Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • By Author: Samii, Madjid x
  • By Author: Gerganov, Venelin M. x
Clear All
Restricted access

Bo Wu, Weidong Liu and Longyi Chen

Restricted access

Venelin M. Gerganov, Mario Giordano, Amir Samii and Madjid Samii

Object

An increasing number of patients with vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are being treated with radiosurgery. Treatment failure or secondary regrowth after radiosurgery, however, has been observed in 2%–9% of patients. In large tumors that compress the brainstem and in patients who experience rapid neurological deterioration, surgical removal is the only reasonable management option.

Methods

The authors evaluated the relevance of previous radiosurgery for the outcome of surgery in a series of 28 patients with VS. The cohort was further subdivided into Group A (radiosurgery prior to surgery) and Group B (partial tumor removal followed by radiosurgery prior to current surgery). The functional and general outcomes in these 2 groups were compared with those in a control group (no previous treatment, matched characteristics).

Results

There were 15 patients in Group A, 13 in Group B, and 30 in the control group. The indications for surgery were sustained tumor enlargement and progression of neurological symptoms in 12 patients, sustained tumor enlargement in 15 patients, and worsening of neurological symptoms without evidence of tumor growth in 1 patient. Total tumor removal was achieved in all patients in Groups A and B and in 96.7% of those in the control group. There were no deaths in any group. Although no significant differences in the neurological morbidity or complication rates after surgery were noted, the risk of new cranial nerve deficits and CSF leakage was highest in patients in Group B. Patients who underwent previous radiosurgical treatment (Groups A and B) tended to be at higher risk of developing postoperative hematomas in the tumor bed or cerebellum. The rate of facial nerve anatomical preservation was highest in those patients who were not treated previously (93.3%) and decreased to 86.7% in the patients in Group A and to 61.5% in those in Group B. Facial nerve function at follow-up was found to correlate to the previous treatment; excellent or good function was seen in 87% of the patients from the control group, 78% of those in Group A, and 68% of those in Group B.

Conclusions

Complete microsurgical removal of VSs after failed radiosurgery is possible with an acceptable morbidity rate. The functional outcome, however, tends to be worse than in nontreated patients. Surgery after previous partial tumor removal and radiosurgery is most challenging and related to worse outcome.

Restricted access

Venelin M. Gerganov, Mario Giordano, Madjid Samii and Amir Samii

Object

The reliable preoperative visualization of facial nerve location in relation to vestibular schwannoma (VS) would allow surgeons to plan tumor removal accordingly and may increase the safety of surgery. In this prospective study, the authors attempted to validate the reliability of facial nerve diffusion tensor (DT) imaging–based fiber tracking in a series of patients with large VSs. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the potential of this visualization technique to predict the morphological shape of the facial nerve (tumor compression–related flattening of the nerve).

Methods

Diffusion tensor imaging and anatomical images (constructive interference in steady state) were acquired in a series of 22 consecutive patients with large VSs and postprocessed with navigational software to obtain facial nerve fiber tracking. The location of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) part of the nerve in relation to the tumor was recorded during surgery by the surgeon, who was blinded to the results of the fiber tracking. A correlative analysis was performed of the imaging-based location of the nerve compared with its in situ position in relation to the VS.

Results

Fibers corresponding to the anatomical location and course of the facial nerve from the brainstem to the internal auditory meatus were identified with the DT imaging–based fiber tracking technique in all 22 cases. The location of the CPA segment of the facial nerve in relation to the VS determined during surgery corresponded to the location of the fibers, predicted by the DT imaging–based fiber tracking, in 20 (90.9%) of the 22 patients. No DT imaging–based fiber tracking correlates were found with the 2 morphological types of the nerve (compact or flat).

Conclusions

The current study of patients with large VSs has shown that the position of the facial nerve in relation to the tumor can be predicted reliably (in 91%) using DT imaging–based fiber tracking. These are preliminary results that need further verification in a larger series.

Restricted access

Donald P. Becker

Restricted access

Venelin M. Gerganov, Ariyan Pirayesh, Mohsen Nouri, Nirjhar Hore, Wolf O. Luedemann, Shizuo Oi, Amir Samii and Madjid Samii

Object

The current, generally accepted optimal management for hydrocephalus related to vestibular schwannomas (VSs) is primary tumor removal, with further treatment reserved only for patients who remain symptomatic. Previous studies have shown, however, that this management can lead to an increase in surgery-related complications. In this study, the authors evaluated their experience with the treatment of such patients, with the aim of identifying the following: 1) the parameters correlating to the need for specific hydrocephalus treatment following VS surgery; and 2) patients at risk for developing hydrocephalus-related complications.

Methods

This was a retrospective study of a 400-patient series. The complication rates and outcomes following primary hydrocephalus treatment versus primary VS removal were compared. Patients undergoing primary tumor removal were further subdivided on the basis of the need for subsequent hydrocephalus treatment. The 3 categories of parameters tested for correlation with the need for such subsequent treatment as well as with heightened risk for developing complications were patient-, tumor-, and hydrocephalus-related.

Results

Of the entire series, 53 patients presented with hydrocephalus. Forty-eight of 53 patients underwent primary VS surgery, of whom 42 (87.5%) did not require additional hydrocephalus treatment. Of the 6 patients who did require additional hydrocephalus treatment, only 3 ultimately required a VP shunt. Factors correlating to the need of hydrocephalus treatment after VS removal were large tumor size, irregular tumor surface, and severe preoperative hydrocephalus. Patients with a longer symptom duration prior to surgery, those with polycyclic tumors, or with inhomogeneous VS, were at heightened risk for the development of CSF leaks. The general and functional outcome of surgery showed no correlation to the presence of preoperative hydrocephalus.

Conclusions

Primary tumor removal is the optimum management of disease in patients with VS with associated hydrocephalus; it leads to resolution of the hydrocephalus in the majority of cases, and the outcome is similar to that of patients without hydrocephalus. Certain factors may aid in identifying patients at risk for developing persistent hydrocephalus as well as those at risk for CSF leaks.

Restricted access

Editorial

Giant meningiomas of the posterior fossa

Madjid Samii and Venelin M. Gerganov

Restricted access

Madjid Samii, Venelin M. Gerganov and Amir Samii

Object

The authors evaluated the outcome of radical surgery in a consecutive series of patients with giant vestibular schwannomas (VSs).

Methods

Fifty patients with VSs > 4.0 cm in maximal extrameatal diameter were included in this retrospective study (Group A). The group was compared with a matched group of 167 patients with VSs < 3.9 cm (Group B). In all cases the retrosigmoid approach was used. Outcome measures included completeness of tumor removal, facial nerve function, hearing, and the surgery-related complication rate.

Results

The mean tumor size in Group A was 4.4 cm and that in Group B was 2.3 cm. Total removal was achieved in all Group A patients and in 97.6% of Group B patients. The anatomical integrity of the facial nerve was preserved in 92% in Group A and in 98.8% in Group B. At last follow-up 75% of the patients with giant VSs had excellent or good facial nerve function, 19% had fair function, and 6% had poor function. In 33% of patients (3 cases) with good preoperative hearing level, it was preserved. Newly developed lower cranial nerve dysfunction occurred in 3 patients but proved to be temporary in 2 of them. A CSF leak developed in 6% of those who not previously undergone surgery. Compared with Group B, a significant difference was found only in the rates of the following parameters: excellent facial nerve function, useful and good hearing, lower cranial nerve dysfunction, and blood collection (p < 0.05). The perioperative mortality rate in both groups was 0%.

Conclusions

In patients with a giant VS, total tumor removal can be achieved via the retrosigmoid approach with a 0% mortality rate and low morbidity rate, especially with regards to facial nerve function. In selected cases even hearing preservation is possible. Tumor size significantly correlates with postoperative outcome.

Restricted access

Lennart H. Stieglitz, Karsten H. Wrede, Alireza Gharabaghi, Venelin M. Gerganov, Amir Samii, Madjid Samii and Wolf O. Luedemann

Object

The aim of this study was to identify patients likely to develop CSF leaks after vestibular schwannoma surgery using a retrospective analysis for the identification of risk factors.

Methods

Between January 2001 and December 2006, 420 patients underwent retrosigmoidal microsurgical tumor removal in a standardized procedure. Of these 420 patients, 363 underwent treatment for the first time, and 27 suffered from recurrent tumors. Twenty-six patients had bilateral tumors due to neurofibromatosis Type 2, and 4 patients had previously undergone radiosurgical treatment. An analysis was performed to examine the incidence of postoperative CSF fistulas in all 4 groups.

Results

The incidence of CSF leakage was higher in the tumor recurrence group (11.1%) than in patients undergoing surgery for the first time (4.4%). There were no CSF fistulas in the neurofibromatosis Type 2 group or in patients with preoperative radiosurgical treatment. Tumor size was identified as a possible risk factor in a previous study.

Conclusions

Surgery for recurrent tumors is a significant risk factor for the development of CSF leaks.

Restricted access

Venelin M. Gerganov, Nirjhar Hore, Christian Herold, Karsten Wrede, Alexandru C. Stan, Amir Samii and Madjid Samii

✓Although intracranial metastases of malignant melanomas are common, localization at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) or in the internal auditory canal (IAC) is rare, and bilateral presentation especially so. We present the case of a 46-year-old Caucasian woman with bilateral IAC/CPA lesions and a prior history of malignant melanoma on the right leg. During preoperative investigations, the presence of the bilateral IAC/CPA lesions along with several radiologically identified lesions along the neural axis led to the suspicion that she had neurofibromatosis Type 2 despite her history of malignant melanoma and the lack of characteristic skin lesions and family history. Histopathological analysis of the resected lesion confirmed the intraoperative diagnosis of bilateral CPA malignant melanoma metastases. Surgical removal of the tumors via the retrosigmoid approach with preservation of normal bilateral facial nerve function and unilateral serviceable hearing, combined with control of the systemic disease, provided this patient with a near-normal quality of life for at least 42 months after the initial diagnosis of melanoma.

Restricted access

Amir Samii, Venelin M. Gerganov, Christian Herold, Nakamasa Hayashi, Takahiko Naka, M. Javad Mirzayan, Helmut Ostertag and Madjid Samii

Object

The goal of this study was to report on the surgical management of skull base chordomas and to evaluate both the short- and long-term treatment outcomes.

Methods

The authors retrospectively studied data from 49 patients who had undergone consecutive surgeries at a single institution. They also analyzed patterns of chordoma extension. Complications and surgery-related morbidity were recorded. A Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to determine survival rates in patients 5 and 10 years after their first surgery. Operative approaches were selected on the basis of the predominant tumor extension.

Results

The approach used most frequently was the transethmoidal in 36.3%, followed by the pterional in 23.4% and the retrosigmoid in 23.4%. The tumor was totally removed in 49.4% and subtotally in 50.6%. The rate of total removal was highest at initial surgery (78%) and progressively declined thereafter. In 11.8% of cases a new neurological deficit developed, while the preoperative deficit remained unchanged. In 20% of cases the preoperative deficits improved, but new deficits also appeared. The 5- and 10-year survival rates are 65 and 39%, respectively.

Conclusions

With an individually tailored surgical approach, total tumor removal in 78% of the cases was achieved at the initial surgery. Radical surgery appears to increase slightly the surgical morbidity, but at the same time prolongs the recurrence-free interval. Chordomas cannot be regarded as surgically curable tumors given the 5- and 10-year survival rates in patients harboring such lesions.