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  • By Author: Rhoton, Albert L. x
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Saran S. Rosner, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., Michio Ono and Margaret Barry

✓ The anterior perforating arteries, the group of arteries that enter the brain through the anterior perforated substance (APS), were examined using × 3 to × 40 magnification in 50 cerebral hemispheres obtained from 25 adult cadavers. These arteries arose from the internal carotid, middle and anterior cerebral, and the anterior choroidal arteries. The carotid branches to the APS arose distal to the origin of the anterior choroidal artery. The anterior choroidal artery branches arose from the main or superior branch of the artery. The middle cerebral artery branches to the APS (the lenticulostriate arteries) arose from the M1 and M2 segments and were divided into medial, intermediate, and lateral groups, each of which had a characteristic configuration. The anterior cerebral artery branches arose from the A1 segment and from the recurrent artery. The internal carotid and anterior choroidal artery branches entered the posterior half of the central portion of the APS. The lenticulostriate branches entered the middle and posterior portions of the lateral half of the APS. The A1 segment gave rise to branches which entered the medial half of the APS above the optic nerve and chiasm. The recurrent artery sent branches into the anterior two-thirds of the full mediolateral extent of the APS. The relationship of these branches to the cerebral structures above the APS and to the common aneurysm sites is reviewed.

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Michio Ono, Makiko Ono, Albert L. Rhoton Jr. and Margaret Barry

✓ The microsurgical anatomy of the tentorial incisura was evaluated in 25 adult cadavers using × 3 to × 40 magnification. The area surrounding the incisura is divided into the anterior, middle, and posterior incisural spaces. The anterior incisural space is located anterior to the brain stem and extends upward around the optic chiasm to the subcallosal area; the middle incisural space is located lateral to the brain stem and is intimately related to the hippocampal formation in the medial part of the temporal lobe; and the posterior incisural space is located posterior to the midbrain and corresponds to the region of the pineal gland and vein of Galen. The neural, cisternal, ventricular, and vascular relationships of each space were examined. The arterial relationships in the anterior incisural space and the venous relationships in the posterior incisural space are extremely complex, since the anterior incisural space contains all the components of the circle of Willis and the bifurcation of the internal carotid and basilar arteries, and the posterior incisural space contains the convergence of the internal cerebral and basal veins and many of their tributaries on the vein of Galen. The discussion reviews tentorial herniation and operative approaches to the incisura.