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Michael Handler, Victor Ho, Margaret Whelan and Gleb Budzilovich

✓ The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently described T-cell deficiency predisposing patients to a spectrum of opportunistic infections, Kaposi's sarcoma, and other neoplasms. It appears primarily among homosexual males and intravenous drug abusers, but is now being observed in other groups as well. The authors describe six adult patients with AIDS who developed intracranial toxoplasmosis. In four patients, diagnosis was made by brain biopsy, and in one by serology. These patients received a 90-day course of therapy with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, or both when tolerated, and improved neurologically. In one patient, the brain biopsy was nondiagnostic and the organism was identified at autopsy. On computerized tomographic and pathological follow-up studies the organism appeared to be eradicated by therapy. Early aggressive diagnostic study and prompt institution of therapy are imperative for reversal of neurological deficits. Despite cure of toxoplasmosis, the prognosis in patients with AIDS is poor; the mortality in this series was 67%. Isolation precautions should be taken by those caring for such patients.