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Venelin M. Gerganov, Ariyan Pirayesh, Mohsen Nouri, Nirjhar Hore, Wolf O. Luedemann, Shizuo Oi, Amir Samii and Madjid Samii


The current, generally accepted optimal management for hydrocephalus related to vestibular schwannomas (VSs) is primary tumor removal, with further treatment reserved only for patients who remain symptomatic. Previous studies have shown, however, that this management can lead to an increase in surgery-related complications. In this study, the authors evaluated their experience with the treatment of such patients, with the aim of identifying the following: 1) the parameters correlating to the need for specific hydrocephalus treatment following VS surgery; and 2) patients at risk for developing hydrocephalus-related complications.


This was a retrospective study of a 400-patient series. The complication rates and outcomes following primary hydrocephalus treatment versus primary VS removal were compared. Patients undergoing primary tumor removal were further subdivided on the basis of the need for subsequent hydrocephalus treatment. The 3 categories of parameters tested for correlation with the need for such subsequent treatment as well as with heightened risk for developing complications were patient-, tumor-, and hydrocephalus-related.


Of the entire series, 53 patients presented with hydrocephalus. Forty-eight of 53 patients underwent primary VS surgery, of whom 42 (87.5%) did not require additional hydrocephalus treatment. Of the 6 patients who did require additional hydrocephalus treatment, only 3 ultimately required a VP shunt. Factors correlating to the need of hydrocephalus treatment after VS removal were large tumor size, irregular tumor surface, and severe preoperative hydrocephalus. Patients with a longer symptom duration prior to surgery, those with polycyclic tumors, or with inhomogeneous VS, were at heightened risk for the development of CSF leaks. The general and functional outcome of surgery showed no correlation to the presence of preoperative hydrocephalus.


Primary tumor removal is the optimum management of disease in patients with VS with associated hydrocephalus; it leads to resolution of the hydrocephalus in the majority of cases, and the outcome is similar to that of patients without hydrocephalus. Certain factors may aid in identifying patients at risk for developing persistent hydrocephalus as well as those at risk for CSF leaks.

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Shizuo Oi, Amir Samii and Madjid Samii

P A newly designed small-diameter rigid-rod neuroendoscope was created to evaluate the applicability of free-hand maneuvering during high-resolution imaging. The neuroendoscope was designed as a light, handheld tool weighing 550 g. A 20-cm-long objective lens, 2 mm in diameter, is placed in the lower two thirds of the single-space lumen of an oval-shaped outer sheath, 16.5 mm long and 3.5 × 2.5 mm at maximum diameter. Included are microinstruments of 1.3-mm diameter for various neuroendoscopic procedures, including microscissors, biopsy forceps, grasping forceps, monopolar coagulator/cutting rod, and bipolar coagulator that can be introduced through the upper one third of the lumen.

Because the endoscope is held steady in the surgeon's left hand, with the handle gripped at the base, quick back-and-forth movements can be made along the long axis, via a peel-away sheath inserted to the ventricle, shifting of the endoscope tip to the side of the objective target will be minimal. Given the instrument's unified configuration, the surgeon will never lose orientation during maneuvering. Using the farthest right of three inlet/outlet orifices, the short and handy semiflexible microinstruments can be guided and controlled by the surgeon's right hand.

After experience in 66 cases in which various neuroendoscopic procedures yielded excellent operative outcomes (morbidity rate in complications related to the endoscopic procedure 0%; mortality rate 0%), the endoscope prototype was finalized in the ideal form for frameless maneuvering that uses a rigid-rod endoscope. The “gun-butt” holder for use with the operator's left hand provides stability and allows the endoscope to be handled with improved control. These new aspects of the neuroendoscope and surgical technique offer substantial improvement over the flexible-steerable fiberoptic endoscopes.