Advanced dynamic statistical parametric mapping (AdSPM) with magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to identify MRI-negative epileptogenic lesions in this report. A 15-year-old girl had MRI-negative and pharmacology-resistant focal-onset epilepsy. She experienced two types of seizures. Type I consisted of her arousal from sleep, staring, and a forced head-turning movement to the left, followed by secondary generalization. Type II began with an aura of dizziness followed by staring and postictal headache with fatigue. Scalp video-electroencephalography (EEG) captured two type I seizures originating from the right frontocentral region. MEG showed scattered dipoles over the right frontal region. AdSPM identified the spike source at the bottom of the right inferior frontal sulcus. Intracranial video-EEG captured one type I seizure, which originated from the depth electrode at the bottom of the sulcus and correlated with the AdSPM spike source. Accordingly, the patient underwent resection of the middle and inferior frontal gyri, including the AdSPM-identified spike source. Histopathological examination revealed that the patient had focal cortical dysplasia type IIB. To date, the patient has been seizure free for 2 years while receiving topiramate treatment. This is the first preliminary report to identify MRI-negative epilepsy using AdSPM. Further investigation of AdSPM would be valuable for cases of MRI-negative focal epilepsy.
Won Seok Chang, Midori Nakajima, Ayako Ochi, Elysa Widjaja, James T. Rutka, Ivanna Yau, Shiro Baba and Hiroshi Otsubo
Eisha A. Christian, Elysa Widjaja, Ayako Ochi, Hiroshi Otsubo, Stephanie Holowka, Elizabeth Donner, Shelly K. Weiss, Cristina Go, James Drake, O. Carter Snead and James T. Rutka
Small lesions at the depth of the sulcus, such as with bottom-of-sulcus focal cortical dysplasia, are not visible from the surface of the brain and can therefore be technically challenging to resect. In this technical note, the authors describe their method of using depth electrodes as landmarks for the subsequent resection of these exacting lesions.
A retrospective review was performed on pediatric patients who had undergone invasive electroencephalography with depth electrodes that were subsequently used as guides for resection in the period between July 2015 and June 2017.
Ten patients (3–15 years old) met the criteria for this study. At the same time as invasive subdural grid and/or strip insertion, between 2 and 4 depth electrodes were placed using a hand-held frameless neuronavigation technique. Of the total 28 depth electrodes inserted, all were found within the targeted locations on postoperative imaging. There was 1 patient in whom an asymptomatic subarachnoid hemorrhage was demonstrated on postprocedural imaging. Depth electrodes aided in target identification in all 10 cases.
Depth electrodes placed at the time of invasive intracranial electrode implantation can be used to help localize, target, and resect primary zones of epileptogenesis caused by bottom-of-sulcus lesions.
Erin N. Kiehna, Elysa Widjaja, Stephanie Holowka, O. Carter Snead III, James Drake, Shelly K. Weiss, Ayako Ochi, Eric M. Thompson, Cristina Go, Hiroshi Otsubo, Elizabeth J. Donner and James T. Rutka
Hemispherectomy for unilateral, medically refractory epilepsy is associated with excellent long-term seizure control. However, for patients with recurrent seizures following disconnection, workup and investigation can be challenging, and surgical options may be limited. Few studies have examined the role of repeat hemispherotomy in these patients. The authors hypothesized that residual fiber connections between the hemispheres could be the underlying cause of recurrent epilepsy in these patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to test this hypothesis, and to target residual connections at reoperation using neuronavigation.
The authors identified 8 patients with recurrent seizures following hemispherectomy who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2012. Prolonged video electroencephalography recordings documented persistent seizures arising from the affected hemisphere. In all patients, DTI demonstrated residual white matter association fibers connecting the hemispheres. A repeat craniotomy and neuronavigation-guided targeted disconnection of these residual fibers was performed. Engel class was used to determine outcome after surgery at a minimum of 2 years of follow-up.
Two patients underwent initial hemidecortication and 6 had periinsular hemispherotomy as their first procedures at a median age of 9.7 months. Initial pathologies included hemimegalencephaly (n = 4), multilobar cortical dysplasia (n = 3), and Rasmussen's encephalitis (n = 1). The mean duration of seizure freedom for the group after the initial procedure was 32.5 months (range 6–77 months). In all patients, DTI showed limited but definite residual connections between the 2 hemispheres, primarily across the rostrum/genu of the corpus callosum. The median age at reoperation was 6.8 years (range 1.3–14 years). The average time taken for reoperation was 3 hours (range 1.8–4.3 hours), with a mean blood loss of 150 ml (range 50–250 ml). One patient required a blood transfusion. Five patients are seizure free, and the remaining 3 patients are Engel Class II, with a minimum follow-up of 24 months for the group.
Repeat hemispherotomy is an option for consideration in patients with recurrent intractable epilepsy following failed surgery for catastrophic epilepsy. In conjunction with other modalities to establish seizure onset zones, advanced MRI and DTI sequences may be of value in identifying patients with residual connectivity between the affected and unaffected hemispheres. Targeted disconnection of these residual areas of connectivity using neuronavigation may result in improved seizure outcomes, with minimal and acceptable morbidity.
Chusak Limotai, Cristina Y. Go, Shiro Baba, Kazuo Okanari, Ayako Ochi, James T. Rutka, O. Carter Snead III and Hiroshi Otsubo
Infants with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) are considered for surgery if they develop seizures and the seizures prove medically refractory. The authors report on 2 infants (15 and 19 months old) with SWS who underwent scalp video electroencephalography (EEG) and subsequent functional hemispherotomy for intractable partial motor seizures due to extensive left hemispheric angiomatosis. They presented with similar interictal and ictal EEG findings. Ictal EEG showed abrupt high-amplitude delta slow waves, without evolution on the contralateral hemisphere before the build-up of ictal EEG changes on the lesional hemisphere. The patients became seizure free after hemispherotomy. The ictal contralateral slow waves were not a sign of an ictal hemisphere and may indicate prominent ischemic changes resulting from a steal phenomenon of hemispheric angiomatosis during seizure.
Gregory W. Albert, George M. Ibrahim, Hiroshi Otsubo, Ayako Ochi, Cristina Y. Go, O. Carter Snead III, James M. Drake and James T. Rutka
Resective surgery is increasingly used in the management of pediatric epilepsy. Frequently, invasive monitoring with subdural electrodes is required to adequately map the epileptogenic focus. The risks of invasive monitoring include the need for 2 operations, infection, and CSF leak. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of resective epilepsy surgery guided by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in children who would have otherwise been candidates for electrode implantation.
The authors reviewed the records of patients undergoing resective epilepsy surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children between 2001 and 2010. They identified cases in which resections were based on MEG data and no intracranial recordings were performed. Each patient's chart was reviewed for presentation, MRI findings, MEG findings, surgical procedure, pathology, and surgical outcome.
Sixteen patients qualified for the study. All patients had localized spike clusters on MEG and most had abnormal findings on MRI. Resection was carried out in each case based on the MEG data linked to neuronavigation and supplemented with intraoperative neuromonitoring. Overall, 62.5% of patients were seizure free following surgery, and 20% of patients experienced an improvement in seizures without attaining seizure freedom. In 2 cases, additional surgery was performed subsequently with intracranial monitoring in attempts to obtain seizure control.
MEG is a viable alternative to invasive monitoring with intracranial electrodes for planning of resective surgery in carefully selected pediatric patients with localization-related epilepsy. Good candidates for this approach include patients who have a well-delineated, localized spike cluster on MEG that is concordant with findings of other preoperative evaluations and patients with prior brain pathologies that make the implantation of subdural and depth electrodes somewhat problematic.
Odeya Bennett-Back, Ayako Ochi, Elysa Widjaja, Shohei Nambu, Akio Kamiya, Cristina Go, Sylvester Chuang, James T. Rutka, James Drake, O. Carter Snead III and Hiroshi Otsubo
Porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia (PC/E) is a brain lesion caused by ischemic insult or hemorrhage. The authors evaluated magnetoencephalography (MEG) spike sources (MEGSS) to localize the epileptogenic zone in children with intractable epilepsy secondary to PC/E.
The authors retrospectively studied 13 children with intractable epilepsy secondary to PC/E (5 girls and 8 boys, age range 1.8–15 years), who underwent prolonged scalp video-electroencephalography (EEG), MRI, and MEG. Interictal MEGSS locations were compared with the ictal and interictal zones as determined from scalp video-EEG.
Magnetic resonance imaging showed PC/E in extratemporal lobes in 3 patients, within the temporal lobe in 2 patients, and in both temporal and extratemporal lobes in 8 patients. Magnetoencephalographic spike sources were asymmetrically clustered at the margin of PC/E in all 13 patients. One cluster of MEGSS was observed in 11 patients, 2 clusters in 1 patient, and 3 clusters in 1 patient. Ictal EEG discharges were lateralized and concordant with MEGSS in 8 patients (62%). Interictal EEG discharges were lateralized and concordant with MEGSS hemisphere in 9 patients (69%). Seven patients underwent lesionectomy in addition to MEGSS clusterectomy with (2 patients) and without (5 patients) intracranial video-EEG. Temporal lobectomy was performed in 1 patient and hemispherectomy in another. Eight of 9 patients achieved seizure freedom following surgery.
Magnetoencephalography delineated the extent of the epileptogenic zone adjacent to PC/E in patients with intractable epilepsy. Complete resection of the MEGSS cluster along with PC/E can provide favorable seizure outcomes.
Shobhan Vachhrajani, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Hiroshi Otsubo, Ayako Ochi, Shelly K. Weiss, Elizabeth J. Donner, Elysa Widjaja, Elizabeth Kerr, Mary Lou Smith, James Drake, O. Carter Snead III and James T. Rutka
Pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) remains a challenging condition for neurosurgeons and epileptologists to manage. Postoperative seizure outcomes remain far inferior to those observed in temporal lobe epilepsies, possibly due to inherent difficulties in delineating and subsequently completely resecting responsible epileptogenic regions. In this study, the authors review their institutional experience with the surgical management of FLE and attempt to find predictors that may help to improve seizure outcome in this population.
All surgically treated cases of intractable FLE from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. Demographic information, preoperative and intraoperative imaging and electrophysiological investigations, and follow-up seizure outcome were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed to look for potential predictors of seizure outcome.
Forty patients (20 male, 20 female) underwent surgical management of FLE during the study period. Patients were an average of 5.6 years old at the time of FLE onset and 11.7 years at the time of surgery; patients were followed for a mean of 40.25 months. Most patients displayed typical FLE semiology. Twenty-eight patients had discrete lesions identified on MRI. Eight patients underwent 2 operations. Cortical dysplasia was the most common pathological diagnosis. Engel Class I outcome was obtained in 25 patients (62.5%), while Engel Class II outcome was observed in 5 patients (12.5%). No statistically significant predictors of outcome were found.
Control of FLE remains a challenging problem. Favorable seizure outcome, obtained in 62% of patients in this series, is still not as easily obtained in FLE as it is in temporal lobe epilepsy. While no statistically significant predictors of seizure outcome were revealed in this study, patients with FLE continue to require extensive workup and investigation to arrive at a logical and comprehensive neurosurgical treatment plan. Future studies with improved neuroimaging and advanced invasive monitoring strategies may well help define factors for success in this form of epilepsy that is difficult to control.
Cristina V. Torres, Aria Fallah, George M. Ibrahim, Samuel Cheshier, Hiroshi Otsubo, Ayako Ochi, Sylvester Chuang, O. Carter Snead, Stephanie Holowka and James T. Rutka
Hemispherectomy is an established neurosurgical procedure for medication-resistant epilepsy in children. Despite the effectiveness of this technique, there are patients who do not achieve an optimum outcome after surgery; possible causes of suboptimal results include the presence of bilateral independent epileptogenic foci. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an emerging tool that has been found to be useful in the management of lesional and nonlesional epilepsy. The authors analyzed the relative contribution of MEG in patient selection for hemispherectomy.
The medical records of children undergoing hemispherectomy at the Hospital for Sick Children were reviewed. Those patients who underwent MEG as part of the presurgical evaluation were selected.
Thirteen patients were included in the study. Nine patients were boys. The mean age at the time of surgery was 66 months (range 10–149 months). Seizure etiology was Rasmussen encephalitis in 6 patients, hemimegalencephaly in 2 patients, and cortical dysplasia in 4 patients. In 8 patients, video-EEG and MEG results were consistent to localize the primary epileptogenic hemisphere. In 2 patients, video-EEG lateralized the ictal onset, but MEG showed bilateral spikes. Two patients had bilateral video-EEG and MEG spikes. Engel Class I, II, and IV outcomes were seen in 10, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. In 2 of the patients who had an outcome other than Engel Class I, the MEG clusters were concentrated in the disconnected hemisphere. The third patient had bilateral clusters and potentially independent epileptogenic foci from bilateral cortical dysplasia.
The presence of unilateral MEG spike waves correlated with good outcomes following hemispherectomy. In some cases, MEG provides information that differs from that obtained from video-EEG and conventional MR imaging studies. Further studies with a greater number of patients are needed to assess the role of MEG in the preoperative assessment of candidates for hemispherectomy.
Ichiro Sugiyama, Katsumi Imai, Yu Yamaguchi, Ayako Ochi, Yoko Akizuki, Cristina Go, Tomoyuki Akiyama, O. Carter Snead III, James T. Rutka, James M. Drake, Elysa Widjaja, Sylvester H. Chuang, Doug Cheyne and Hiroshi Otsubo
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been typically used to localize epileptic activity by modeling interictal activity as equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) is a recently developed adaptive spatial filtering algorithm for MEG that provides some advantages over the ECD approach. The SAM-kurtosis algorithm (also known as SAM[g2]) additionally provides automated temporal detection of spike sources by using excess kurtosis value (steepness of epileptic spike on virtual sensors). To evaluate the efficacy of the SAM(g2) method, the authors applied it to readings obtained in children with intractable epilepsy secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and compared them to localizations obtained with ECDs.
The authors studied 13 children with TSC (7 girls) whose ages ranged from 13 months to 16.3 years (mean 7.3 years). Video electroencephalography, MR imaging, and MEG studies were analyzed. A single ECD model was applied to localize ECD clusters. The SAM(g2) value was calculated at each SAM(g2) virtual voxel in the patient's MR imaging–defined brain volume. The authors defined the epileptic voxels of SAM(g2) (evSAM[g2]) as those with local peak kurtosis values higher than half of the maximum. A clustering of ECDs had to contain ≥ 6 ECDs within 1 cm of each other, and a grouping of evSAM(g2)s had to contain ≥ 3 evSAM(g2)s within 1 cm of each other. The authors then compared both ECD clusters and evSAM(g2) groups with the resection area and correlated these data with seizure outcome.
Seizures started when patients were between 6 weeks and 8 years of age (median 6 months), and became intractable secondary to multiple tubers in all cases. Ictal onset on scalp video electroencephalography was lateralized in 8 patients (62%). The MEG studies showed multiple ECD clusters in 7 patients (54%). The SAM(g2) method showed multiple groups of epileptic voxels in 8 patients (62%). Colocalization of grouped evSAM(g2) with ECD clusters ranged from 20 to 100%, with a mean of 82%. Eight patients underwent resection of single (1 patient) and multiple (7 patients) lobes, with 6 patients achieving freedom from seizures. Of 8 patients who underwent surgery, in 7 the resection area covered ECD clusters and grouped evSAM(g2)s. In the remaining patient the resection area partially included the ECD cluster and grouped evSAM(g2)s. Six of the 7 patients became seizure free.
The combination of SAM(g2) and ECD analyses succeeded in localizing the complex epileptic zones in children with TSC who had intractable epilepsy secondary to multiple cortical tubers. For the subset of children with TSC who present with early-onset and nonlateralized seizures, MEG studies in which SAM(g2) and ECD are used might identify suitable candidates for resection to control seizures.