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Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Noritaka Komune, Jacob B. Archer, Hai Sun, Nicholas Theodore, Jeffrey James, Andrew S. Little, Peter Nakaji, Michael E. Sughrue, Albert L. Rhoton and Robert F. Spetzler

OBJECT

The objective of this study was to describe the surgical anatomy and technical nuances of various vascularized tissue flaps.

METHODS

The surgical anatomy of various tissue flaps and their vascular pedicles was studied in 5 colored silicone-injected anatomical specimens. Medical records were reviewed of 11 consecutive patients who underwent repair of extensive skull base defects with a combination of various vascularized flaps.

RESULTS

The supraorbital, supratrochlear, superficial temporal, greater auricular, and occipital arteries contribute to the vascular supply of the pericranium. The pericranial flap can be designed based on an axial blood supply. Laterally, various flaps are supplied by the deep or superficial temporal arteries. The nasoseptal flap is a vascular pedicled flap based on the nasoseptal artery. Patients with extensive skull base defects can undergo effective repair with dual flaps or triple flaps using these pedicled vascularized flaps.

CONCLUSIONS

Multiple pedicled flaps are available for reconstitution of the skull base. Knowledge of the surgical anatomy of these flaps is crucial for the skull base surgeon. These vascularized tissue flaps can be used effectively as single or combination flaps. Multilayered closure of cranial base defects with vascularized tissue can be used safely and may lead to excellent repair outcomes.

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Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Timothy B. Mapstone, Jacob B. Archer, Christopher Wilson, Nicholas Theodore, Robert F. Spetzler and Mark C. Preul

An understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of tethered cord syndrome (TCS) and modern management strategies have only developed within the past few decades. Current understanding of this entity first began with the understanding and management of spina bifida; this later led to the gradual recognition of spina bifida occulta and the symptoms associated with tethering of the filum terminale. In the 17th century, Dutch anatomists provided the first descriptions and initiated surgical management efforts for spina bifida. In the 19th century, the term “spina bifida occulta” was coined and various presentations of spinal dysraphism were appreciated. The association of urinary, cutaneous, and skeletal abnormalities with spinal dysraphism was recognized in the 20th century. Early in the 20th century, some physicians began to suspect that traction on the conus medullaris caused myelodysplasia-related symptoms and that prophylactic surgical management could prevent the occurrence of clinical manifestations. It was not, however, until later in the 20th century that the term “tethered spinal cord” and the modern management of TCS were introduced. This gradual advancement in understanding at a time before the development of modern imaging modalities illustrates how, over the centuries, anatomists, pathologists, neurologists, and surgeons used clinical examination, a high level of suspicion, and interest in the subtle and overt clinical appearances of spinal dysraphism and TCS to advance understanding of pathophysiology, clinical appearance, and treatment of this entity. With the availability of modern imaging, spinal dysraphism can now be diagnosed and treated as early as the intrauterine stage.

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Jacob B. Archer, Hai Sun, Phillip A. Bonney, Yan Daniel Zhao, Jared C. Hiebert, Jose A. Sanclement, Andrew S. Little, Michael E. Sughrue, Nicholas Theodore, Jeffrey James and Sam Safavi-Abbasi

OBJECT

This article introduces a classification scheme for extensive traumatic anterior skull base fracture to help stratify surgical treatment options. The authors describe their multilayer repair technique for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak resulting from extensive anterior skull base fracture using a combination of laterally pediculated temporalis fascial-pericranial, nasoseptal-pericranial, and anterior pericranial flaps.

METHODS

Retrospective chart review identified patients treated surgically between January 2004 and May 2014 for anterior skull base fractures with CSF fistulas. All patients were treated with bifrontal craniotomy and received pedicled tissue flaps. Cases were classified according to the extent of fracture: Class I (frontal bone/sinus involvement only); Class II (extent of involvement to ethmoid cribriform plate); and Class III (extent of involvement to sphenoid bone/sinus). Surgical repair techniques were tailored to the types of fractures. Patients were assessed for CSF leak at follow-up. The Fisher exact test was applied to investigate whether the repair techniques were associated with persistent postoperative CSF leak.

RESULTS

Forty-three patients were identified in this series. Thirty-seven (86%) were male. The patients’ mean age was 33 years (range 11–79 years). The mean overall length of follow-up was 14 months (range 5–45 months). Six fractures were classified as Class I, 8 as Class II, and 29 as Class III. The anterior pericranial flap alone was used in 33 patients (77%). Multiple flaps were used in 10 patients (3 salvage) (28%)—1 with Class II and 9 with Class III fractures. Five (17%) of the 30 patients with Class II or III fractures who received only a single anterior pericranial flap had persistent CSF leak (p < 0.31). No CSF leak was found in patients who received multiple flaps. Although postoperative CSF leak occurred only in high-grade fractures with single anterior flap repair, this finding was not significant.

CONCLUSIONS

Extensive anterior skull base fractures often require aggressive treatment to provide the greatest long-term functional and cosmetic benefits. Several vascularized tissue flaps can be used, either alone or in combination. Vascularized flaps are an ideal substrate for cranial base repair. Dual and triple flap techniques that combine the use of various anterior, lateral, and nasoseptal flaps allow for a comprehensive arsenal in multilayered skull base repair and salvage therapy for extensive and severe fractures.

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Nestor G. Rodriguez-Martinez, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Luis Perez-Orribo, Anna G. U. S. Newcomb, Phillip M. Reyes, Galyna Loughran, Nicholas Theodore and Neil R. Crawford

OBJECT

The Universal Clamp Spinal Fixation System (UC) is a novel sublaminar connection for the spine that is currently used in conjunction with pedicle screws at the thoracic levels for the correction of scoliosis. This device allows the surgeon to attach rods and incorporate a pedicle screw construction. The flexible composition of the UC should provide flexibility intermediate to the uninstrumented spine and an all-screw construct. This hypothesis was tested in vitro using nondestructive flexibility testing of human cadaveric spine segments.

METHODS

Six unembalmed human cadaveric thoracic spine segments from T-3 to T-11 were used. The specimens were tested under the following conditions: 1) intact; 2) after bilateral screws were placed at T4-T10 and interconnected with longitudinal rods; 3) after placement of a hybrid construction with screws at T-4, T-7, and T-10 with an interconnecting rod on one side and screws at T-4 and T-10 with the UC at T5–9 on the contralateral side; (4) after bilateral screws were placed at T-4 and T-10 and interconnected with rods and bilateral UC were placed at T5–9; and 5) after bilateral screws at T-4 and T-10 were placed and interconnected with rods and bilateral sublaminar cables were placed at T5–9. Pure moments of 6.0 Nm were applied while optoelectronically recording 3D angular motion.

RESULTS

Bilateral UC placement and bilateral sublaminar cables both resulted in a significantly greater range of motion than bilateral pedicle screws during lateral bending and axial rotation, but not during flexion or extension. There were no differences in stability between bilateral UC and bilateral cables. The construct with limited screws on one side and UC contralaterally showed comparable stability to bilateral UC and bilateral cables.

CONCLUSIONS

These results support using the UC as a therapeutic option for spinal stabilization because it allows comparable stability to the sublaminar cables and provides flexibility intermediate to that of the uninstrumented spine and an all-screw construct. Equivalent stability of the hybrid, bilateral UC, and bilateral cable constructs indicates that 6-level UC provides stability comparable to that of a limited (3-point) pedicle screw-rod construct.

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Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Adrian J. Maurer, Jacob B. Archer, Ricardo A. Hanel, Michael E. Sughrue, Nicholas Theodore and Mark C. Preul

During his lifetime and a career spanning 42 years, James Watson Kernohan made numerous contributions to neuropathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. One of these, the phenomenon of ipsilateral, false localizing signs caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge, has widely become known as “Kernohan's notch” and continues to bear his name. The other is a grading system for gliomas from a neurosurgical viewpoint that continues to be relevant for grading of glial tumors 60 years after its introduction. In this paper, the authors analyze these two major contributions in detail within the context of Kernohan's career and explore how they contributed to the development of neurosurgical procedures.

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Daniel D. Cavalcanti, Nikolay L. Martirosyan, Ketan Verma, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Randall W. Porter, Nicholas Theodore, Volker K. H. Sonntag, Curtis A. Dickman and Robert F. Spetzler

Object

Schwannomas occupying the craniocervical junction (CCJ) are rare and usually originate from the jugular foramen, hypoglossal nerves, and C-1 and C-2 nerves. Although they may have different origins, they may share the same symptoms, surgical approaches, and complications. An extension of these lesions along the posterior fossa cisterns, foramina, and spinal canal—usually involving various cranial nerves (CNs) and the vertebral and cerebellar arteries—poses a surgical challenge. The primary goals of both surgical and radiosurgical management of schwannomas in the CCJ are the preservation and restoration of function of the lower CNs, and of hearing and facial nerve function. The origins of schwannomas in the CCJ and their clinical presentation, surgical management, adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery, and outcomes in 36 patients treated at Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) are presented.

Methods

Between 1989 and 2009, 36 patients (mean age 43.6 years, range 17–68 years) with craniocervical schwannomas underwent surgical resection at BNI. The records were reviewed retrospectively regarding clinical presentation, radiographic assessment, surgical approaches, adjuvant therapies, and follow-up outcomes.

Results

Headache or neck pain was present in 72.2% of patients. Cranial nerve impairments, mainly involving the vagus nerve, were present in 14 patients (38.9%). Motor deficits were found in 27.8% of the patients. Sixteen tumors were intra- and extradural, 15 were intradural, and 5 were extradural. Gross-total resection was achieved in 25 patients (69.4%). Adjunctive radiosurgery was used in the management of residual tumor in 8 patients; tumor control was ultimately obtained in all cases.

Conclusions

Surgical removal, which is the treatment of choice, is curative when schwannomas in the CCJ are excised completely. The far-lateral approach and its variations are our preferred approaches for managing these lesions. Most common complications involve deficits of the lower CNs, and their early recognition and rehabilitation are needed. Stereotactic radiosurgery, an important tool for the management of these tumors as adjuvant therapy, can help decrease morbidity rates.

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Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Mehmet Senoglu, Nicholas Theodore, Ryan K. Workman, Alireza Gharabaghi, Iman Feiz-Erfan, Robert F. Spetzler and Volker K. H. Sonntag

Object

The authors conducted a study to evaluate the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes in patients with spinal schwannomas and without neurofibromatosis (NF).

Methods

The data obtained in 128 patients who underwent resection of spinal schwannomas were analyzed. All cases with neurofibromas and those with a known diagnosis of NF Type 1 or 2 were excluded. Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores were used to compare patient outcomes when examining the anatomical location and spinal level of the tumor. The neurological outcome was further assessed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) muscle testing scale.

Results

Altogether, 131 schwannomas were treated in 128 patients (76 males and 52 females; mean age 47.7 years). The peak prevalence is seen between the 3rd and 6th decades. Pain was the most common presenting symptom. Gross-total resection was achieved in 127 (97.0%) of the 131 lesions. The nerve root had to be sacrificed in 34 cases and resulted in minor sensory deficits in 16 patients (12.5%) and slight motor weakness (MRC Grade 3/5) in 3 (2.3%). The KPS scores and MRC grades were significantly higher at the time of last follow-up in all patient groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively).

Conclusions

Spinal schwannomas may occur at any level of the spinal axis and are most commonly intradural. The most frequent clinical presentation is pain. Most spinal schwannomas in non-NF cases can be resected totally without or with minor postoperative deficits. Preoperative autonomic dysfunction does not improve significantly after surgical management.

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Mehmet Senoglu, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Nicholas Theodore, Nicholas C. Bambakidis, Neil R. Crawford and Volker K. H. Sonntag

Object

In this study the authors investigated the anatomical, clinical, and imaging features as well as incidence of congenital defects of the C-1 arch.

Methods

The records of 1104 patients who presented with various medical problems during the time between January 2006 and December 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. The craniocervical computed tomography (CT) scans obtained in these patients were evaluated to define the incidence of congenital defects of the posterior arch of C-1. In addition, 166 dried C-1 specimens and 84 fresh human cadaveric cervical spine segments were evaluated for anomalies of the C-1 arch.

Results

Altogether, 40 anomalies (2.95%) were found in 1354 evaluated cases. Of the 1104 patients in whom CT scans were acquired, 37 (3.35%) had congenital defects of the posterior arch of the atlas. The incidence of each anomaly was as follows: Type A, 29 (2.6%); Type B, six (0.54%); and Type E, two (0.18%). There were no Type C or D defects. One patient (0.09%) had an anterior arch cleft. None of the reviewed patients had neurological deficits or required surgical intervention for their anomalies. Three cases of Type A posterior arch anomalies were present in the cadaveric specimens.

Conclusions

Most congenital anomalies of the atlantal arch are found incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Congenital defects of the posterior arch are more common than defects of the anterior arch.

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Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Joseph M. Zabramski, Pushpa Deshmukh, Cassius V. Reis, Nicholas C. Bambakidis, Nicholas Theodore, Neil R. Crawford, Robert F. Spetzler and Mark C. Preul

Object

The authors quantitatively assessed the effects of balloon inflation as a model of tumor compression on the brainstem, cranial nerves, and clivus by measuring the working area, angle of attack, and brain shift associated with the retrosigmoid approach.

Methods

Six silicone-injected cadaveric heads were dissected bilaterally via the retrosigmoid approach. Quantitative data were generated, including key anatomical points on the skull base and brainstem. All parameters were measured before and after inflation of a balloon catheter (inflation volume 4.8 ml, diameter 20 mm) intended to mimic tumor compression.

Results

Balloon inflation significantly shifted (p < 0.001) the brainstem and cranial nerve foramina (mean [± standard deviation] displacement of upper brainstem, 10.2 ± 3.7 mm; trigeminal nerve exit, 6.99 ± 2.38 mm; facial nerve exit, 9.52 ± 4.13 mm; and lower brainstem, 13.63 ± 8.45 mm). The area of exposure at the petroclivus was significantly greater with balloon inflation than without (change, 316.26 ± 166.75 mm2; p < 0.0001). Before and after balloon inflation, there was no significant difference in the angles of attack at the origin of the trigeminal nerve (p > 0.5).

Conclusions

This study adds an experimental component to the emerging field of quantitative neurosurgical anatomy. Balloon inflation can be used to model the effects of a mass lesion. The tumor simulation created “natural” retraction and an opening toward the upper clivus. The findings may be helpful in selecting a surgical approach to increase the working space for resection of certain extraaxial tumors.