 nerve root.

OBSERVATIONS

Two patients, each harboring a large T1 tumor, one on each side, underwent Cloward’s approach with and without thoracoscopic surgery. Both patients had complete resection of the tumor. Considering the benign and encapsulated nature of neurogenic tumors, Cloward’s approach under neuromonitoring, which is a common procedure for anterior cervical discectomy for most neurosurgeons, is a safe and less invasive alternative for Pancoast neurogenic tumors. For patients whose tumor cannot be removed completely via Cloward’s approach, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is a viable backup plan with minimal invasiveness.

LESSONS

Cloward’s approach is a viable option for Pancoast neurogenic tumors.