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Kazunori Hayashi, Louis Boissière, Fernando Guevara-Villazón, Daniel Larrieu, Susana Núñez-Pereira, Anouar Bourghli, Olivier Gille, Jean-Marc Vital, Ferran Pellisé, Francisco Javier Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, Frank Kleinstück, Emre Acaroğlu, Ahmet Alanay and Ibrahim Obeid

OBJECTIVE

Achieving high patient satisfaction with management is often one of the goals after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. However, literature on associated factors and their correlations with patient satisfaction is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and radiographic factors independently correlated with patient satisfaction in terms of management at 2 years after surgery.

METHODS

A multicenter prospective database of ASD surgery was retrospectively reviewed. The demographics, complications, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) subdomains, and radiographic parameters were examined to determine their correlation coefficients with the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire (SRS-22R) satisfaction scores at 2 years (Sat-2y score). Subsequently, factors determined to be independently associated with low satisfaction (Sat-2y score ≤ 4.0) were used to construct 2 types of multivariate models: one with 2-year data and the other with improvement (score at 2 years − score at baseline) data.

RESULTS

A total of 422 patients who underwent ASD surgery (mean age 53.1 years) were enrolled. All HRQOL subdomains and several coronal and sagittal radiographic parameters had significantly improved 2 years after surgery. The Sat-2y score was strongly correlated with the SRS-22R self-image (SI)/appearance subdomain (r = 0.64), followed by moderate correlation with subdomains related to standing (r = 0.53), body pain (r = 0.49–0.55), and function (r = 0.41–0.55) at 2 years. Conversely, the correlation between radiographic or demographic parameters with Sat-2y score was weak (r < 0.4). Multivariate analysis to eliminate confounding factors revealed that a worse Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score for standing (≥ 2 points; OR 4.48) and pain intensity (≥ 2 points; OR 2.07), SRS-22R SI/appearance subdomain (< 3 points; OR 2.70) at 2 years, and a greater sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (> 5 cm; OR 2.68) at 2 years were independent related factors for low satisfaction. According to the other model, a lower improvement in ODI for standing (< 30%; OR 2.68), SRS-22R pain (< 50%; OR 3.25) and SI/appearance (< 50%; OR 2.18) subdomains, and an inadequate restoration of the SVA from baseline (< 2 cm; OR 3.16) were associated with low satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS

Self-image, pain, standing difficulty, and sagittal alignment restoration may be useful goals in improving patient satisfaction with management at 2 years after ASD surgery. Surgeons and other medical providers have to take care of these factors to prevent low satisfaction.

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Mariangela Piano, Luca Valvassori, Emilio Lozupone, Guglielmo Pero, Luca Quilici, Edoardo Boccardi and the FRED Italian Registry Group

OBJECTIVE

The introduction of flow-diverter devices (FDDs) has revolutionized the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Here the authors present their Italian multicenter experience using the flow re-direction endoluminal device (FRED) in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, evaluating both short- and long-term safety and efficacy of this device.

METHODS

Between February 2013 and December 2014, 169 consecutive aneurysms treated using FRED in 166 patients were entered into this study across 30 Italian centers. Data collected included patient demographics, aneurysm location and characteristics, baseline angiography, adverse event and serious adverse event information, morbidity and mortality rates, and pre- and posttreatment modified Rankin Scale scores, as well as angiographic and cross-sectional CT/MRI follow-up at 3–6 months and/or 12–24 months per institutional standard of care. All images were reviewed and adjudicated by an independent core lab.

RESULTS

Of the 169 lesions initially entered into the study, 4 were later determined to be extracranial or nonaneurysmal by the core lab and were excluded, leaving 165 aneurysms in 162 patients treated in 163 procedures. Ninety-one (56.2%) patients were asymptomatic with aneurysms found incidentally. Of the 165 aneurysms, 150 (90.9%) were unruptured. One hundred thirty-four (81.2%) were saccular, 27 (16.4%) were fusiform/dissecting, and the remaining 4 (2.4%) were blister-like. One hundred thirty-seven (83.0%) arose from the anterior circulation.

FRED deployment was impossible in 2/163 (1.2%) cases, and in an additional 4 cases (2.5%) the device was misdeployed. Overall mortality and morbidity rates were 4.3% and 7.3%, respectively, with rates of mortality and morbidity potentially related to FRED of up to 2.4% and 6.2%, respectively. Neuroimaging follow-up at 3–6 months showed complete or nearly complete occlusion of the aneurysm in 94% of cases, increasing to 96% at 12–24 months’ follow-up. Aneurysmal sac shrinkage was observed in 78% of assessable aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS

This preliminary experience using FRED for endovascular treatment of complex unruptured and ruptured aneurysms showed a high safety and efficacy profile that is comparable to those of other FDDs currently in use.

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Justice O. Agyei, Jingxin Qiu and Andrew J. Fabiano

The Fusarium species are one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections occurring in immunocompromised patients and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Common sites of infection include blood, skin, nasal passages, lungs, bone, and other visceral organs. There is a paucity of literature on Fusarium infections in the brain, and the true nature and extent of central nervous system involvement is not well described. To the authors’ knowledge, there have been no reported cases of Fusarium infection of the spine. The authors report the case of a man with acute myeloblastic leukemia and resultant pancytopenia who presented with fungal sinusitis, upper- and lower-extremity weakness, and cardiopulmonary arrest. Imaging studies revealed a spinal cervical intramedullary ring-enhancing lesion. Because of the progressive nature of his symptoms, neurosurgical intervention involving a C2–3 laminectomy and drainage of the lesion was performed. Intraoperative cultures and histopathology results were positive for Fusarium species and, along with intraoperative findings, were consistent with a fungus ball. The patient was placed on a regimen of intravenous and intrathecal antifungal therapy. Unfortunately, his clinical condition declined postoperatively, and he ultimately died of disseminated infection.

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Mehdi Chihi, Oliver Gembruch, Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Bixia Chen, Thiemo Florin Dinger, Lennart Barthel, Daniela Pierscianek, Karsten H. Wrede, Neriman Özkan, Ulrich Sure and Ramazan Jabbarli

OBJECTIVE

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem genetic disease. Arterial wall developmental disorders, such as aneurysms, in association with TSC have been well described for extracranial vasculature. The characteristics of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in TSC have not previously been addressed in the literature. This systematic review was performed to identify and assess the distinct characteristics of IAs in patients with TSC.

METHODS

The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for publications describing cases of TSC and IA reported before August 7, 2018. They also report 2 cases of IAs in TSC patients treated at their own institution.

RESULTS

Thirty-three TSC patients with a total of 42 IAs were included in this review. Three individuals presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The IAs were large or giant in 57.1% and fusiform in 45.2% of the cases. Most of the IAs (61.9%, 26 of 42) originated from the internal carotid artery. There was a higher prevalence of pediatric cases (66.7%) and male patients (63.6%, 21 of 32 individuals with known sex) among the collected series.

CONCLUSIONS

TSC patients with IAs are characterized with a higher proportion of large/giant and fusiform IAs and young age, suggesting rapid aneurysmal growth. Furthermore, there is a distinct location pattern of IAs and an inverse sex ratio than in the healthy population. Large population-based patient registers are required to improve the understanding of epidemiology and pathophysiology of IA formation in TSC.

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Man Kyu Choi, Dae Jean Jo and Chang Kyu Park

OBJECTIVE

Late-onset neurological deficits are a rare complication of spinal tuberculosis that may be caused by proximal adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) above the kyphus. The objective of this study was to report several cases of neurological deficits due to proximal ASD in patients with post-tuberculous kyphotic deformity and discuss the characteristics of the authors’ corrective surgical technique.

METHODS

The inclusion criteria in this study were severe angular kyphosis due to a post-tuberculous kyphotic deformity and a late-onset neurological deficit. The cause of these deficits was related to a lesion in the proximal cephalad portion of the kyphotic deformity. Surgical intervention, including decompression and compromised restoration of the sagittal imbalance, was performed in all patients. Preoperative surgical planning with a radiological evaluation included CT, plain radiograph, and MRI studies. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

RESULTS

The main goal of our surgical technique was the correction of sagittal malalignment by positioning the patient’s head above the kyphotic deformity on the sagittal plane, excluding aggressive osteotomy. The neurological symptoms showed immediate improvements postoperatively, except in 1 patient. Compared to the preoperative value of 66.9, the mean ODI score improved to 42.6 at the final follow-up for all patients. Preoperatively, the mean values of the angles of deformity and the sagittal vertical axis were 99.7° and 157.7 mm, respectively, and decreased to 75.3° and 46.0 mm, respectively, at the final follow-up. No major complications were observed, and the patients’ self-satisfaction was high with respect to both cosmetic and functional outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinicians should be aware of the degeneration of the vertebrae above the kyphotic segment in patients with post-tuberculosis deformity. Successful neurological recovery and compromised sagittal balance could be obtained by using our “head on kyphus” surgical concept.

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Assaf Berger, Uri Hochberg, Alexander Zegerman, Rotem Tellem and Ido Strauss

OBJECTIVE

Cancer patients suffering from severe refractory pain may benefit from targeted ablative neurosurgical procedures aimed to disconnect pain pathways in the spinal cord or the brain. These patients often present with a plethora of medical problems requiring careful consideration before surgical interventions. The authors present their experience at an interdisciplinary clinic aimed to facilitate appropriate patient selection for neurosurgical procedures, and the outcome of these interventions.

METHODS

This study was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent neurosurgical interventions for cancer pain in the authors’ hospital between March 2015 and April 2018. All patients had advanced metastatic cancer with limited life expectancy and suffered from intractable oncological pain.

RESULTS

Sixty patients underwent surgery during the study period. Forty-three patients with localized pain underwent disconnection of the spinal pain pathways: 34 percutaneous-cervical and 5 open-thoracic cordotomies, 2 stereotactic mesencephalotomies, and 2 midline myelotomies. Thirty-nine of 42 patients (93%) who completed these procedures had excellent immediate postoperative pain relief. At 1 month the improvement was maintained in 30/36 patients (83%) available for follow-up. There was 1 case of hemiparesis.

Twenty patients with diffuse pain underwent stereotactic cingulotomy. Nineteen of these patients reported substantial pain relief immediately after the operation. At 1 month good pain relief was maintained in 13/17 patients (76%) available for follow-up, and good pain relief was also found at 3 months in 7/11 patients (64%). There was no major morbidity or mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

With careful patient selection and tailoring of the appropriate procedure to the patient’s pain syndrome, the authors’ experience indicates that neurosurgical procedures are safe and effective in alleviating suffering in patients with intractable cancer pain.

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Constantin Tuleasca, Thomas A. W. Bolton, Jean Régis, Elena Najdenovska, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Francois Delaire, Marion Vincent, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier and Dimitri Van De Ville

OBJECTIVE

The tremor circuitry has commonly been hypothesized to be driven by one or multiple pacemakers within the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway, including the cerebellum, contralateral motor thalamus, and primary motor cortex. However, previous studies, using multiple methodologies, have advocated that tremor could be influenced by changes within the right extrastriate cortex, at both the structural and functional level. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the role of the extrastriate cortex in tremor generation and further arrest after left unilateral stereotactic radiosurgery thalamotomy (SRS-T).

METHODS

The authors considered 12 healthy controls (HCs, group 1); 15 patients with essential tremor (ET, right-sided, drug-resistant; group 2) before left unilateral SRS-T; and the same 15 patients (group 3) 1 year after the intervention, to account for delayed effects. Blood oxygenation level–dependent functional MRI during resting state was used to characterize the dynamic interactions of the right extrastriate cortex, comparing HC subjects against patients with ET before and 1 year after SRS-T. In particular, the authors applied coactivation pattern analysis to extract recurring whole-brain spatial patterns of brain activity over time.

RESULTS

The authors found 3 different sets of coactivating regions within the right extrastriate cortex in HCs and patients with pretherapeutic ET, reminiscent of the “cerebello-visuo-motor,” “thalamo-visuo-motor” (including the targeted thalamus), and “basal ganglia and extrastriate” networks. The occurrence of the first pattern was decreased in pretherapeutic ET compared to HCs, whereas the other two patterns showed increased occurrences. This suggests a misbalance between the more prominent cerebellar circuitry and the thalamo-visuo-motor and basal ganglia networks. Multiple regression analysis showed that pretherapeutic standard tremor scores negatively correlated with the increased occurrence of the thalamo-visuo-motor network, suggesting a compensatory pathophysiological trait. Clinical improvement after SRS-T was related to changes in occurrences of the basal ganglia and extrastriate cortex circuitry, which returned to HC values after the intervention, suggesting that the dynamics of the extrastriate cortex had a role in tremor generation and further arrest after the intervention.

CONCLUSIONS

The data in this study point to a broader implication of the visual system in tremor generation, and not only through visual feedback, given its connections to the dorsal visual stream pathway and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuitry, with which its dynamic balance seems to be a crucial feature for reduced tremor. Furthermore, SRS-T seems to bring abnormal pretherapeutic connectivity of the extrastriate cortex to levels comparable to those of HC subjects.

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Tomasz Matys, Tariq Ali, Fulvio Zaccagna, Damiano G. Barone, Ramez W. Kirollos and Tarik F. Massoud

OBJECTIVE

Ossification of pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments traversing the superior aspect of the infratemporal fossa results in formation of osseous bars that can obstruct percutaneous needle access to the trigeminal ganglion through the foramen ovale (FO), interfere with lateral mandibular nerve block, and impede transzygomatic surgical approaches. Presence of these ligaments has been studied on dry skulls, but description of their radiological anatomy is scarce, in particular on cross-sectional imaging. The aim of this study was to describe visualization of pterygoalar and pterygospinous bars on computed tomography (CT) and to review their prevalence and clinical significance.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed 200 helical sinonasal CT scans by analyzing 0.75- to 1.0-mm axial images, maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructions, and volume rendered (VR) images, including views along the anticipated axis of the needle in percutaneous Hartel and submandibular approaches to the FO.

RESULTS

Ossified pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments were readily identifiable on CT scans. An ossified pterygoalar ligament was demonstrated in 10 patients, including 1 individual with bilateral complete ossification (0.5%), 4 patients with unilateral complete ossification (2.0%), and 5 with incomplete unilateral ossification (2.5%). Nearly all patients with pterygoalar bars were male (90%, p < 0.01). An ossified pterygospinous ligament was seen in 35 patients, including 2 individuals with bilateral complete (1.0%), 8 with unilateral complete (4%), 8 with bilateral incomplete (4.0%), 12 with bilateral incomplete (6.0%) ossification, and 5 (2.5%) with mixed ossification (complete on one side and incomplete on the contralateral side). All pterygoalar bars interfered with a hypothetical needle access to the FO using the Hartel approach but not the submandibular approach. In contrast, 54% of complete and 24% of incomplete pterygospinous bars impeded the submandibular approach to the FO, without affecting the Hartel approach.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides the first detailed description of cross-sectional radiological and applied surgical anatomy of pterygoalar and pterygospinous bars. Our data are clinically useful during skull base imaging to predict potential obstacles to percutaneous cannulation of the FO and assist in the choice of approach, as these two variants differentially impede the Hartel and submandibular access routes. Our results can also be useful in planning surgical approaches to the skull base through the infratemporal fossa.

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Jin Wook Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Yong Hwy Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sun Ha Paek, Dong Gyu Kim and Sang Hyung Lee

OBJECTIVE

A thorough investigation of the long-term outcomes and chronological changes of multimodal treatments for petroclival meningiomas is required to establish optimal management strategies. The authors retrospectively reviewed the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with petroclival meningioma according to various treatments, including various surgical approaches, and they suggest treatment strategies based on 30 years of experience at a single institution.

METHODS

Ninety-two patients with petroclival meningiomas were treated surgically at the authors’ institution from 1986 to 2015. Patient demographics, overall survival, local tumor control rates, and functional outcomes according to multimodal treatments, as well as chronological change in management strategies, were evaluated. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up periods were 121 months (range 1–368 months) and 105 months (range 1–348 months), respectively.

RESULTS

A posterior transpetrosal approach was most frequently selected and was followed in 44 patients (48%); a simple retrosigmoid approach, undertaken in 30 patients, was the second most common. The initial extent of resection and following adjuvant treatment modality were classified into 3 subgroups: gross-total resection (GTR) only in 13 patients; non-GTR treatment followed by adjuvant radiosurgery or radiation therapy (non-GTR+RS/RT) in 56 patients; and non-GTR without adjuvant treatment (non-GTR only) in 23 patients. The overall progression-free survival rate was 85.8% at 5 years and 81.2% at 10 years. Progression or recurrence rates according to each subgroup were 7.7%, 12.5%, and 30.4%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ preferred multimodal treatment strategy, that of planned incomplete resection and subsequent adjuvant radiosurgery, is a feasible option for the management of patients with large petroclival meningiomas, considering both local tumor control and postoperative quality of life.

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Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Cyrus Elahi, Núbia Cristina da Silva, Francis M. Sakita, Anthony Fuller, Blandina T. Mmbaga, Eric P. Green, Michael M. Haglund, Catherine A. Staton and Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci

OBJECTIVE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with a disproportionate burden of this injury on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited access to diagnostic technologies and highly skilled providers combined with high patient volumes contributes to poor outcomes in LMICs. Prognostic modeling as a clinical decision support tool, in theory, could optimize the use of existing resources and support timely treatment decisions in LMICs. The objective of this study was to develop a machine learning–based prognostic model using data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania.

METHODS

This study is a secondary analysis of a TBI data registry including 3138 patients. The authors tested nine different machine learning techniques to identify the prognostic model with the greatest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Input data included demographics, vital signs, injury type, and treatment received. The outcome variable was the discharge score on the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended.

RESULTS

The AUC for the prognostic models varied from 66.2% (k-nearest neighbors) to 86.5% (Bayesian generalized linear model). An increasing Glasgow Coma Scale score, increasing pulse oximetry values, and undergoing TBI surgery were predictive of a good recovery, while injuries suffered from a motor vehicle crash and increasing age were predictive of a poor recovery.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors developed a TBI prognostic model with a substantial level of accuracy in a low-resource setting. Further research is needed to externally validate the model and test the algorithm as a clinical decision support tool.