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  • By Author: Wilson, Charles B. x
  • By Author: Lamborn, Kathleen R. x
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Edward F. Chang, Gabriel Zada, Sang Kim, Kathleen R. Lamborn, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, J. Blake Tyrrell, Charles B. Wilson and Sandeep Kunwar

Object

Long-term outcomes following surgery for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are unclear. The role of adjuvant radiation therapy is therefore controversial because it is associated with higher tumor control but also carries known long-term morbidity. The authors' aim was to determine predictors of recurrence and overall survival and to define patient subgroups that may benefit from radiotherapy.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 663 patients who underwent surgery between 1975 and 1995 for treatment of primary NFPAs. The main outcome measures were disease progression after surgery, defined by clinical and/or imaging criteria, and all-cause mortality.

Results

Over a median clinical follow-up of 8.4 years, there were 64 (9.7%) recurrences after treatment, with a median time to recurrence of 5.6 years. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year recurrence-free probabilities were 0.93, 0.87, and 0.81, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis identified the following predictors as associated with increased recurrence: cavernous sinus invasion (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–6.4; p < 0.001) and subtotal resection (STR) without radiotherapy (HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4–14; p = 0.01). Using time-to-event estimates to adjust for differences in follow-up between groups, radiotherapy was found to reduce tumor recurrence in only those patients who received an STR (p < 0.001, log-rank test) but not gross-total resection (GTR; p = 0.63, log-rank test). Median follow-up for overall survival was 14.0 years. The 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival estimates were 0.91, 0.81, 0.69, and 0.55, respectively. Within the study cohort and in age- and sex-adjusted comparison with the general US population, increased relative mortality was observed in patients who underwent radiotherapy or STR.

Conclusions

Cavernous sinus invasion is an important prognostic variable for long-term control of NFPAs. Radiotherapy results in long-term tumor control for patients who undergo STR but does not affect recurrence rates and may increase the risk of death after GTR. Given the risks associated with radiotherapy, there is no role for its routine application in patients who have undergone GTR of their NFPA. In all patients, long-term monitoring is required.

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Fred G. Barker II, Michael D. Prados, Susan M. Chang, Philip H. Gutin, Kathleen R. Lamborn, David A. Larson, Mary K. Malec, Michael W. McDermott, Penny K. Sneed, William M. Wara and Charles B. Wilson

✓ To determine the value of radiographically assessed response to radiation therapy as a predictor of survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the authors studied a cohort of 301 patients who were initially treated according to uniform clinical protocols. All patients had newly diagnosed supratentorial GBM and underwent the maximum safe resection followed by external-beam radiation treatment (60 Gy in standard daily fractions or 70.4 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 160 cGy). The radiation response and survival rates were assessable in 222 patients. The extent of resection and the immediate response to radiation therapy were highly correlated with survival, both in a univariate analysis and after correction for age and Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score in a multivariate Cox model (p < 0.001 for radiation response and p = 0.04 for extent of resection). A subgroup analysis suggested that neuroimaging obtained within 3 days after surgery served as a better baseline for assessment of radiation response than images obtained later. Imaging obtained within 3 days after completion of a course of radiation therapy also provided valid radiation response scores. The impact of the radiographically assessed radiation response on survival time was comparable to that of age or KPS score. This information is easily obtained early in the course of the disease, may be of value for individual patients, and may also have implications for the design and analysis of trials of adjuvant therapy for GBM, including volume-dependent therapies such as radiosurgery or brachytherapy.