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Anil Nanda, Shyamal C. Bir, Tanmoy K. Maiti, Subhas K. Konar, Symeon Missios and Bharat Guthikonda

OBJECTIVE

The clinical significance of the Simpson system for grading the extent of meningioma resection and its role as a predictor of the recurrence of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I meningiomas have been questioned in the past, echoing changes in meningioma surgery over the years. The authors reviewed their experience in resecting WHO Grade I meningiomas and assessed the association between extent of resection, as evaluated using the Simpson classification, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients after meningioma surgery.

METHODS

Clinical and radiological information for patients with WHO Grade I meningiomas who had undergone resective surgery over the past 20 years was retrospectively reviewed. Simpson and Shinshu grading scales were used to evaluate the extent of resection. Statistical analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression.

RESULTS

Four hundred fifty-eight patients were eligible for analysis. Overall tumor recurrence rates for Simpson resection Grades I, II, III, and IV were 5%, 22%, 31%, and 35%, respectively. After Cox regression analysis, Simpson Grade I (extensive resection) was revealed as a significant predictor of RFS (p = 0.003). Patients undergoing Simpson Grade I and II resections showed significant improvement in RFS compared with patients undergoing Grade III and IV resections (p = 0.005). Extent of resection had a significant effect on recurrence rates for both skull base (p = 0.047) and convexity (p = 0.012) meningiomas. Female sex and a Karnofsky Performance Scale score > 70 were also identified as independent predictors of RFS after resection of WHO Grade I meningioma.

CONCLUSIONS

In this patient cohort, a significant association was noted between extent of resection and rates of tumor recurrence. In the authors' experience the Simpson grading system maintains its relevance and prognostic value and can serve an important role for patient education. Even though complete tumor resection is the goal, surgery should be tailored to each patient according to the risks and surgical morbidity.

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Anil Nanda, Jai Deep Thakur, Ashish Sonig and Symeon Missios

OBJECTIVE

Cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSMs) represent a cohort of challenging skull base tumors. Proper management requires achieving a balance between optimal resection, restoration of cranial nerve (CN) function, and maintaining or improving quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors related to clinical and neurological outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and tumor control in patients with CSM.

METHODS

A retrospective review of a single surgeon's experience with microsurgical removal of CSM in 65 patients between January 1996 and August 2013 was done. Sekhar's classification, modified Kobayashi grading, and the Karnofsky Performance Scale were used to define tumor extension, tumor removal, and clinical outcomes, respectively.

RESULTS

Preoperative CN dysfunction was evident in 64.6% of patients. CN II deficits were most common. The greatest improvement was seen for CN V deficits, whereas CN II and CN IV deficits showed the smallest degree of recovery. Complete resection was achieved in 41.5% of cases and was not significantly associated with functional CN recovery. Internal carotid artery encasement significantly limited the complete microscopic resection of CSM (p < 0.0001). Overall, 18.5% of patients showed symptomatic recurrence after their initial surgery (mean follow-up 60.8 months [range 3–199 months]). The use of adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) after microsurgery independently decreased the recurrence rate (p = 0.009; OR 0.036; 95% CI 0.003–0.430).

CONCLUSIONS

Modified Kobayashi tumor resection (Grades I–IIIB) was possible in 41.5% of patients. CN recovery and tumor control were independent of extent of tumor removal. The combination of resection and adjuvant SRS can achieve excellent tumor control. Furthermore, the use of adjuvant SRS independently decreases the recurrence rates of CSM.

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Piyush Kalakoti, Symeon Missios, Richard Menger, Sunil Kukreja, Subhas Konar and Anil Nanda

OBJECT

Because of the limited data available regarding the associations between risk factors and the effect of hospital case volume on outcomes after resection of intradural spine tumors, the authors attempted to identify these associations by using a large population-based database.

METHODS

Using the National Inpatient Sample database, the authors performed a retrospective cohort study that involved patients who underwent surgery for an intradural spinal tumor between 2002 and 2011. Using national estimates, they identified associations of patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and hospital characteristics with inpatient postoperative outcomes. In addition, the effect of hospital volume on unfavorable outcomes was investigated. Hospitals that performed fewer than 14 resections in adult patients with an intradural spine tumor between 2002 and 2011 were labeled as low-volume centers, whereas those that performed 14 or more operations in that period were classified as high-volume centers (HVCs). These cutoffs were based on the median number of resections performed by hospitals registered in the National Inpatient Sample during the study period.

RESULTS

Overall, 18,297 patients across 774 hospitals in the United States underwent surgery for an intradural spine tumor. The mean age of the cohort was 56.53 ± 16.28 years, and 63% were female. The inpatient postoperative risks included mortality (0.3%), discharge to rehabilitation (28.8%), prolonged length of stay (> 75th percentile) (20.0%), high-end hospital charges (> 75th percentile) (24.9%), wound complications (1.2%), cardiac complications (0.6%), deep vein thrombosis (1.4%), pulmonary embolism (2.1%), and neurological complications, including durai tears (2.4%). Undergoing surgery at an HVC was significantly associated with a decreased chance of inpatient mortality (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.16−0.98), unfavorable discharge (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76−0.98), prolonged length of stay (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.62−0.77), high-end hospital charges (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.60−0.74), neurological complications (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.26−0.44), deep vein thrombosis (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45−0.94), wound complications (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.41−0.86), and gastrointestinal complications (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.46−0.92).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study provide individualized estimates of the risks of postoperative complications based on patient demographics and comorbidities and hospital characteristics and shows a decreased risk for most unfavorable outcomes for those who underwent surgery at an HVC. These findings could be used as a tool for risk stratification, directing presurgical evaluation, assisting with surgical decision making, and strengthening referral systems for complex cases.

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Richard P. Menger, Christopher M. Storey, Bharat Guthikonda, Symeon Missios, Anil Nanda and John M. Cooper

World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy.

It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson’s vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson’s visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana.

The authors describe Woodrow Wilson’s stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

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Piyush Kalakoti, Osama Ahmed, Papireddy Bollam, Symeon Missios, Jessica Wilden and Anil Nanda

OBJECT

With limited data available on association of risk factors and effect of hospital case volume on outcomes following deep brain stimulation (DBS), the authors attempted to identify these associations using a large population-based database.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent DBS for 3 primary movement disorders: Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia from 2002 to 2011 using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Using national estimates, the authors identified associations of patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital characteristics on short-term postoperative outcomes following DBS. Additionally, effect of hospital volume on unfavorable outcomes was investigated.

RESULTS

Overall, 33, 642 patients underwent DBS for 3 primary movement disorders across 234 hospitals in the US. The mean age of the cohort was 63.42 ± 11.31 years and 36% of patients were female. The inpatients’ postoperative risks were 5.9% for unfavorable discharge, 10.2% for prolonged length of stay, 14.6% for high-end hospital charges, 0.5% for wound complications, 0.4% for cardiac complications, 1.8% for venous thromboembolism, and 5.5% for neurological complications, including those arising from an implanted nervous system device. Compared with low-volume centers, odds of having an unfavorable discharge, prolonged LOS, high-end hospital charges, wound, and cardiac complications were significantly lower in the high-volume and medium-volume centers.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ study provides individualized estimates of the risks of postoperative complications based on patient demographics and comorbidities and hospital characteristics, which could potentially be used as an adjunct for risk stratification for patients undergoing DBS.

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Sunil Kukreja, Piyush Kalakoti, Richard Murray, Menarvia Nixon, Symeon Missios, Bharat Guthikonda and Anil Nanda

OBJECT

Incidence of C-2 fracture is increasing in elderly patients. Patient age also influences decision making in the management of these fractures. There are very limited data on the national trends of incidence, treatment interventions, and resource utilization in patients in different age groups with isolated C-2 fractures. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, treatment, complications, length of stay, and hospital charges of isolated C-2 fracture in patients in 3 different age groups by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. methods The data were obtained from NIS from 2002 to 2011. Data on patients with closed fractures of C-2 without spinal cord injury were extracted using ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 805.02. Patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified by excluding patients with other associated injuries. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: < 65 years, 65–80 years, and > 80 years. Incidence, treatment characteristics, inpatient/postoperative complications, and hospital charges (mean and total annual charges) were compared between the 3 age groups.

RESULTS

A total of 10,336 patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified. The majority of the patients were in the very elderly age group (> 80 years; 42.3%) followed by 29.7% in the 65- to 80-year age group and 28% in < 65-year age group. From 2002 to 2011, the incidence of hospitalization significantly increased in the 65- to 80-year and > 80-year age groups (p < 0.001). However, the incidence did not change substantially in the < 65-year age group (p = 0.287). Overall, 21% of the patients were treated surgically, and 12.2% of the patients underwent nonoperative interventions (halo and spinal traction). The rate of nonoperative interventions significantly decreased over time in all age groups (p < 0.001). Regardless of treatment given, patients in older age groups had a greater risk of inpatient/postoperative complications, nonroutine discharges, and longer hospitalization. The mean hospital charges were significantly higher in older age groups (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of hospitalization for isolated C-2 fractures is progressively increasing in older age groups. Simultaneously, there has been a steadily decreasing trend in the preference for nonoperative interventions. Due to more complicated hospital stay, longer hospitalizations, and higher rates of nonroutine discharges, the patients in older age groups seem to have a higher propensity for greater health care resource utilization.