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Santiago Gomez-Paz, Kimberly P. Kicielinski, Ajith Thomas and Christopher S. Ogilvy

The decision to resect a cavernous malformation of the brainstem is based on patient- and lesion-specific factors. The patient’s age, comorbidities, neurologic condition, and number and severity of symptomatic hemorrhages are crucial to consider.1,3,5 The proximity to the brainstem surface, amount of hematoma, and true lesion size help dictate the surgical corridor.2,4 We present a patient with a medullary cavernous malformation who had three hemorrhages and neurologic worsening. The surgical approach was based on detailed preoperative imaging. We performed a far lateral posterior fossa exposure to resect the lesion. The details of surgical planning and the microsurgery are presented.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/2y-OJ22Zjw8.

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Salomon Cohen-Cohen, Giuseppe Lanzino and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla

The extended retrosigmoid approach provides an excellent corridor to the lateral aspect of the pontomedullary junction (PMJ).1,2 This video demonstrates a microsurgical resection of a progressive enlarging cavernous malformation (CM) of the PMJ. The patient is a 33-year-old woman with progressive symptoms, including right facial droop, left hemianesthesia, diplopia, and nystagmus. The patient underwent a right extended retrosigmoid approach with intraoperative neuronavigation and neuromonitoring. Lower cranial nerve dissection allowed access to the lateral PMJ. A longitudinal corticotomy was performed above the glossopharyngeal. The CM was removed in a piecemeal fashion. Postoperative MRI confirmed gross-total resection and the patient remained neurologically stable.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/K_TtiTo1RsQ.

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Guilherme H. W. Ceccato, Rodolfo F. M. da Rocha, Julia Goginski, Pedro H. A. da Silva, Gabriel S. de Fraga, Marcio S. Rassi and Luis A. B. Borba

Brainstem cavernous malformations are especially difficult to treat because of their deep location and intimate relation with eloquent structures. This is the case of a 26-year-old female presenting with dizziness, dysmetria, nystagmus and unbalance. Imaging depicted a lesion highly suggestive of a cavernous malformation in the left inferior cerebellar peduncle. Following a suboccipital midline craniotomy, the cerebellomedullary fissure was dissected and the lesion was identified bulging the surface. The malformation was completely removed with constant intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. The patient presented improvement of initial symptoms with no new deficits. Surgical resection of brainstem cavernous malformations can be successfully performed, especially when superficial, using the inferior cerebellar peduncle as an entry zone.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/-GGZe_CaZnQ.

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Tomasz A. Dziedzic and Andrzej Marchel

Intramedullary cavernous malformations account for approximately 5% of all intraspinal lesions. Symptomatic lesions are treated with microsurgical resection. Due to surrounding eloquent spinal neural tissue, surgical removal of these lesions can be technically challenging. Surgical treatment carries a significant risk for postoperative morbidity. This video demonstrates the main steps for the microsurgical technique of resection of a symptomatic intramedullary cervical spinal cord cavernous malformation at the C2–3 level. Complete resection was achieved with minimal posterior column deficit. The operative technique and surgical nuances, including the patient’s positioning, surgical approach, intraspinal cavernous malformation removal, and closure, are illustrated.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/UKttTiXlEb8.

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André Bortolon Bissoli, Aderaldo Costa Alves Junior, Pedro Tadao Hamamoto Filho and Marco Antonio Zanini

Cavernous malformations (CVMs) located in the thalamus are uncommon. However, they pose difficulties for resection because of their close proximity to eloquent areas of the brain and vascular structures, and all surgical corridors to access them are narrow. In this video, we report the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented with a long-standing history of right hemiparesis with recent deterioration. MRI revealed a large CVM located in the left thalamus, with signs of recent hemorrhage extending to the left cerebral peduncle. Resection was achieved with a paramedian contralateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach in a semisitting position, with an uneventful postoperative course.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Arvu52FkHOE.

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Philippe Bijlenga, Sandrine Morel, Sven Hirsch, Karl Schaller and Daniel Rüfenacht

The disease resulting in the formation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms is complex. Research is accumulating evidence that the disease is driven by many different factors, some constant and others variable over time. Combinations of factors may induce specific biophysical reactions at different stages of the disease. A better understanding of the biophysical mechanisms responsible for the disease initiation and progression is essential to predict the natural history of the disease. More accurate predictions are mandatory to adequately balance risks between observation and intervention at the individual level as expected in the age of personalized medicine. Multidisciplinary exploration of the disease also opens an avenue to the discovery of possible preventive actions or medical treatments. Modern information technologies and data processing methods offer tools to address such complex challenges requiring 1) the collection of a high volume of information provided globally, 2) integration and harmonization of the information, and 3) management of data sharing with a broad spectrum of stakeholders.

Over the last decade an infrastructure has been set up and is now made available to the academic community to support and promote exploration of intracranial disease, modeling, and clinical management simulation and monitoring.

The background and purpose of the infrastructure is reviewed. The infrastructure data flow architecture is presented. The basic concepts of disease modeling that oriented the design of the core information model are explained. Disease phases, milestones, cases stratification group in each phase, key relevant factors, and outcomes are defined. Data processing and disease model visualization tools are presented. Most relevant contributions to the literature resulting from the exploitation of the infrastructure are reviewed, and future perspectives are discussed.

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Abdullah Keleş, Mehmet Volkan Harput and Uğur Türe

This video demonstrates resection of a left pontine cavernous malformation that is abutting the floor of the fourth ventricle (f4V). Even though accessing the lesion through the f4V seems to be reasonable, we used a lateral supracerebellar approach through the middle cerebellar peduncle to preserve especially the abducens and facial nuclei. After total resection the patient was neurologically intact at the 3-month follow-up. Postoperative MRI revealed 3.5-mm pontine tissue between the cavity and f4V that appeared to be absent in preoperative MRI. Approaching pontine lesions through the f4V is not the first choice. In our opinion, the philosophy of safe entry zones is a concept to be reassessed.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/1Jh6giZc-48.

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Michel W. Bojanowski, Gunness V. R. Nitish, Gilles El Hage, Kim Lalonde, Chiraz Chaalala and Thomas Robert

Cavernous malformations in the midbrain can be accessed via several safe entry zones. The accepted rule of thumb is to enter at the point where the lesion is visible at the surface of the brainstem to pass through as little normal brain tissue as possible. However, in some cases, in order to avoid critical neural structures, this rule may not apply. A different safe entry zone can be chosen. Our video presents a case of a ruptured cavernous malformation in the midbrain reaching its anterior surface which was successfully resected via a posterolateral route using the supracerebellar infratentorial approach.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/7kt-OQuBmz0.

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Xavier T. J. Hsu, Chih-Hsiang Liao, Chun-Fu Lin and Sanford P. C. Hsu

A 57-year-old man presented with acute changes in mental status. Brain CT showed a high-density lesion at the pons. Brain MRA revealed a very slow-flow vascular lesion at the right aspect of the pons, about 3.9 ⋅ 3.0 ⋅ 3.0 cm3, compatible with a pontine cavernous malformation (CM). Gross-total removal was achieved. In this approach, a wider surgical corridor was obtained by opening the Meckel’s cave and cutting the tentorium. For a midline attack point on the pons, additional removal of the posterior clinoid process can meet the goal. In the authors’ opinion, this approach is safe and effective in selected ventrolateral pontine CMs.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/moHqEkp5eCA.

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Sahin Hanalioglu, Omer Selcuk Sahin and Mehmet Erhan Turkoglu

This video demonstrates the resection of an anterolateral mesencephalic cavernous malformation (CM) through a transsylvian/transuncal approach. A 10-year-old girl presented with progressive headache and left-sided spastic hemiparesis. Neuroimaging revealed a 20-mm CM located in the right anterolateral midbrain/cerebral peduncle. After orbitozygomatic craniotomy and wide sylvian fissure opening, the oculomotor nerve was dissected and separated from the temporal lobe. Partial resection of the uncus allowed access to the CM through the oculomotor-tentorial triangle. The CM was excised in a piecemeal fashion. Postoperative imaging confirmed the gross-total resection. The patient had no additional neurological deficits postoperatively. Her left hemiparesis almost completely resolved at the 12-month follow-up.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Jb_EaWbn5LU.