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Roxana M. Grasu, Juan P. Cata, Anh Q. Dang, Claudio E. Tatsui, Laurence D. Rhines, Katherine B. Hagan, Shreyas Bhavsar, Sally R. Raty, Radha Arunkumar, Yury Potylchansky, Ian Lipski, Benjamin A. Arnold, Thomas M. McHugh, Justin E. Bird, Andrea Rodriguez-Restrepo, Mike Hernandez and Keyuri U. Popat

This study describes the implementation of a multimodal, multidisciplinary, evidence-based ERAS program in oncologic spine surgery, identifies and measures several relevant postoperative recovery outcomes, and demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefit of the program in improving analgesia and decreasing opioid consumption. The study underscores the importance of defining and capturing meaningful, patient-specific, and patient-reported outcomes, and constant evaluation and monitoring of a group’s compliance with the program. The study represents the steppingstone for evaluation and improvement of a young ERAS program for spine surgery and serves as a roadmap for further initiatives and larger-scale studies.

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Nicolas Dea, Charles G. Fisher, Jeremy J. Reynolds, Joseph H. Schwab, Laurence D. Rhines, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Chetan Bettegowda, Arjun Sahgal, Áron Lazáry, Alessandro Luzzati, Stefano Boriani, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Ilya Laufer, Raphaële Charest-Morin, Feng Wei, William Teixeira, Niccole M. Germscheid, Francis J. Hornicek, Thomas F. DeLaney, John H. Shin and the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the spectrum of current treatment protocols for managing newly diagnosed chordoma of the mobile spine and sacrum.

METHODS

A survey on the treatment of spinal chordoma was distributed electronically to members of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor, including neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and radiation oncologists from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Survey participants were pre-identified clinicians from centers with expertise in the treatment of spinal tumors. The suvey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

RESULTS

Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) participants completed the survey. Most (80%) indicated that they favor en bloc resection without preoperative neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) when en bloc resection is feasible with acceptable morbidity. The main area of disagreement was with the role of postoperative RT, where 41% preferred giving RT only if positive margins were achieved and 38% preferred giving RT irrespective of margin status. When en bloc resection would result in significant morbidity, 33% preferred planned intralesional resection followed by RT, and 33% preferred giving neoadjuvant RT prior to surgery. In total, 8 treatment protocols were identified: 3 in which en bloc resection is feasible with acceptable morbidity and 5 in which en bloc resection would result in significant morbidity.

CONCLUSIONS

The results confirm that there is treatment variability across centers worldwide for managing newly diagnosed chordoma of the mobile spine and sacrum. This information will be used to design an international prospective cohort study to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy for patients with spinal chordoma.

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Nelson Moussazadeh, Linton T. Evans, Roxana Grasu, Laurence D. Rhines and Claudio E. Tatsui

Spinal laser interstitial thermal therapy has been developed as a minimally invasive modality to treat epidural spinal tumors percutaneously. The safe and effective use of this technology requires meticulous preoperative trajectory planning and an intraoperative workflow incorporating navigation and MR thermography. Instrumented stabilization can be performed during the same operation if needed. Operative considerations and technical aspects are reviewed.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/P--frsag6gU.

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Ben A. Strickland, Ian E. McCutcheon, Indro Chakrabarti, Laurence D. Rhines and Jeffrey S. Weinberg

OBJECTIVE

Metastasis to the spinal cord is rare, and optimal management of this disease is unclear. The authors investigated this issue by analyzing the results of surgical treatment of spinal intramedullary metastasis (IM) at a major cancer center.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 13 patients who underwent surgery for IM. Patients had renal cell carcinoma (n = 4), breast carcinoma (n = 3), melanoma (n = 2), non–small cell lung cancer (n = 1), sarcoma (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 1), and cervical cancer (n = 1). Cerebrospinal fluid was collected before surgery in 11 patients, and was negative for malignant cells, as was MRI of the neuraxis. Eleven patients presented with neurological function equivalent to Frankel Grade D.

RESULTS

Radiographic gross-total resection was achieved in 9 patients, and tumor eventually recurred locally in 3 of those 9 (33%). Leptomeningeal disease was diagnosed in 4 patients after surgery. In the immediate postoperative period, neurological function in 6 patients deteriorated to Frankel Grade C. At 2 months, only 2 patients remained at Grade C, 8 were at Grade D, and 1 had improved to Grade E. One patient developed postoperative hematoma resulting in Frankel Grade A. Radiotherapy was delivered in 8 patients postoperatively. The median survival after spine surgery was 6.5 months. Three patients are still living.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgery was performed as a last option to preserve neurological function in patients with IM. In most patients, neurological function returned during the immediate postoperative period and was preserved for the patients’ remaining lifetime. The data suggest that surgery can be effective in preventing further decline in selected patients with progressive neurological deficit.

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Ganesh Rao, Laurence D. Rhines, Ian E. McCutcheon, Richard G. Everson and Claudio E. Tatsui

OBJECTIVE

Treatment of epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) caused by tumor includes surgical decompression and stabilization followed by postoperative radiation. In the case of severe axial loading impairment, anterior column reconstruction is indicated. The authors describe the use of interbody distraction to restore vertebral body height and correct kyphotic angulation prior to reconstruction with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and report the long-term durability of such reconstruction.

METHODS

A single institution, prospective series of patients with ESCC undergoing single-stage decompression, anterior column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation from 2013 to 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. Several demographic, perioperative, and radiographic measurements were collected. Descriptive statistics were compiled, in addition to postoperative changes in anterior height, posterior height, and kyphosis. Paired Student t-tests were performed for each variable. Overall survival was calculated using the techniques described by Kaplan and Meier.

RESULTS

Twenty-one patients underwent single-stage posterior decompression with interbody distraction and anterior column reconstruction using PMMA. The median age and Karnofsky Performance Scale score were 61 years and 70, respectively. Primary tumors included renal cell (n = 8), lung (n = 4), multiple myeloma (n = 2), prostate (n = 2), and other (n = 5). Eighteen patients underwent a single-level vertebral body reconstruction and 3 underwent multilevel transpedicular corpectomies. The median survival duration was 13.3 months. In the immediate postoperative setting, statistically significant improvement was noted in anterior body height (p = 0.0017, 95% confidence interval [CI] −4.15 to −1.11) and posterior body height (p = 0.0116, 95% CI −3.14 to −0.45) in all patients, and improved kyphosis was observed in those with oblique endplates (p = 0.0002, 95% CI 11.16–20.27). In the median follow-up duration of 13.9 months, the authors observed 3 cases of asymptomatic PMMA subsidence. One patient required reoperation in the form of extension of fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

In situ interbody distraction allows safe and durable reconstruction with PMMA, restores vertebral height, and corrects kyphotic deformities associated with severe pathological fractures caused by tumor. This is accomplished with minimal manipulation of the thecal sac and avoiding an extensive 360° surgical approach in patients who cannot tolerate extensive surgery.

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Andrew J. Bishop, Randa Tao, B. Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Pamela K. Allen, Neal C. Rebueno, Xin A. Wang, Behrang Amini, Claudio E. Tatsui, Laurence D. Rhines, Jing Li, Eric L. Chang, Paul D. Brown and Amol J. Ghia

OBJECTIVE

Given the relatively lower radiosensitivity of sarcomas and the locally infiltrative patterns of spread, the authors sought to investigate spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) outcomes for metastatic sarcomas and to analyze patterns of failure.

METHODS

The records of 48 patients with 66 sarcoma spinal metastases consecutively treated with SSRS between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate rates of overall survival (OS) and local control (LC). Local recurrences were categorized as occurring infield (within the 95% isodose line [IDL]), marginally (between the 20% and 95% IDLs), or out of field.

RESULTS

Median follow-up time was 19 months (range 1–121 months), and median age was 53 years (range 17–85 years). The most commonly treated histology was leiomyosarcoma (42%). Approximately two-thirds of the patients were treated with definitive SSRS (44 [67%]) versus postoperatively (22 [33%]). The actuarial 1-year OS and LC rates were 67% and 81%, respectively. Eighteen patients had a local relapse, which was more significantly associated with postoperative SSRS (p = 0.04). On multivariate modeling, receipt of postoperative SSRS neared significance for poorer LC (p = 0.06, subhazard ratio [SHR] 2.33), while only 2 covariates emerged as significantly correlated with LC: 1) biological equivalent dose (BED) > 48 Gy (vs BED ≤ 48 Gy, p = 0.006, SHR 0.21) and 2) single vertebral body involvement (vs multiple bodies, p = 0.03, SHR 0.27). Of the 18 local recurrences, 14 (78%) occurred at the margin, and while the majority of these cases relapsed within the epidural space, 4 relapsed within the paraspinal soft tissue. In addition, 1 relapse occurred out of field. Finally, the most common acute toxicity was fatigue (15 cases), with few late toxicities (4 insufficiency fractures, 3 neuropathies).

CONCLUSIONS

For metastatic sarcomas, SSRS provides durable tumor control with minimal toxicity. High-dose single-fraction regimens offer optimal LC, and given the infiltrative nature of sarcomas, when paraspinal soft tissues are involved, larger treatment volumes may be warranted.

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Anne L. Versteeg, Nicolas Dea, Stefano Boriani, Peter P. Varga, Alessandro Luzzati, Michael G. Fehlings, Mark H. Bilsky, Laurence D. Rhines, Jeremy J. Reynolds, Mark. B. Dekutoski, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Niccole M. Germscheid and Charles G. Fisher

OBJECTIVE

Osteoblastoma is a rare primary benign bone tumor with a predilection for the spinal column. Although of benign origin, osteoblastomas tend to behave more aggressively clinically than other benign tumors. Because of the low incidence of osteoblastomas, evidence-based treatment guidelines and high-quality research are lacking, which has resulted in inconsistent treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether application of the Enneking classification in the management of spinal osteoblastomas influences local recurrence and survival time.

METHODS

A multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical intervention for spinal osteoblastoma was developed by the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor. Patient data pertaining to demographics, diagnosis, treatment, cross-sectional survival, and local recurrence were collected. Patients in 2 cohorts, based on the Enneking classification of the tumor (Enneking appropriate [EA] and Enneking inappropriate [EI]), were analyzed. If the final pathology margin matched the Enneking-recommended surgical margin, the tumor was classified as EA; if not, it was classified as EI.

RESULTS

A total of 102 patients diagnosed with a spinal osteoblastoma were identified between November 1991 and June 2012. Twenty-nine patients were omitted from the analysis because of short follow-up time, incomplete survival data, or invalid staging, which left 73 patients for the final analysis. Thirteen (18%) patients suffered a local recurrence, and 6 (8%) patients died during the study period. Local recurrence was strongly associated with mortality (relative risk 9.2; p = 0.008). When adjusted for Enneking appropriateness, this result was not altered significantly. No significant differences were found between the EA and EI groups in regard to local recurrence and mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

In this evaluation of the largest multicenter cohort of spinal osteoblastomas, local recurrence was found to be strongly associated with mortality. Application of the Enneking classification as a treatment guide for preventing local recurrence was not validated.

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Ganesh M. Shankar, Michelle J. Clarke, Tamir Ailon, Laurence D. Rhines, Shreyaskumar R. Patel, Arjun Sahgal, Ilya Laufer, Dean Chou, Mark H. Bilsky, Daniel M. Sciubba, Michael G. Fehlings, Charles G. Fisher, Ziya L. Gokaslan and John H. Shin

OBJECTIVE

Primary osteosarcoma of the spine is a rare osseous neoplasm. While previously reported retrospective studies have demonstrated that overall patient survival is impacted mostly by en bloc resection and chemotherapy, the continued management of residual disease remains to be elucidated. This systematic review was designed to address the role of revision surgery and multimodal adjuvant therapy in cases in which en bloc excision is not initially achieved.

METHODS

A systematic literature search spanning the years 1966 to 2015 was performed on PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science to identify reports describing outcomes of patients who underwent biopsy alone, neurological decompression, or intralesional resection for osteosarcoma of the spine. Studies were reviewed qualitatively, and the clinical course of individual patients was aggregated for quantitative meta-analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 16 studies were identified for inclusion in the systematic review, of which 8 case reports were summarized qualitatively. These studies strongly support the role of chemotherapy for overall survival and moderately support adjuvant radiation therapy for local control. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant benefit in overall survival for performing revision tumor debulking (p = 0.01) and also for chemotherapy at relapse (p < 0.01). Adjuvant radiation therapy was associated with longer survival, although this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.06).

CONCLUSIONS

While the initial therapeutic goal in the management of osteosarcoma of the spine is neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by en bloc marginal resection, this objective is not always achievable given anatomical constraints and other limitations at the time of initial clinical presentation. This systematic review supports the continued aggressive use of revision surgery and multimodal adjuvant therapy when possible to improve outcomes in patients who initially undergo subtotal debulking of osteosarcoma. A limitation of this systematic review is that lesions amenable to subsequent resection or tumors inherently more sensitive to adjuvants would exaggerate a therapeutic effect of these interventions when studied in a retrospective fashion.

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Claudio E. Tatsui, Clarissa N. G. Nascimento, Dima Suki, Behrang Amini, Jing Li, Amol J. Ghia, Jonathan G. Thomas, R. Jason Stafford, Laurence D. Rhines, Juan P. Cata, Ashok J. Kumar and Ganesh Rao

OBJECTIVE

Image guidance for spinal procedures is based on 3D-fluoroscopy or CT, which provide poor visualization of soft tissues, including the spinal cord. To overcome this limitation, the authors developed a method to register intraoperative MRI (iMRI) of the spine into a neuronavigation system, allowing excellent visualization of the spinal cord. This novel technique improved the accuracy in the deployment of laser interstitial thermal therapy probes for the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression.

METHODS

Patients were positioned prone on the MRI table under general anesthesia. Fiducial markers were applied on the skin of the back, and a plastic cradle was used to support the MRI coil. T2-weighted MRI sequences of the region of interest were exported to a standard navigation system. A reference array was sutured to the skin, and surface matching of the fiducial markers was performed. A navigated Jamshidi needle was advanced until contact was made with the dorsal elements; its position was confirmed with intraoperative fluoroscopy prior to advancement into a target in the epidural space. A screenshot of its final position was saved, and then the Jamshidi needle was exchanged for an MRI-compatible access cannula. MRI of the exact axial plane of each access cannula was obtained and compared with the corresponding screenshot saved during positioning. The discrepancy in millimeters between the trajectories was measured to evaluate accuracy of the image guidance

RESULTS

Thirteen individuals underwent implantation of 47 laser probes. The median absolute value of the discrepancy between the location predicted by the navigation system and the actual position of the access cannulas was 0.7 mm (range 0–3.2 mm). No injury or adverse event occurred during the procedures.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates the feasibility of image guidance based on MRI to perform laser interstitial thermotherapy of spinal metastasis. The authors' method permits excellent visualization of the spinal cord, improving safety and workflow during laser ablations in the epidural space. The results can be extrapolated to other indications, including biopsies or drainage of fluid collections near the spinal cord.