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Open access

Jan Lodin, Štěpánka Brušáková, David Kachlík, Martin Sameš, and Ivan Humhej

BACKGROUND

This report depicts a rare case of acutely developed urinary retention as well as sensory and motor disturbances caused by formation of a large hematoma within the piriformis muscle, which caused compression of nerves within the suprapiriform and infrapiriform foramina, thus imitating cauda equina syndrome. Although cases of acute lumbosacral plexopathy have been described, this case is the first time both urinary retention and sensory and motor disturbances were present.

OBSERVATIONS

The most useful tools for diagnosis of acute piriformis syndrome are detailed patient history, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvic region, and electrophysiological testing performed by an experienced electrophysiologist. As a result of diligent rehabilitation, including physiotherapy and electrostimulation, the patient was able to successfully recover, regardless of acute compression of the sacral plexus that lasted 6 days.

LESSONS

Clinicians should actively ask about previous pelvic trauma when taking a patient history in similar cases, especially if the patient is receiving anticoagulation treatment. If MRI of the lumbar spine does not reveal any pathologies, MRI of the pelvic region should be performed. Acute surgical decompression is crucial for preserving neurological function. In similar cases, it is possible to differentiate between spinal cord, cauda equina, and pelvic lesions using electrophysiological studies.

Open access

Johnson Ku, Chieh-Yi Chen, Jason Ku, Hsuan-Kan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, and Yu-Shu Yen

BACKGROUND

Nasal swab tests are one of the most essential tools for screening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors report a rare case of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the anterior skull base after repeated nasal swab tests for COVID-19, which was treated with endoscopic endonasal repair.

OBSERVATIONS

A 41-year-old man presented with clear continuous rhinorrhea through his left nostril for 5 days after repeated nasal swabbing for COVID-19. There were no obvious risk factors for spontaneous CSF leak. Computed tomography cisternography showed contrast accumulation in the left olfactory fossa and along the left nasal cavity. Such findings aligned with a preliminary diagnosis of CSF leakage through the left cribriform plate. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a CSF fistula between his left cribriform plate and superior nasal concha. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal repair. CSF rhinorrhea ceased after the surgery, and no recurrence was noted during the 12-week postoperative follow-up period.

LESSONS

Although rare, iatrogenic CSF leakage can be a serious complication following COVID-19 nasal swab tests, especially when infection may cause significant neurological sequelae. Healthcare providers should become familiar with nasal cavity anatomy and be well trained in performing nasal swab tests.

Open access

Anna H. Green, Andrzej Brzezinski, Terrence Ishmael, Stephen Adolfsen, and J. Andrew Bowe

BACKGROUND

Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) systems have gained attention for their use in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis. Although traditional growing rods require frequent operations to lengthen the construct, MCGR allows for fewer open procedures and more frequent distractions by externally controlling rod elongation. Despite its appealing advantages, MCGR is not without limitations.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of premature spinal autofusion before growing rod removal and termination of rod distraction.

LESSONS

This case highlights the limitations of MCGR systems, including length of use, body habitus restrictions, and risk of autofusion.

Open access

Kota Nakajima, Takeshi Funaki, Masakazu Okawa, Kazumichi Yoshida, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

Selecting therapeutic options for moyamoya disease (MMD)-associated anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm, a rare pathology in children, is challenging because its natural course remains unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 4-year-old boy exhibiting transient ischemic attacks was diagnosed with unilateral MMD accompanied by an unruptured ACoA aneurysm. Although superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis eliminated his symptoms, the aneurysm continued to grow after surgery. Since a previous craniotomy and narrow endovascular access at the ACoA precluded both aneurysmal clipping and coil embolization, the patient underwent a surgical anastomosis incorporating an occipital artery graft between the bilateral cortical anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs). This was intended to augment blood flow in the ipsilateral ACA territory and to reduce the hemodynamic burden on the ACoA complex. The postoperative course was uneventful, and radiological images obtained 12 months after surgery revealed good patency of the bypass and marked shrinkage of the aneurysm in spite of the intact contralateral internal carotid artery.

LESSONS

Various clinical scenarios should be assessed carefully with regard to this pathology. Bypass surgery aimed at reducing flow to the aneurysm might be an alternative therapeutic option when neither coiling nor clipping is feasible.

Open access

Lacey M. Carter, Alejandro Ruiz-Elizalde, and Naina L. Gross

BACKGROUND

When ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts and umbilical hernias coexist in the same patient, unique complications can occur. Typically, these are readily identified problems such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas or entrapment of the peritoneal catheter in the hernia. The authors present cases of two children whose VP shunt dysfunction resolved after repair of their umbilical hernias.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present two cases of infant patients with shunted hydrocephalus and umbilical hernias. In both cases, the patients presented with distal shunt malfunctions not due to infection. Their shunt function improved once the umbilical hernia was repaired by pediatric surgery. Neither has required shunt revision since umbilical hernia repair.

LESSONS

Although there are case reports of VP shunts eroding through the umbilicus, developing CSF fistulas, or becoming trapped inside umbilical hernias, there is no case of VP shunt dysfunction caused by just the presence of an umbilical hernia. The authors suspect that the catheter may intermittently enter and exit the hernia. This may cause intermittent obstruction of the distal catheter, or inflammation in the hernia may occur that limits CSF absorption.

Restricted access

Toyin A. Oyemolade, Amos O. Adeleye, Ayodele J. Olusola, Busayo A. Ehinola, Ebosetale P. Aikhomu, and Anita A. Iroko

OBJECTIVE

The proportion of the global burden of neurosurgical disease represented by pediatric neurosurgical pathology is unknown, especially in lower-middle income countries (LMICs) where there exists no known data-driven literature on the subject. In this study, the authors aimed to quantify the pediatric neurosurgical disease profile in a rural area of a developing country.

METHODS

This was a prospective observational study of all pediatric neurosurgical patients managed at a single center over a 30-month period.

RESULTS

Overall, 226 pediatric patients were included in the study (150 males and 76 females, male/female ratio 2:1), accounting for 20.4% of the total patient population during the study period. The modal age distribution was the 0- to 4-year-old group (32.3%), and head injury was the most common presentation, occurring alone in 157 patients (69.5%). Hydrocephalus alone was seen in 21 patients (9.3%) and in combination with myelomeningocele in 4 patients (1.8%). Brain tumors were found in 6 patients (2.7%), infective lesions in 6 patients (2.7%), and encephaloceles in 2 patients (0.9%). The treatment outcome was good in 170 patients (75.2%). Fourteen patients (6.2%) were referred to more advanced health facilities for specialized care; 29 patients (12.8%) were discharged against medical advice, mostly because of financial constraints; and 8 patients (3.5%) died. Several surgical cases could not be performed because of sundry logistical constraints.

CONCLUSIONS

Pediatric neurosurgical disease accounted for one-fifth of the neurosurgical workload at a tertiary health facility in southwest Nigeria. Trauma was the most common presentation, and optimal in-hospital treatment, including surgery, was hampered by severe logistical constraints in a significant proportion of the cases.

Restricted access

Jonathan B. Lamano, Robert A. Riestenberg, Aden P. Haskell-Mendoza, Dennis Lee, Michael T. Sharp, and Orin Bloch

OBJECTIVE

Patients increasingly utilize online physician review websites (PRWs) and social media to inform healthcare-related decisions. This provides neurosurgeons with opportunities for increased patient engagement. And despite the growing use of social media among neurosurgeons, the relationship between social media utilization and online reviews remains unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between social media utilization and PRW ratings across academic neurosurgery departments.

METHODS

Social media accounts (Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram) of academic neurosurgery departments were identified. Online reviews for individual faculty were obtained from Healthgrades, Vitals, WebMD, and Google. Reviews were aggregated to identify the total number of reviews per department, to generate a composite departmental rating, and to calculate a summed departmental score. US News & World Report (USNWR) and Doximity rankings were recorded for each department. Social media utilization by individual neurosurgeons and associated ratings were investigated within the departments with the highest social media utilization.

RESULTS

Seventy-eight percent of academic neurosurgery departments utilized social media. The most prevalent platform was YouTube (49.1%), followed by Twitter (46.5%), Facebook (38.6%), and Instagram (16.7%). Higher patient ratings on PRWs were associated with the utilization of YouTube (p = 0.048) or Twitter (p = 0.02). The number of social media platforms utilized demonstrated a significant, positive correlation with patient ratings (p = 0.006) and summed patient ratings (p = 0.048). Although USNWR (p = 0.02) and Doximity (p = 0.0008) rankings correlated with patient ratings, only the number of social media platforms utilized remained a significant predictor of patient ratings on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0001). Thirty-one percent of academic neurosurgeons from departments with high social media utilization were active on social media. The most prevalent social media platform among individual neurosurgeons was Twitter (27.4%), followed by Instagram (8.4%), Facebook (4.9%), and YouTube (2.2%). Higher summed patient scores were associated with individual neurosurgeon utilization of YouTube (p = 0.04), Facebook (p < 0.0001), and Instagram (p = 0.01). Increased social media utilization among neurosurgeons was correlated with a greater number of patient reviews (p = 0.006) and higher summed patient scores (p = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, only Facebook use remained a significant predictor of the number of patient reviews received (p = 0.002) and summed patient satisfaction scores (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

An increased social media presence is associated with higher ratings on PRWs. As neurosurgeons continue to expand their online presence, they should be aware of the possible impact of social media on online patient reviews.

Restricted access

Juan C. Bulacio, James Bena, Piradee Suwanpakdee, Dileep Nair, Ajay Gupta, Andreas Alexopoulos, William Bingaman, and Imad Najm

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate seizure outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery following stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), including group characteristics, comparing surgical and nonsurgical groups and assess predictors of time to seizure recurrence.

METHODS

Clinical and EEG data of 536 consecutive patients who underwent SEEG at Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center between 2009 and 2017 were reviewed. The primary outcome was defined as complete seizure freedom since the resective surgery, discounting any auras or seizures that occurred within the 1st postoperative week. In addition, the rate of seizure freedom based on Engel classification was determined in patients with follow-up of ≥ 1 year. Presumably significant outcome variables were first identified using univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify outcome predictors.

RESULTS

Of 527 patients satisfying study criteria, 341 underwent resective surgery. Complete and continuous seizure freedom after surgery was achieved in 55.5% of patients at 1 year postoperatively, 44% of patients at 3 years, and 39% of patients at 5 years. As a secondary outcome point, 58% of patients achieved Engel class I seizure outcome for at least 1 year at last follow-up. Among surgical outcome predictors, in multivariate model analysis, the seizure recurrence rate by type of resection (p = 0.039) remained statistically significant, with the lowest risk of recurrence occurring after frontal and temporal lobe resections compared with multilobar and posterior quadrant surgeries. Patients with a history of previous resection (p = 0.006) and bilateral implantations (p = 0.023) were more likely to have seizure recurrence. The absence of an MRI abnormality prior to resective surgery did not significantly affect seizure outcome in this cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

This large, single-center series shows that resective surgery leads to continuous seizure freedom in a group of patients with complex and severe pharmacoresistant epilepsy after SEEG evaluation. In addition, up to 58% of patients achieved seizure freedom at last follow-up. The authors’ results suggest that SEEG is equally effective in patients with frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy with or without MRI identified lesions.

Restricted access

Eun Jung Lee, Ji Yeoun Lee, Jin-Wook Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, Yong Hwy Kim, Seung-Ki Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Kyu-Chang Wang, and Dong Gyu Kim

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to investigate the dosimetric parameter and the minimally required dose associated with long-term control of sellar and parasellar tumors after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in children.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis was performed on pediatric patients younger than 19 years of age who were diagnosed with sellar and parasellar tumors and received GKS at the authors’ institution from 1998 to 2019. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to investigate the dosimetric parameters associated with treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze tumor control rates after GKS.

RESULTS

Overall, 37 patients with 40 sellar and parasellar tumors, including 22 craniopharyngiomas and 12 pituitary adenomas, had a mean follow-up of 85.8 months. The gross target volume was 0.05 cm3 to 15.28 cm3, and the mean marginal dose was 15.8 Gy (range 9.6–30.0 Gy). Ten patients experienced treatment failure at a mean of 28.0 ± 26.7 months. The actuarial 5- and 10-year tumor control rates were 79.0% and 69.8%, respectively. D98% was an independent predictive factor of tumor control (HR 0.846 [95% CI 0.749–0.956], p = 0.007), with a cutoff value of 11.5 Gy for the entire cohort and 10 Gy for the craniopharyngioma group. Visual deterioration occurred in 2 patients with the maximum point dose of 10.1 Gy and 10.6 Gy to the optic apparatus.

CONCLUSIONS

In pediatric patients, D98% was a reliable index of the minimum required dose for long-term control of sellar and parasellar tumors after GKS. The optimal D98% value for each tumor diagnosis needs to be elucidated in the future.