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Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Paul A. Gardner, Milton M. Rastelli Jr., Maria Peris-Celda, Maria Koutourousiou, David Peace, Carl H. Snyderman and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.


The object of this paper was to describe the surgical anatomy and technical nuances of the endonasal transcavernous posterior clinoidectomy approach with interdural pituitary transposition and to report the clinical outcome of this technical modification.


The surgical anatomy of the proposed approach was studied in 10 colored silicon-injected anatomical specimens. The medical records of 12 patients that underwent removal of the posterior clinoid(s) with this technique were reviewed.


The natural anatomical corridor provided by the cavernous sinus is used to get access to the posterior clinoid by mobilizing the pituitary gland in an interdural fashion. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is preserved intact and attached to the gland during its medial and superior mobilization. This provides protection to the gland, allowing for preservation of its venous drainage pathways. The inferior hypophyseal artery is transected to facilitate the manipulation of the medial wall of the cavernous sinus and pituitary gland. This approach was successfully performed in all patients, including 6 with chordomas, 5 with petroclival meningiomas, and 1 with an epidermoid tumor. No patient in this series had neurovascular injury related to the posterior clinoidectomy. There were no instances of permanent hypopituitarism or diabetes insipidus.


The authors introduce a surgical variant of the endoscopic endonasal posterior clinoidectomy approach that does not require intradural pituitary transposition and is more effective than the purely extradural approach. The endoscopic endonasal transcavernous approach facilitates the removal of prominent posterior clinoids increasing the working space at the lateral recess of the interpeduncular cistern, while preserving the pituitary function.

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Amin B. Kassam, Allan D. Vescan, Ricardo L. Carrau, Daniel M. Prevedello, Paul Gardner, Arlan H. Mintz, Carl H. Snyderman and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.

✓ The purpose of this study was to describe the technique used to safely identify the petrous carotid artery during expanded endonasal approaches to the skull base. A series of 20 cadaveric studies was undertaken to isolate the vidian artery and nerve and to use them as landmarks to the petrous internal carotid artery (ICA). Twenty-five consecutive paraclival endoscopic cases were also reviewed to determine the consistency of the vidian artery in vivo as an intraoperative landmark to the ICA. These data were then correlated with results from a separate study in which computed tomography scans from 44 patients were evaluated to delineate the course of the vidian canal and its relationship to the petrous ICA. In all 20 cadaveric dissections and all 25 surgical cases, the vidian artery was consistently identified and could be reliably used as a landmark to the ICA. The correlation between anatomical and clinical data in this paper supports the consistent use of the vidian artery as an important landmark to the petrous ICA.