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Youlin Ge, Dong Liu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Yanhe Li, Yiguang Lin, Guokai Wang, Yongqing Zong and Enhu Liu

OBJECTIVE

The authors retrospectively analyzed the follow-up data in 130 patients with intracranial benign meningiomas after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), evaluated the tumor progression-free survival (PFS) rate and neurological function preservation rate, and determined the predictors by univariate and multivariate survival analysis.

METHODS

This cohort of 130 patients with intracranial benign meningiomas underwent GKRS between May 2012 and May 2015 at the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University. The median age was 54.5 years (range 25–81 years), and women outnumbered men at a ratio of 4.65:1. All clinical and radiological data were obtained for analysis. No patient had undergone prior traditional radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The median tumor volume was 3.68 cm3 (range 0.23–45.78 cm3). A median margin dose of 12.0 Gy (range 10.0–16.0 Gy) was delivered to the tumor with a median isodose line of 50% (range 50%–60%).

RESULTS

During a median follow-up of 36.5 months (range 12–80 months), tumor volume regressed in 37 patients (28.5%), was unchanged in 86 patients (66.2%), and increased in 7 patients (5.4%). The actuarial tumor progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 98%, 94%, and 87% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively, after GKRS. Tumor recurred in 7 patients at a median follow-up of 32 months (range 12–56 months). Tumor volume ≥ 10 cm3 (p = 0.012, hazard ratio [HR] 8.25, 95% CI 1.60–42.65) and pre-GKRS Karnofsky Performance Scale score < 90 (p = 0.006, HR 9.31, 95% CI 1.88–46.22) were independent unfavorable predictors of PFS rate after GKRS. Of the 130 patients, 101 (77.7%) presented with one or more neurological symptoms or signs before GKRS. Neurological symptoms or signs improved in 40 (30.8%) patients, remained stable in 83 (63.8%), and deteriorated in 7 (5.4%) after GKRS. Two (1.5%) patients developed new cranial nerve (CN) deficit. Tumor volume ≥ 10 cm3 (p = 0.042, HR = 4.73, 95% CI 1.06–21.17) and pre-GKRS CN deficit (p = 0.045, HR = 4.35, 95% CI 0.84–22.48) were independent unfavorable predictors for improvement in neurological symptoms or signs. Six (4.6%) patients developed new or worsening peritumoral edema with a median follow-up of 4.5 months (range 2–7 months).

CONCLUSIONS

GKRS provided good local tumor control and high neurological function preservation in patients with intracranial benign meningiomas. Patients with tumor volume < 10 cm3, pre-GKRS Karnofsky Performance Scale score ≥ 90, and no pre-GKRS CN deficit (I–VIII) can benefit from stereotactic radiosurgery. It can be considered as the primary or adjuvant management of intracranial benign meningiomas.

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Jason J. Labuschagne and Dinoshan Chetty

The documentation and exact incidence of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)–induced neoplasia is not well understood, with most literature restricted to single case reports and single-center retrospective reviews. The authors present a rare case of radiosurgery-induced glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) following radiosurgical treatment of a meningioma. A 74-year-old patient with a sporadic meningioma underwent radiosurgery following surgical removal of a WHO grade II meningioma. Eighteen months later she presented with seizures, and MRI revealed an intraaxial tumor, which was resected and proven to be a glioblastoma. As far as the authors are aware, this case represents the third case of GBM following SRS for a meningioma. This report serves to increase the awareness of this possible complication following SRS. The possibility of this rare complication should be explained to patients when obtaining their consent for radiosurgery.

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Güliz Acker, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Alfredo Conti, Diana Pasemann, Franziska Meinert, Phuong Thuy Anh Nguyen, Claudius Jelgersma, Franziska Loebel, Volker Budach, Peter Vajkoczy, Christian Furth, Alexander D. J. Baur and Carolin Senger

OBJECTIVE

For stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) planning, precise contouring of tumor boundaries and organs at risk is of utmost importance. Correct interpretation of standard neuroimaging (i.e., CT and MRI) can be challenging after previous surgeries or in cases of skull base lesions with complex shapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/MRI on treatment planning for image-guided SRS by CyberKnife.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified 11 meningioma treatments in 10 patients who received a 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/MRI prior to SRS. The planning target volume (PTV) used for the patients’ treatment was defined as the reference standard. This was contoured by a treating radiosurgeon (RS0) using fused planning CT and PET/MRI data sets. The same tumors were then contoured by another experienced radiosurgeon (RS1) and by a less-experienced radiosurgeon (RS2), both blinded to PET data sets. A comparison of target volumes with focus on volume-based metrics and distance to critical structures was performed. RS1 and RS2 also filled in a questionnaire analyzing the confidence level and the subjective need for the implementation of PET data sets for contouring.

RESULTS

Analysis showed a subjective personal preference for PET/MRI in all cases for both radiosurgeons, particularly in proximity to critical structures. The analysis of the planning volumes per physician showed significantly smaller RS2-PTV in comparison to RS1-PTV and to RS0-PTV, whereas the median volumes were comparable between RS1-PTV and RS2-PTV (median: RS0: 4.3 cm3 [IQR 3.4–6.5 cm3] and RS1: 4.5 cm3 [IQR 2.7–6 cm3] vs RS2: 2.6 cm3 [IQR 2–5 cm3]; p = 0.003). This was also reflected in the best spatial congruency between the 2 experienced physicians (RS0 and RS1). The percentage of the left-out volume contoured by RS1 and RS2 compared to RS0 with PET/MRI demonstrated a relevant left-out-volume portion in both cases with greater extent for the less-experienced radiosurgeon (RS2) (RS1: 19.1% [IQR 8.5%–22%] vs RS2: 40.2% [IQR 34.2%–53%]). No significant differences were detected regarding investigated critical structures.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrated a relevant impact of PET/MRI on target volume delineation of meningiomas. The extent was highly dependent on the experience of the treating physician. This preliminary study supports the relevance of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/MRI as a tool for radiosurgical treatment planning of meningiomas.

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Michael W. McDermott, Jason Sheehan and Steve Braunstein

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Yong Xia and Long Yi Chen

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Zoher Ghogawala, Melissa R. Dunbar and Irfan Essa

OBJECTIVE

There are a wide variety of comparative treatment options in neurosurgery that do not lend themselves to traditional randomized controlled trials. The object of this article was to examine how clinical registries might be used to generate new evidence to support a particular treatment option when comparable options exist. Lumbar spondylolisthesis is used as an example.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the literature examining the comparative effectiveness of decompression alone versus decompression with fusion for lumbar stenosis with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Modern data acquisition for the creation of registries was also reviewed with an eye toward how artificial intelligence for the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis might be explored.

RESULTS

Current randomized controlled trials differ on the importance of adding fusion when performing decompression for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Standardized approaches to extracting data from the electronic medical record as well as the ability to capture radiographic imaging and incorporate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) will ultimately lead to the development of modern, structured, data-filled registries that will lay the foundation for machine learning.

CONCLUSIONS

There is a growing realization that patient experience, satisfaction, and outcomes are essential to improving the overall quality of spine care. There is a need to use practical, validated PRO tools in the quest to optimize outcomes within spine care. Registries will be designed to contain robust clinical data in which predictive analytics can be generated to develop and guide data-driven personalized spine care.

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Troy Dawley, Zaker Rana, Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Anuj Goenka and Michael Schulder

OBJECTIVE

Complications from radiotherapy (RT), in a primary or adjuvant setting, have overall been described as uncommon, with few detailed descriptions of major complications. The authors present two cases involving significant complications and their management in their review of patients undergoing RT for treatment of atypical meningioma.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of all patients with pathologically confirmed atypical meningioma (WHO grade II) treated with primary or adjuvant RT from February 2011 through February 2019. They identified two patients with long-term, grade 3 toxicity. The cases of these patients are described in detail.

RESULTS

Two patients had major complications associated with postoperative RT. Patients 1 and 2 both were treated with postoperative RT for pathologically confirmed atypical meningioma. Patient 1 experienced worsening behavioral changes, cognitive decline, and hydrocephalus following treatment. This required cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Patient 2 developed radiation necrosis with mass effect and cognitive decline. Neither patient returned to his/her initial post-RT status after steroid therapy, and each remained in need of supportive care. Both patients remained free of tumor progression at 52 and 38 months following treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

The postoperative management of patients with atypical meningioma continues to be defined, with questions remaining regarding timing of RT, dose, target delineation, and fractionation. Both of the patients in this study received fractionated RT, which included a greater volume of normal brain than more focal treatment options such as would be required by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Further research is needed to compare SRS and fractionated RT for the management of patients with grade II meningiomas. The more focused nature of SRS may make this a preferred option in certain cases of focal recurrence.

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Ahmad Alhourani, Zaid Aljuboori, Mehran Yusuf, Shiao Y. Woo, Eyas M. Hattab, Norberto Andaluz and Brian J. Williams

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to describe effects of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for anaplastic meningiomas (AMs) on long-term survival, and to analyze patient and RT characteristics associated with long-term survival.

METHODS

The authors queried a retrospective cohort of patients with AM from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) diagnosed between 2004 and 2015 to describe treatment trends. For outcome analysis, patients with at least 10 years of follow-up were included, and they were stratified based on adjuvant RT status and propensity matched to controls for covariates. Survival curves were compared. A data-driven approach was used to find a biologically effective dose (BED) of RT with the largest difference between survival curves. Factors associated with long-term survival were quantified.

RESULTS

The authors identified 2170 cases of AM in the NCDB between 2004 and 2015. They observed increased use of adjuvant RT in patients treated with higher doses. A total of 178 cases met the inclusion criteria for outcome analysis. Forty-five percent (n = 80) received adjuvant RT. Patients received a BED of 80.23 ± 16.6 Gy (mean ± IQR). The median survival time was not significantly different (32.8 months for adjuvant RT vs 38.5 months for no RT; p = 0.57, log-rank test). Dichotomizing the patients at a BED of 81 Gy showed maximal difference in survival distribution with a decrease in median survival in favor of no adjuvant RT (31.2 months for adjuvant RT vs 49.7 months for no RT; p = 0.03, log-rank test), but this difference was not significant after false discovery rate correction. Age was a significant predictor for long-term survival.

CONCLUSIONS

AMs are aggressive tumors that carry a poor prognosis. Conventional adjuvant RT improves local control. However, the effect of adjuvant radiation on overall survival is unclear. Further investigation into this area is warranted.

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Nida Fatima, Antonio Meola, Erqi L. Pollom, Scott G. Soltys and Steven D. Chang

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) have been used as a primary treatment or adjuvant to resection in the management of intracranial meningiomas (ICMs). The aim of this analysis is to compare the safety and long-term efficacy of SRS and SRT in patients with primary or recurrent ICMs.

METHODS

A systematic review of the literature comparing SRT and SRS in the same study was conducted using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and EMBASE from January 1980 to December 2018. Randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and cohort studies (prospective and retrospective) analyzing SRS versus SRT for the treatment of ICMs in adult patients (age > 16 years) were included. Pooled and subgroup analyses were based on the fixed-effect model.

RESULTS

A total of 1736 patients from 12 retrospective studies were included. The treatment modality used was: 1) SRS (n = 306), including Gamma Knife surgery (n = 36), linear accelerator (n = 261), and CyberKnife (n = 9); or 2) SRT (n = 1430), including hypofractionated SRT (hFSRT, n = 268) and full-fractionated SRT (FSRT, n = 1162). The median age of patients at the time of treatment was 59 years. The median follow-up duration after treatment was 35.5 months. The median tumor volumes at the time of treatment with SRS, hFSRT, and FSRT were 2.84 cm3, 5.45 cm3, and 12.75 cm3, respectively. The radiographic tumor control at last follow-up was significantly worse in patients who underwent SRS than SRT (odds ratio [OR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27–0.82, p = 0.007) with 7% less volume of tumor shrinkage (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.61–1.40, p = 0.72). Compared to SRS, the radiographic tumor control was better achieved by FSRT (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.80, p = 0.006) than by hFSRT (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.21–3.17, p = 0.76). Moreover, SRS leads to a significantly higher risk of clinical neurological worsening during follow-up (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.06–4.06, p = 0.03) and of immediate symptomatic edema (OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.67–12.56, p = 0.003) with respect to SRT. SRT could produce a better progression-free survival at 4–10 years compared to SRS, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.29).

CONCLUSIONS

SRS and SRT are both safe options in the management of ICMs. However, SRT carries a better radiographic tumor control rate and a lower incidence of posttreatment symptomatic worsening and symptomatic edema, with respect to SRS. However, further prospective studies are still needed to validate these results.

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Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Anshit Goyal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, FM Moinuddin and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Recent studies have reported on the utility of radiosurgery for local control and symptom relief in spinal meningioma. The authors sought to evaluate national utilization trends in radiotherapy (including radiosurgery), investigate possible factors associated with its use in patients with spinal meningioma, and its impact on survival for atypical tumors.

METHODS

Using the ICD-O-3 topographical codes C70.1, C72.0, and C72.1 and histological codes 9530–9535 and 9537–9539, the authors queried the National Cancer Database for patients in whom spinal meningioma had been diagnosed between 2004 and 2015. Patients who had undergone radiation in addition to surgery and those who had received radiation as the only treatment were analyzed for factors associated with each treatment.

RESULTS

From among 10,458 patients with spinal meningioma in the database, the authors found a total of 268 patients who had received any type of radiation. The patients were divided into two main groups for the analysis of radiation alone (137 [51.1%]) and radiation plus surgery (131 [48.9%]). An age > 69 years (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.03), and tumor size 5 to < 6 cm (p < 0.001) were found to be associated with significantly higher odds of receiving radiation alone, whereas a Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index ≥ 2 (p = 0.01) was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving radiation alone. Moreover, a larger tumor size (2 to < 3 cm, p = 0.01; 3 to < 4 cm, p < 0.001; 4 to < 5 cm, p < 0.001; 5 to < 6 cm, p < 0.001; and ≥ 6 cm, p < 0.001; reference = 1 to < 2 cm), as well as borderline (p < 0.001) and malignant (p < 0.001) tumors were found to be associated with increased odds of undergoing radiation in addition to surgery. Receiving adjuvant radiation conferred a significant reduction in overall mortality among patients with borderline or malignant spinal meningiomas (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.02–4.1, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

The current analysis of cases from a national cancer database revealed a small increase in the use of radiation for the management of spinal meningioma without a significant increase in overall survival. Larger tumor size and borderline or malignant behavior were found to be associated with increased radiation use. Data in the present analysis failed to show an overall survival benefit in utilizing adjuvant radiation for atypical tumors.