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Mohamed Macki, Azam Basheer, Ian Lee, Ryan Kather, Ilan Rubinfeld and Muwaffak M. Abdulhak

OBJECTIVE

In the past, spine surgeons have avoided the transoral approach to the atlantoaxial segment because of concerns for unacceptable patient morbidity. The objective of this study was to measure 30-day postoperative complications, especially surgical site infection (SSI), after transoral versus posterior approach to atlantoaxial fusion.

METHODS

The source population was provided by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, which was queried for all patients who underwent atlantoaxial fusion for degenerative/spondylotic disease and/or trauma between 2005 and 2014. To eliminate bias from unequal sample sizes, patients who underwent the transoral approach were matched with patients who underwent the posterior approach (generally 1:5 ratio) based on age ± 5 years and modified frailty index score (a measure of preoperative comorbidity burden). Because of rare SSI incidence, adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) of SSI were calculated using penalized maximum likelihood estimation.

RESULTS

A total of 318 patients were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences between the transoral cohort (n = 56) and the posterior cohort (n = 262) in terms of 30-day postoperative individual complications, including SSI (1.79% vs 1.91%; p = 0.951) and composite complications (10.71% vs 6.87%; p = 0.323). Controlling for sex and smoking, the odds of SSI in the transoral approach were almost equal to the odds in the posterior approach (ORadj 1.17; p = 0.866). While the unplanned reoperation rate of 5.36% after transoral surgery was higher than the 1.53% rate after posterior surgery, the difference approached, but did not reach, statistical significance (p = 0.076).

CONCLUSIONS

Transoral versus posterior surgery for atlantoaxial fusion did not differ in 30-day unexpected outcomes. Therefore, spinal pathology, rather than concern for postoperative complications, should adjudicate the technical approach to the atlantoaxial segment.

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Mohamed Macki, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Ashley A. Murgatroyd, Kenneth P. Mullinix, Xiaolei Sun, Bryan W. Cunningham, Brandon A. McCutcheon, Mohamad Bydon and Ziya L. Gokaslan

OBJECTIVE

Aggressive sacral tumors often require en bloc resection and lumbopelvic reconstruction. Instrumentation failure and pseudarthrosis remain a clinical concern to be addressed. The objective in this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of 3 distinct techniques for sacral reconstruction in vitro.

METHODS

In a human cadaveric model study, 8 intact human lumbopelvic specimens (L2–pelvis) were tested for flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), lateral bending, and axial rotation with a custom-designed 6-df spine simulator as well as axial compression stiffness with the MTS 858 Bionix Test System. Biomechanical testing followed this sequence: 1) intact spine; 2) sacrectomy (no testing); 3) Model 1 (L3–5 transpedicular instrumentation plus spinal rods anchored to iliac screws); 4) Model 2 (addition of transiliac rod); and 5) Model 3 (removal of transiliac rod; addition of 2 spinal rods and 2 S-2 screws). Range of motion was measured at L4–5, L5–S1/cross-link, L5–right ilium, and L5–left ilium.

RESULTS

Flexion-extension ROM of the intact specimen at L4–5 (6.34° ± 2.57°) was significantly greater than in Model 1 (1.54° ± 0.94°), Model 2 (1.51° ± 1.01°), and Model 3 (0.72° ± 0.62°) (p < 0.001). Flexion-extension at both the L5–right ilium (2.95° ± 1.27°) and the L5–left ilium (2.87° ± 1.40°) for Model 3 was significantly less than the other 3 cohorts at the same level (p = 0.005 and p = 0.012, respectively). Compared with the intact condition, all 3 reconstruction groups statistically significantly decreased lateral bending ROM at all measured points. Axial rotation ROM at L4–5 for Model 1 (2.01° ± 1.39°), Model 2 (2.00° ± 1.52°), and Model 3 (1.15° ± 0.80°) was significantly lower than the intact condition (5.02° ± 2.90°) (p < 0.001). Moreover, axial rotation for the intact condition and Model 3 at L5–right ilium (2.64° ± 1.36° and 2.93° ± 1.68°, respectively) and L5–left ilium (2.58° ± 1.43° and 2.93° ± 1.71°, respectively) was significantly lower than for Model 1 and Model 2 at L5–right ilium (5.14° ± 2.48° and 4.95° ± 2.45°, respectively) (p = 0.036) and L5–left ilium (5.19° ± 2.34° and 4.99° ± 2.31°) (p = 0.022). Last, results of the axial compression testing at all measured points were not statistically different among reconstructions.

CONCLUSIONS

The addition of a transverse bar in Model 2 offered no biomechanical advantage. Although the implementation of 4 iliac screws and 4 rods conferred a definitive kinematic advantage in Model 3, that model was associated with significantly restricted lumbopelvic ROM.

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Daniel M. Sciubba, Mohamed Macki, Mohamad Bydon, Niccole M. Germscheid, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Stefano Boriani, Chetan Bettegowda, Dean Chou, Alessandro Luzzati, Jeremy J. Reynolds, Zsolt Szövérfi, Patti Zadnik, Laurence D. Rhines, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Charles G. Fisher and Peter Paul Varga

OBJECT

Clinical outcomes in patients with primary spinal osteochondromas are limited to small series and sporadic case reports. The authors present data on the first long-term investigation of spinal osteochondroma cases.

METHODS

An international, multicenter ambispective study on primary spinal osteochondroma was performed. Patients were included if they were diagnosed with an osteochondroma of the spine and received surgical treatment between October 1996 and June 2012 with at least 1 follow-up. Perioperative prognostic variables, including patient age, tumor size, spinal level, and resection, were analyzed in reference to long-term local recurrence and survival. Tumor resections were compared using Enneking appropriate (EA) or Enneking inappropriate surgical margins.

RESULTS

Osteochondromas were diagnosed in 27 patients at an average age of 37 years. Twenty-two lesions were found in the mobile spine (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar) and 5 in the fixed spine (sacrum). Twenty-three cases (88%) were benign tumors (Enneking tumor Stages 1–3), whereas 3 (12%) exhibited malignant changes (Enneking tumor Stages IA–IIB). Sixteen patients (62%) underwent en bloc treatment—that is, wide or marginal resection—and 10 (38%) underwent intralesional resection. Twenty-four operations (92%) followed EA margins. No one received adjuvant therapy. Two patients (8%) experienced recurrences: one in the fixed spine and one in the mobile spine. Both recurrences occurred in latent Stage 1 tumors following en bloc resection. No osteochondroma-related deaths were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

In the present study, most patients underwent en bloc resection and were treated as EA cases. Both recurrences occurred in the Stage 1 tumor cohort. Therefore, although benign in character, osteochondromas still require careful management and thorough follow-up.

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Mohamad Bydon, Nicholas B. Abt, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Mohamed Macki, Timothy F. Witham, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Ali Bydon and Judy Huang

OBJECT

The authors sought to determine the impact of resident participation on overall 30-day morbidity and mortality following neurosurgical procedures.

METHODS

The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients who had undergone neurosurgical procedures between 2006 and 2012. The operating surgeon(s), whether an attending only or attending plus resident, was assessed for his or her influence on morbidity and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression, was used to estimate odds ratios for 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality outcomes for the attending-only compared with the attending plus resident cohorts (attending group and attending+resident group, respectively).

RESULTS

The study population consisted of 16,098 patients who had undergone elective or emergent neurosurgical procedures. The mean patient age was 56.8 ± 15.0 years, and 49.8% of patients were women. Overall, 15.8% of all patients had at least one postoperative complication. The attending+resident group demonstrated a complication rate of 20.12%, while patients with an attending-only surgeon had a statistically significantly lower complication rate at 11.70% (p < 0.001). In the total population, 263 patients (1.63%) died within 30 days of surgery. Stratified by operating surgeon status, 162 patients (2.07%) in the attending+resident group died versus 101 (1.22%) in the attending group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Regression analyses compared patients who had resident participation to those with only attending surgeons, the referent group. Following adjustment for preoperative patient characteristics and comorbidities, multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that patients with resident participation in their surgery had the same odds of 30-day morbidity (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.94–1.17) and mortality (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.66–1.28) as their attendingonly counterparts.

CONCLUSIONS

Cases with resident participation had higher rates of mortality and morbidity; however, these cases also involved patients with more comorbidities initially. On multivariate analysis, resident participation was not an independent risk factor for postoperative 30-day morbidity or mortality following elective or emergent neurosurgical procedures.

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Mohamad Bydon, Mohamed Macki, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Timothy F. Witham and Ali Bydon

OBJECT

This study aimed to identify the factors predicting an increased risk for reoperation in patients who had undergone a lumbar laminectomy.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of all patients who had undergone firsttime, bilateral laminectomy at 1, 2, or 3 levels for lumbar spondylosis at the authors' institution. Patients who underwent fusion, laminotomy, discectomy, or complete facetectomy were excluded. The patients' preoperative symptoms and comorbidities were also obtained from their medical records.

RESULTS

Over an average follow-up period of 46.8 months, of 500 patients who had undergone laminectomy at 1, 2, or 3 levels, 81 patients (16.2%) developed subsequent spinal disorders that required a reoperation. A multiple logistic regression analysis identified smoking as an independent predictor of reoperation (OR 2.15, p = 0.01). Smoking was also an independent predictor of reoperation after a single-level laminectomy (OR 11.3, p = 0.02) and after a multilevel (that is, involving 2 or 3 levels) laminectomy (OR 1.98, p = 0.05). For 72 patients undergoing reoperation only for spinal degeneration, smoking remained an independent, statistically significant predictor of reoperation (OR 2.06, p = 0.04). Nine patients underwent reoperation for nondegenerative conditions (hematoma, wound infection, or wound dehiscence), and in these patients, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the only statistically significant predictor of reoperation (OR 8.92, p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

Smoking was the strongest predictor of reoperation in patients who had undergone single-level laminectomy, multilevel laminectomy, or reoperation for progression of spinal degeneration. These findings suggest that smokers have worse outcomes of lumbar decompression than nonsmokers.

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Mohamad Bydon, Dimitrios Mathios, Mohamed Macki, Rafael de la Garza-Ramos, Daniel M. Sciubba, Timothy F. Witham, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Ali Bydon

Object

The authors conducted a study to investigate the rate and timing of reoperation due to symptom recurrence after unilateral posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF).

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed demographic, surgical, and clinical data from 151 patients who underwent unilateral PCF at their institution with an average follow-up of 4.15 years. The main outcome variables were reoperation rate, time to reoperation, and short- and long-term radiculopathy improvement rates. Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted to assess risk of reoperation and recurrence of radiculopathy over time.

Results

After index PCF in 151 patients, the overall reoperation rate was 9.9% (15 patients). The average time until reoperation was 2.4 years, and the average last follow-up examination was 4.15 years after the first surgery. Patients who presented with preoperative neck pain in addition to radiculopathy had a higher risk for reoperation and a shorter time to reoperation. The majority of patients who underwent a reoperation had an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (80%). A smaller number of patients had reoperation that included a repeat PCF (6.7%) or laminectomy with posterior cervical fusion (13.3%). The rate of same-level reoperation (6.6%, 10 patients) was significantly higher (p = 0.05) when compared with adjacent-segment (1.3%, 2 patients) or distant-segment (1.9%, 3 patients) reoperation. At last follow-up, the overall rate of improvement in radiculopathy was 85%, with the majority of patients (91.4%) experiencing resolution as early as 1 month after index surgery. Following the subgroup that experienced initial symptom improvement, 16.1% of these patients experienced radiculopathy recurrence an average of 7.3 years after the initial operation. While the reoperation rate for the overall cohort in this series was 9.9%, patients with follow-up periods longer than 2 years had a reoperation rate of 18.3%. Moreover, patients with more than 10 years of follow-up had a reoperation rate of 24.3%.

Conclusions

PCF is a procedure performed to address nerve root compression in the cervical spine. The authors evaluated 151 patients who underwent unilateral PCF and found a reoperation rate of 9.9% at an average of 2.4 years after the initial surgery (6.6% at same level, 3.3% elsewhere). The reoperation rates reached 18.3% and 24.3% in patients with follow-up periods longer than 2 and 10 years, respectively. The authors' analysis revealed that patients with no preoperative neck pain had the lowest rates of revision surgery after PCF.