Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 37,980 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

James Mooney, James Pate, Ian Cummins, M. Chandler McLeod, and Sara Gould

OBJECTIVE

Many studies have identified factors associated with increased symptom burden and prolonged recovery after pediatric and adolescent concussion. Few have systematically examined the effects of prior concussion on these outcomes in patients with concussion due to any mechanism. An improved understanding of the short- and long-term effects of a multiple concussion history will improve counseling and management of this subgroup of patients.

METHODS

A retrospective review of adolescent and young adult acute concussion patients presenting to the multidisciplinary concussion clinic between 2018 and 2019 was conducted at a single center. Patient demographic data, medical history including prior concussion, initial symptom severity score (SSS), injury mechanisms, and recovery times were collected. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify associations of history of prior concussion and patient and injury characteristics with symptom score and recovery time.

RESULTS

A total of 266 patients with an average age of 15.4 years (age range 13–27 years) were included. Prior concussion was reported in 35% of patients. The number of prior concussions per patient was not significantly associated with presenting symptom severity, recovery time, or recovery within 28 days. Male sex and sports-related concussion (SRC) were associated with lower presenting SSS and shorter recovery time on univariate but not multivariable analysis. However, compared to non–sport concussion mechanisms, SRC was associated with 2.3 times higher odds of recovery within 28 days (p = 0.04). A history of psychiatric disorders was associated with higher SSS in univariate analysis and longer recovery time in univariate and multivariable analyses. Multivariable log-linear regression also demonstrated 5 times lower odds of recovery within 28 days for those with a psychiatric history.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study demonstrated that an increasing number of prior concussions was associated with a trend toward higher presenting SSS after youth acute concussion but did not show a significant association with recovery time or delayed (> 28 days) recovery. Presence of psychiatric history was found to be significantly associated with longer recovery and lower odds of early (≤ 28 days) recovery. Future prospective, long-term, and systematic study is necessary to determine the optimal counseling and management of adolescent and young adult patients with a history of multiple concussions.

Restricted access

Teodor Svedung Wettervik, Anders Hånell, Timothy Howells, Elisabeth Ronne Engström, Anders Lewén, and Per Enblad

OBJECTIVE

The primary aim of this study was to determine the combined effect of insult intensity and duration of intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and pressure reactivity index (PRx) on outcome measured with the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended (GOS-E) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

This observational study included all TBI and aSAH patients treated in the neurointensive care unit in Uppsala, Sweden, 2008–2018, with at least 24 hours of ICP monitoring during the first 10 days following injury and available long-term clinical outcome data. ICP, CPP, and PRx insults were visualized as 2D plots to highlight the effects of both insult intensity and duration on patient outcome.

RESULTS

Of 950 included patients, 436 were TBI and 514 aSAH patients. The TBI patients were younger, more often male, and exhibited worse neurological status at admission, but recovered more favorably than the aSAH patients. There was a transition from good to poor outcome with ICP above 15–20 mm Hg in both TBI and aSAH. The two diagnoses had opposite CPP patterns. In TBI patients, CPP episodes at or below 80 mm Hg were generally favorable, whereas CPP episodes above 80 mm Hg were favorable in the aSAH patients. In the TBI patients there was a transition from good to poor outcome when PRx exceeded zero, but no evident transition was found in the aSAH cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

The insult intensity and duration plots formulated in this study illustrate the similarities and differences between TBI and aSAH patients. In particular, aSAH patients may benefit from much higher CPP targets than TBI patients.

Restricted access

Othman Bin-Alamer, David Fogg, Zhishuo Wei, James Duehr, Arka N. Mallela, Ajay Niranjan, L. Dade Lunsford, and Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar

OBJECTIVE

Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are benign tumors of the cerebellopontine angle that are typically managed with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Intratumoral hemorrhage (ITH) of VSs is a rare occurrence that results in worsening vestibular and new cranial nerve deficits. Few reports have described the management and outcomes of this entity after SRS. To further delineate the incidence and impact of this event, the authors performed a retrospective review of their VS SRS patients at a single center.

METHODS

Between 1987 and 2022, 2058 patients with VSs underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors performed a review of the prospectively maintained VS database at their center to identify patients with ITH. The presentation, management, and clinical and imaging outcomes of the patients are reported.

RESULTS

A total of 1902 VS patients had sufficient clinical and imaging follow-up data. Five Koos grade III (n = 1) and IV (n = 4) VS patients developed ITH after GKRS, resulting in a cumulative incidence rate of 0.26%. The age at presentation ranged from 62 to 79 years, and 3 patients were male. The time from VS diagnosis to GKRS ranged from 1 to 13 months, and the time from GKRS to ITH ranged from 2 to 130 months. Three patients had bleeding risk factors. One patient required urgent surgical intervention due to the ITH volume, while the other 4 patients were initially observed. Three patients remained stable and required no delayed intervention; 1 patient required delayed resection because of symptom progression and hemorrhagic expansion. Histopathological analysis revealed multiple fragments of S-100–positive cells, hemorrhage, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. At last follow-up, 4 patients had clinically improved and 1 patient remained stable.

CONCLUSIONS

ITH after VS radiosurgery is a rare phenomenon with a cumulative incidence rate of 0.26% in this series. Patient-tailored management in the form of observation or resection is based on patient presentation, acuity, and ITH size.

Restricted access

Elias Oulasvirta, Anni Pohjola, Päivi Koroknay-Pál, Ahmad Hafez, Risto Roine, Harri Sintonen, and Aki Laakso

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to reveal the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL), educational level, and impact on occupation in 55 patients who experienced ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that were treated during childhood.

METHODS

In 2016, questionnaires including the 15D instrument were sent to all living patients older than 18 years (n = 432) in the Helsinki AVM database. The cohort was further specified to include only patients with ruptured AVMs who were younger than 20 years at the time of diagnosis (n = 55). Educational level was compared with the age-matched general population of Finland. The mean 15D scores were calculated for independent variables (Spetzler-Ponce classification, admission age, symptomatic epilepsy, and multiple bleeding episodes) and tested using the independent-samples t-test or ANCOVA. Linear regression was used to create a multivariate model. Bonferroni correction was used with multiple comparisons.

RESULTS

The mean follow-up time from diagnosis to survey was 24.2 (SD 14.7) years. The difference in the mean 15D scores between Spetzler-Ponce classes did not reach statistical significance. The youngest age group (< 10 years at the time of diagnosis) performed less well on the dimension of usual activities than the older patients. Symptomatic epilepsy significantly reduced the long-term HRQOL. Multiple hemorrhages significantly reduced the scores on three dimensions: mobility, speech, and sexual activity. In the regression model, symptomatic epilepsy was the only significant predictor for a lower 15D score. The educational level of the cohort was for the most part comparable to that of the general population in the same age group. AVM was the reason for early retirement in 11% of the patients, while lowered performance because of the AVM was reported by 37% of the patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with ruptured AVMs treated in childhood can live an independent and meaningful life, even in the case of the highest-grade lesions. Symptomatic epilepsy significantly reduced the long-term HRQOL, highlighting the need for continuing support for these patients.

Restricted access

Andy Y. Wang, Matthew Kanter, Michelle Olmos, Ellen D. McPhail, Mina G. Safain, James Kryzanski, Knarik Arkun, and Ron I. Riesenburger

OBJECTIVE

Wild-type transthyretin amyloid (ATTRwt) is deposited in the ligamentum flavum (LF) of a subset of patients with spinal stenosis who undergo decompressive surgery, although its role in the pathophysiology of spinal stenosis is unknown. It has been theorized that degeneration of intervertebral discs causes increased mechanical stress and inflammatory/degenerative cascades and ultimately leads to LF fibrosis. If ATTRwt deposits contribute to LF thickening and spinal stenosis through a different pathway, then patients with ATTRwt may have less severe disc degeneration than those without it. In this study, the authors compared the severity of disc degeneration between patients with lumbar stenosis with and without amyloid in their LF to test whether ATTRwt is a unique contributor to LF thickening and spinal stenosis.

METHODS

Of 324 consecutive patients between 2018 and 2019 who underwent decompression surgery for spinal stenosis and had LF samples sent for pathological analysis, 31 harboring ATTRwt were compared with 88 controls. Patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed for demographic and surgical information. Disc degeneration was assessed on preoperative T2-weighted MR images with the modified Pfirrmann grading system at every lumbar disc level.

RESULTS

Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups, except for a statistically significant increase in age in the ATTRwt group. The crude unadjusted comparisons between the groups trended toward a less severe disc degeneration in the ATTRwt group, although this difference was not statistically significant. A multivariable linear mixed-effects model was created to adjust for the effects of age and to isolate the influence of ATTRwt, the presence of an operation at the level, and the specific disc level (between L1 and S1). This model revealed that ATTRwt, the presence of an operation, and the specific level each had significant effects on modified Pfirrmann scores.

CONCLUSIONS

Less severe disc degeneration was noted in patients with degenerative spinal stenosis harboring ATTRwt compared with those without amyloid. This finding suggests that ATTRwt deposition may play a separate role in LF thickening from that played by disc degeneration. Future studies should aim to elucidate this potentially novel pathophysiological pathway, which may uncover an exciting potential for the development of amyloid-targeted therapies that may help slow the development of spinal stenosis.

Restricted access

Evan M. Krueger, Ronald J. Benveniste, Victor M. Lu, Ruby R. Taylor, Rahul Kumar, Joacir G. Cordeiro, and Jonathan R. Jagid

OBJECTIVE

A carefully selected subset of civilian cranial gunshot wound (CGSW) patients may be treated with simple wound closure (SWC) as a proactive therapy, but the appropriate clinical scenario for using this strategy is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare SWC and surgery patients in terms of their neurological outcomes and complications, including infections, seizures, and reoperations.

METHODS

This was a single-center, retrospective review of the prospectively maintained institutional traumatic brain injury and trauma registries. Included were adults who sustained an acute CGSW defined as suspected or confirmed dural penetration. Excluded were nonfirearm penetrating injuries, patients with an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3, patients with an initial GCS score of 4 and nonreactive pupils, and patients who died within 48 hours of presentation.

RESULTS

A total of 67 patients were included; 17 (25.4%) were treated with SWC and 50 (74.6%) were treated with surgery. The SWC group had a lower incidence of radiographic mass effect (3/17 [17.6%] SWC vs 31/50 [62%] surgery; absolute difference 44.4, 95% CI −71.9 to 16.8; p = 0.002) and lower incidence of involvement of the frontal sinus (0/17 [0%] SWC vs 14/50 [28%] surgery; absolute difference 28, 95% CI −50.4 to 5.6; p = 0.01). There were no differences in the frequency of Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended scores ≥ 5 between the SWC and surgery groups at 30 days (4/11 [36.4%] SWC vs 12/35 [34.3%] surgery; OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.3–4.5; p > 0.99), 60 days (2/7 [28.6%] SWC vs 8/26 [30.8%] surgery; OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3–3.4; p > 0.99), and 90 days (3/8 [37.5%] SWC vs 12/26 [46.2%] surgery; OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.1–3.6; p > 0.99). There were no differences in the incidence of infections (1/17 [5.9%] SWC vs 6/50 [12%] surgery; OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.1–4.1; p = 0.67), CSF fistulas (2/11 [11.6%] SWC vs 3/50 [6%] surgery; OR 2.1, 95% CI 0.3–13.7; p = 0.60), seizures (3/17 [17.6%] SWC vs 9/50 [18%] surgery; OR 1, 95% CI 0.2–4.1; p > 0.99), and reoperations (3/17 [17.6%] SWC vs 4/50 [8%] surgery; OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.5–12.4; p = 0.36) between the SWC and surgery groups.

CONCLUSIONS

There were important clinically relevant differences between the SWC and surgery groups. SWC can be considered a safe and efficacious proactive therapy in a carefully selected subset of civilian CGSW patients.

Restricted access

Gaurav Jindal, Ranyah Almardawi, Rishi Gupta, Geoffrey P. Colby, Clemens M. Schirmer, Sudhakar R. Satti, Bryan Pukenas, Ferdinand K. Hui, Justin Caplan, Timothy Miller, Jacob Cherian, Francois Aldrich, Gulam Kibria, J. Marc Simard, and

OBJECTIVE

The ULTRA Registry is a national multicenter prospective study designed to assess aneurysm occlusion rates and safety profiles of the Target Ultra and Nano coils in the treatment of small intracranial aneurysms (IAs).

METHODS

Patients with small (≤ 5 mm) ruptured and unruptured IAs were treated exclusively with Target Ultra and Nano coils. The primary endpoints were the initial rate of complete or near-complete aneurysm occlusion, aneurysm recurrence, and need for retreatment. Secondary endpoints were device- and procedure-related adverse events, hemorrhage from the coiled aneurysm at any time during follow-up, and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

The ULTRA Registry included 100 patients with a mean ± SD age of 56 ± 11.6 years, of whom 75 were women and 48 presented after aneurysm rupture. The mean aneurysm size was (3.5 ± 0.9) × (2.8 ± 0.9) × (3.0 ± 1.0) mm, and the mean packing density was 34.4% ± 16.7%. Posttreatment complete or near-complete occlusion reported by an independent imaging core laboratory was seen in 92% of patients at baseline and in 87%, 87%, and 83% of patients at first, second, and final follow-up, respectively. At first, second, and final follow-up, 10%, 11%, and 15%, respectively, of patients were deemed to require retreatment. There were three procedural-related ischemic strokes and one intracranial hemorrhage from wire perforation of a parent artery not involved by the aneurysm. There were no coil-related adverse events, including no intraoperative aneurysm ruptures and no known aneurysm ruptures after coiling.

CONCLUSIONS

This assessment of aneurysm occlusion rates and safety profiles in ULTRA Registry study participants demonstrates excellent safety and efficacy profiles for Target Ultra and Nano coils in the treatment of small IAs.

Free access

James Feghali, Albert Antar, Elizabeth E. Wicks, Shahab Aldin Sattari, Sean Li, Timothy F. Witham, Henry Brem, and Judy Huang

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to characterize which US medical schools have the most female neurosurgery residents and to identify potential associations between medical school characteristics and successful recruitment of women pursuing a neurosurgery career.

METHODS

The authors evaluated a total of 1572 residents in US neurosurgery programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education as of February 2021, representing match cohorts from 2014 to 2020. The authors extracted US medical school characteristics and ranked schools based on the percentages of women graduates entering neurosurgery. They additionally studied yearly trends of the percentage of women constituting incoming neurosurgery resident cohorts as well as associations between female recruitment percentage and medical school characteristics using univariable and stepwise multivariable linear regression (including significant univariable factors).

RESULTS

The cohort consisted of 1255 male and 317 (20%) female residents. Yearly trends indicated a significant drop in incoming female residents in 2016, followed by significant increases in 2017 and 2019. On multivariable analysis, the following factors were associated with a higher average percentage of female graduates entering neurosurgery: total affiliated neurosurgery clinical faculty (β = 0.006, 95% CI 0.001–0.011, p = 0.01), allopathic versus osteopathic schools (β = 0.231, 95% CI 0.053–0.409, p = 0.01), and top 10 U.S. News & World Report ranking (β = 0.380, 95% CI 0.129–0.589, p < 0.01). When the number of female clinical faculty was added to the model, the variable was not statistically significant. Multivariable bibliometric analyses indicated a higher mean preresidency H-index for men, with an even greater gender difference identified in the 2021 H-index.

CONCLUSIONS

This study characterizes which medical schools are most successful at recruiting female students who constituted the total neurosurgery resident workforce of the 2020–2021 academic year. The overall number of clinical neurosurgery faculty rather than faculty gender was independently associated with female recruitment. Gender differences in research productivity persisted with control for confounders and increased between preresidency and 2021 time points. Such understanding of factors that influence the recruitment of women can help improve female representation in neurosurgery residency training moving forward.

Open access

Lea Scherschinski, Ian T. McNeill, Leslie Schlachter, William H. Shuman, Holly Oemke, Kurt A. Yaeger, and Joshua B. Bederson

BACKGROUND

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain are vessel conglomerates of feeding arteries and draining veins that carry a risk of spontaneous and intraoperative rupture. Augmented reality (AR)-assisted neuronavigation permits continuous, real-time, updated visualization of navigation information through a heads-up display, thereby potentially improving the safety of surgical resection of AVMs.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a 37-year-old female presenting with a 2-year history of recurrent falls due to intermittent right-sided weakness and increasing clumsiness in the right upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and cerebral angiography of the brain revealed a left parietal Spetzler-Martin grade III AVM. After endovascular embolization of the AVM, microsurgical resection using an AR-assisted neuronavigation system was performed. Postoperative angiography confirmed complete obliteration of arteriovenous shunting. The postsurgical course was unremarkable, and the patient remains in excellent health.

LESSONS

Our case describes the operative setup and intraoperative employment of AR-assisted neuronavigation for AVM resection. Application of this technology may improve workflow and enhance patient safety.

Open access

Kelsey M. Bowman, Daniel D. Bennett, and Amgad S. Hanna

BACKGROUND

Benign eccrine spiradenoma is a rare tumor arising from the sweat glands and is a pathology that is almost never encountered in routine neurosurgical practice. Although this is a rare pathology, it is one that should be included in the differential diagnosis for a patient presenting with a painful, subcutaneous mass, because it can guide further treatment considerations.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of benign eccrine spiradenoma that mimicked a nerve sheath tumor in clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, and gross appearance.

LESSONS

Complete local excision of these lesions is the gold standard treatment, because they are painful, and there are reports of local recurrence and malignant degeneration with incomplete resection. For this reason, neurosurgeons should be sure to include this in the differential diagnosis of a patient with a painful, subcutaneous mass, because it may help to guide management decisions.