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Devi Prasad Patra, Amey Rajan Savardekar, Rimal Hanif Dossani, Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has emerged as a promising treatment modality for patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN); however, considering that almost half of the patients experience post-GKRS failure or lesion recurrence, a repeat treatment is typically necessary. The existing literature does not offer clear evidence to establish which treatment modality, repeat GKRS or microvascular decompression (MVD), is superior. The present study aimed to compare the overall outcome of patients who have undergone either repeat GKRS or MVD after failure of their primary GKRS; the authors do so by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature and analysis of data from their own institution.

METHODS

The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases to identify studies describing patients who underwent either repeat GKRS or MVD after initial failed GKRS for TN. The primary outcomes were complete pain relief (CPR) and adequate pain relief (APR) at 1 year. The secondary outcomes were rate of postoperative facial numbness and the retreatment rate. The pooled data were analyzed with R software. Bias and heterogeneity were assessed using funnel plots and I2 tests, respectively. A retrospective analysis of a series of patients treated by the authors who underwent repeat GKRS or MVD after post-GKRS failure or relapse is presented.

RESULTS

A total of 22 studies met the selection criteria and were included for final data retrieval and meta-analysis. The search did not identify any study that had directly compared outcomes between patients who had undergone repeat GKRS versus those who had undergone MVD. Therefore, the authors’ final analysis included two groups: studies describing outcome after repeat GKRS (n = 17) and studies describing outcome after MVD (n = 5). The authors’ institutional study was the only study with direct comparison of the two cohorts. The pooled estimates of primary outcomes were APR in 83% of patients who underwent repeat GKRS and 88% of those who underwent MVD (p = 0.49), and CPR in 46% of patients who underwent repeat GKRS and 72% of those who underwent MVD (p = 0.02). The pooled estimates of secondary outcomes were facial numbness in 32% of patients who underwent repeat GKRS and 22% of those who underwent MVD (p = 0.11); the retreatment rate was 19% in patients who underwent repeat GKRS and 13% in those who underwent MVD (p = 0.74). The authors’ institutional study included 42 patients (repeat GKRS in 15 and MVD in 27), and the outcomes 1 year after retreatment were APR in 80% of those who underwent repeat GKRS and 81% in those who underwent MVD (p = 1.0); CPR was achieved in 47% of those who underwent repeat GKRS and 44% in those who underwent MVD (p = 1.0). There was no difference in the rate of postoperative facial numbness or retreatment.

CONCLUSIONS

The current meta-analysis failed to identify any superiority of one treatment over the other with comparable outcomes in terms of APR, postoperative facial numbness, and retreatment rates. However, MVD was shown to provide a better chance of CPR compared with repeat GKRS.

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Sebastian R. Schreglmann, Kailash P. Bhatia, Stefan Hägele-Link, Beat Werner, Ernst Martin and Georg Kägi

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Vinayak Narayan, Amey R. Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Nasser Mohammed, Jai D. Thakur, Muhammad Riaz and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Walter E. Dandy described for the first time the anatomical course of the superior petrosal vein (SPV) and its significance during surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. The patient’s safety after sacrifice of this vein is a challenging question, with conflicting views in current literature. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the current surgical considerations regarding Dandy’s vein, as well as provide a concise review of the complications after its obliteration.

METHODS

A systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A thorough literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane database; articles were selected systematically based on the PRISMA protocol and reviewed completely, and then relevant data were summarized and discussed.

RESULTS

A total of 35 publications pertaining to the SPV were included and reviewed. Although certain studies report almost negligible complications of SPV sectioning, there are reports demonstrating the deleterious effects of SPV obliteration when achieving adequate exposure in surgical pathologies like trigeminal neuralgia, vestibular schwannoma, and petroclival meningioma. The incidence of complications after SPV sacrifice (32/50 cases in the authors’ series) is 2/32 (6.2%), and that reported in various case series varies from 0.01% to 31%. It includes hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic venous infarction of the cerebellum, sigmoid thrombosis, cerebellar hemorrhage, midbrain and pontine infarct, intracerebral hematoma, cerebellar and brainstem edema, acute hydrocephalus, peduncular hallucinosis, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, coma, and even death. In many studies, the difference in incidence of complications between the SPV-sacrificed group and the SPV-preserved group was significant.

CONCLUSIONS

The preservation of Dandy’s vein is a neurosurgical dilemma. Literature review and experiences from large series suggest that obliterating the vein of Dandy while approaching the superior cerebellopontine angle corridor may be associated with negligible complications. However, the counterview cannot be neglected in light of some series showing an up to 30% complication rate from SPV sacrifice. This review provides the insight that although the incidence of complications due to SPV obliteration is low, they can happen, and the sequelae might be worse than the natural history of the existing pathology. Therefore, SPV preservation should be attempted to optimize patient outcome.

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Amey R. Savardekar, Devi P. Patra, Jai D. Thakur, Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Papireddy Bollam and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Total tumor excision with the preservation of neurological function and quality of life is the goal of modern-day vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. Postoperative facial nerve (FN) paralysis is a devastating complication of VS surgery. Determining the course of the FN in relation to a VS preoperatively is invaluable to the neurosurgeon and is likely to enhance surgical safety with respect to FN function. Diffusion tensor imaging–fiber tracking (DTI-FT) technology is slowly gaining traction as a viable tool for preoperative FN visualization in patients with VS.

METHODS

A systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and those studies that preoperatively localized the FN in relation to a VS using the DTI-FT technique and verified those preoperative FN tracking results by using microscopic observation and electrophysiological monitoring during microsurgery were included. A pooled analysis of studies was performed to calculate the surgical concordance rate (accuracy) of DTI-FT technology for FN localization.

RESULTS

Fourteen studies included 234 VS patients (male/female ratio 1:1.4, age range 17–75 years) who had undergone preoperative DTI-FT for FN identification. The mean tumor size among the studies ranged from 29 to 41.3 mm. Preoperative DTI-FT could not visualize the FN tract in 8 patients (3.4%) and its findings could not be verified in 3 patients (1.2%), were verified but discordant in 18 patients (7.6%), and were verified and concordant in 205 patients (87.1%).

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative DTI-FT for FN identification is a useful adjunct in the surgical planning for large VSs (> 2.5 cm). A pooled analysis showed that DTI-FT successfully identifies the complete FN course in 96.6% of VSs (226 of 234 cases) and that FN identification by DTI-FT is accurate in 90.6% of cases (205 of 226 cases). Larger studies with DTI-FT–integrated neuronavigation are required to look at the direct benefit offered by this specific technique in preserving postoperative FN function.

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Nasser Mohammed, Devi Patra and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel technique that uses high-intensity focused ultrasound to achieve target ablation. Like a lens focusing the sun’s rays, the ultrasound waves are focused to generate heat. This therapy combines the noninvasiveness of Gamma Knife thalamotomy and the real-time ablation of deep brain stimulation with acceptable complication rates. The aim of this study was to analyze the overall outcomes and complications of MRgFUS in the treatment of essential tremor (ET).

METHODS

A meta-analysis in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was made by searching PubMed, Cochrane library database, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Patients with the diagnosis of ET who were treated with MRgFUS were included in the study. The change in the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) score after treatment was analyzed. The improvement in disability was assessed with the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) score. The pooled data were analyzed by the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Tests for bias and heterogeneity were performed.

RESULTS

Nine studies with 160 patients who had ET were included in the meta-analysis. The ventral intermediate nucleus was the target in 8 of the studies. The cerebellothalamic tract was targeted in 1 study. There was 1 randomized controlled trial, 6 studies were retrospective, and 2 were prospective. The mean number of sonications given in various studies ranged from 11 ± 3.2 to 22.5 ± 7.5 (mean ± SD). The maximum delivered energy ranged from 10,320 ± 4537 to 14,497 ± 6695 Joules. The mean of peak temperature reached ranged from 53°C ± 2.3°C to 62.0°C ± 2.5°C. On meta-analysis with the random-effects model, the pooled percentage improvements in the CRST Total, CRST Part A, CRST Part C, and QUEST scores were 62.2%, 62.4%, 69.1%, and 46.5%, respectively. Dizziness was the most common in-procedure complication, occurring in 43.4%, followed by nausea and vomiting in 26.85% (pooled percentage). At 3 months, ataxia was the most common complication, occurring in 32.8%, followed by paresthesias in 25.1% of the patients. At 12 months posttreatment, the ataxia had significantly recovered and paresthesias became the most common persisting complication, at 15.3%.

CONCLUSIONS

The MRgFUS therapy for ET significantly improves the CRST scores and improves the quality of life in patients with ET, with an acceptable complication rate. Therapy with MRgFUS is a promising frontier in functional neurosurgery.

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Nasser Mohammed, Devi Prasad Patra, Vinayak Narayan, Amey R. Savardekar, Rimal Hanif Dossani, Papireddy Bollam, Shyamal Bir and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Spondylosis with or without spondylolisthesis that does not respond to conservative management has an excellent outcome with direct pars interarticularis repair. Direct repair preserves the segmental spinal motion. A number of operative techniques for direct repair are practiced; however, the procedure of choice is not clearly defined. The present study aims to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the different operative techniques and their outcomes.

METHODS

A meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). Studies of patients with spondylolysis with or without low-grade spondylolisthesis who underwent direct repair were included. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on the operative technique used: the Buck repair group, Scott repair group, Morscher repair group, and pedicle screw–based repair group. The pooled data were analyzed using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. Tests for bias and heterogeneity were performed. The I2 statistic was calculated, and the results were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect version 2.

RESULTS

Forty-six studies consisting of 900 patients were included in the study. The majority of the patients were in their 2nd decade of life. The Buck group included 19 studies with 305 patients; the Scott group had 8 studies with 162 patients. The Morscher method included 5 studies with 193 patients, and the pedicle group included 14 studies with 240 patients. The overall pooled fusion, complication, and outcome rates were calculated. The pooled rates for fusion for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle screw groups were 83.53%, 81.57%, 77.72%, and 90.21%, respectively. The pooled complication rates for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle screw groups were 13.41%, 22.35%, 27.42%, and 12.8%, respectively, and the pooled positive outcome rates for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle screw groups were 84.33%, 82.49%, 80.30%, and 80.1%, respectively. The pedicle group had the best fusion rate and lowest complication rate.

CONCLUSIONS

The pedicle screw–based direct pars repair for spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis is the best choice of procedure, with the highest fusion and lowest complication rates, followed by the Buck repair. The Morscher and Scott repairs were associated with a high rate of complication and lower rates of fusion.

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Nasser Mohammed, Amey R. Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Vinayak Narayan and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgical infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms have become a nightmare that neurosurgeons are facing in the 21st century. This is the dawn of the so-called postantibiotic era. There is an urgent need to review and evaluate ways to reduce the high mortality rates due to these infections. The present study evaluates the efficacy of combined intravenous plus intrathecal or intraventricular (IV + IT) therapy versus only intravenous (IV) therapy in treating postneurosurgical Acinetobacter baumannii infections.

METHODS

The authors performed a meta-analysis of all peer-reviewed studies from the PubMed, Cochrane Library database, ScienceDirect, and EMBASE in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Five studies were finally included in the present analysis: 126 patients were studied who had postneurosurgical A. baumannii infection. The Cochrane collaboration tool was used to evaluate risk of bias, and a test of heterogeneity was performed. The I2 statistic was calculated. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the IV group received only intravenous therapy and the IV + IT group received both intravenous and intrathecal or intraventricular antimicrobial therapy. The outcome was mortality attributed specifically to A. baumannii infection in postneurosurgical cases. The pooled data were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method in a fixed-effects model.

RESULTS

The total number of patients in the IV-only group was 73, and the number of patients in the IV + IT group was 53. The mean duration of intravenous therapy was 27 days. The mean duration of intrathecal colistin was 21 days. The intravenous dose of colistin ranged from 3.75 to 8.8 MIU per day. The dose of intrathecal colistin ranged between 125,000 and 250,000 IU per day. The overall calculated odds ratio for mortality for the IV + IT group after pooling the data was 0.16 (95% CI 0.06–0.40, p < 0.0001). The patients who received IV + IT therapy had an 84% lower risk of dying due to the infection compared with those who received only IV therapy.

CONCLUSIONS

There is an 84% lower risk of mortality in patients who have been treated with combined intrathecal or intraventricular plus intravenous antimicrobial therapy versus those who have been treated with intravenous therapy alone. The intrathecal or intraventricular route should be strongly considered when dealing with postneurosurgical multidrug-resistant A. baumannii infections.