Browse

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • By Author: Nanda, Anil x
  • By Author: Caldito, Gloria x
Clear All
Restricted access

David E. Connor Jr., Prashant Chittiboina, Gloria Caldito and Anil Nanda

Object

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA), once considered a rare occurrence, has showed a rapid increase in incidence over the past 20–30 years. Recent reports have advocated for conservative, nonoperative management of this devastating disorder with appropriate risk stratification. Crucial to a successful management strategy are decisive diagnosis, prompt intervention, and consistent follow-up care. The authors present a review of their institutional experience with operative and nonoperative management of SEA to assess morbidity and mortality and the accuracy of microbiological diagnosis.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of patient charts, microbiology reports, operative records, and radiology reports was performed on all cases involving patients admitted with the diagnosis of SEA between July 1998 and May 2009.

Results

Seventy-seven cases were reviewed (median patient age 51.4 years, range 17–78 years). Axial pain was the most common presenting symptom (67.5% of cases). Presenting signs included focal weakness (55.8%), radiculopathy (28.6%), and myelopathy (5.2%). Abscesses were localized to the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine, respectively, in 39 (50.6%), 20 (26.0%), and 18 (23.4%) of the patients. Peripheral blood cultures were negative in 32 (45.1%) of 71 patients. Surgical site or interventional biopsy cultures were diagnostic in 52 cases (78.8%), with concordant blood culture results in 36 (60.0%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the most frequent isolate in 24 cases (31.2%). The mean time from admission to surgery was 5.5 days (range 0–42 days; within 72 hours in 66.7% of cases). Outcome data were available in 72 cases. At discharge, patient condition had improved or resolved in 57 cases (79.2%), improved minimally in 6 (8.3%), and showed no improvement or worsening in 9 (12.5%). Patient age and premorbid weakness were the only factors found to be significantly associated with outcome (p = 0.04 and 0.012, respectively).

Conclusions

These results strongly support immediate surgical decompression combined with appropriately tailored antibiotic therapy for the treatment of symptomatic SEA presenting with focal neurological deficit. The nonsuperiority discovered in other patient subsets may be due to allocation biases between surgically treated and nonsurgically treated cohorts. The present data demonstrate the accuracy of peripheral blood culture for the prediction of causative organisms and confirm patient age as a predictor of outcomes.

Restricted access

Prashant Chittiboina, David E. Connor Jr., Gloria Caldito, Joseph W. Quillin, Jon D. Wilson and Anil Nanda

Object

Some patients presenting with neurological symptoms and normal findings on imaging studies may harbor occult brain tumors that are undetectable on initial imaging. The purpose of this study was to analyze the cases of occult brain tumors reported in the literature and to determine their modes of presentation and time to diagnosis on imaging studies.

Methods

A review of the literature was performed using PubMed. The authors found 15 articles reporting on a total of 60 patients with occult tumors (including the authors' illustrative case).

Results

Seizures were the mode of initial presentation in a majority (61.7%) of patients. The initial imaging was CT scanning in 55% and MRI in 45%. The mean time to diagnosis for occult brain tumors was 10.3 months (median 4 months). The time to diagnosis (mean 7.5 months, median 3.2 months) was shorter (p = 0.046) among patients with seizures. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was found more frequently among patients with seizures (67.6% vs 34.8%, p = 0.013). The average time to diagnosis of GBM was shorter than the time to diagnosis of other tumors; the median time to diagnosis was 3.2 months for GBM and 6 months for other tumors (p = 0.04). There was no predilection for side or location of occult tumors. In adult patients, seizures may be predictive of left-sided tumors (p = 0.04).

Conclusions

Based on the results of this study, the authors found that in patients with occult brain tumors, the time to diagnosis is shorter among patients with seizures and also among those with GBM.

Restricted access

Rishi Wadhwa, Samer Shamieh, Justin Haydel, Gloria Caldito, Mallory Williams and Anil Nanda

Object

As a result of spinal trauma, approximately 12,000 individuals become quadriplegic or paraplegic each year in the US. The cervical spine is the most frequently injured part of the spinal column, and approximately 60% of spinal cord injuries involve the cervical region. The cervical collar remains the best method of prehospital spinal stabilization. Following trauma, difficulty securing an airway, the shielding of life-threatening injuries, and pressure ulcers are just a few of the serious problems that may be encountered in patients placed in cervical collars. The authors' goal was to develop an efficient method of clearing the cervical spine, by incorporating flexion and extension CT scanning with reconstruction (FECTR) into a trauma protocol.

Methods

This prospective study reviewed consecutive patients evaluated by the neurosurgery and trauma services who underwent FECTR. Imaging studies were reviewed using the Picture Activating and Communication System. The incidence of injury detection was recorded, and detection of otherwise-missed cervical spinal injuries using FECTR and CT scanning were also recorded. This technique was also applied, without causing any new neurological complications, for comatose patients if the original CT showed no suspicion of unstable injury. The study end point was determination of the presence of cervical spinal column injury that would pose a threat of instability or injury to the patient.

Results

Seventy-seven consecutive patients who underwent FECTR were identified. Far superior visualization of the cervicothoracic junction was achieved compared with flexion-extension cervical spine radiographs. In this case series, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of both FECTR and CT were 80% and 98.6% for all radiographic abnormalities. More importantly, for clinically unstable injuries, FECTR had a sensitivity of 100%. The use of FECTR added approximately 10–12 minutes to the time required for CT scanning.

Conclusions

The authors' initial findings show FECTR to be a safe, effective, and efficient method of posttraumatic cervical spine clearance. In unconscious or obtunded patients, FECTR facilitates cervical spine clearance with a high degree of accuracy. A larger prospective study is needed to confirm these findings.

Restricted access

Christina Notarianni, Prasad Vannemreddy, Gloria Caldito, Papireddy Bollam, Esther Wylen, Brian Willis and Anil Nanda

Object

Hydrocephalus is a notorious neurosurgical disease that carries the adage “once a shunt always a shunt.” This study was conducted to review the treatment results of pediatric hydrocephalus.

Methods

Pediatric patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery over the past 14 years were reviewed for shunt revisions. Variables studied included age at shunt placement, revision, or replacement; programmable shunts; infection; obstruction; and diagnosis (congenital, posthemorrhagic, craniospinal dysraphism, and others including trauma, tumors, and infection). Multiple regression analysis methods were used to determine independent risk factors for shunt failure and the number of shunt revisions. The Kaplan-Meier method of survival analysis was used to compare etiologies on the 5-year survival (revision-free) rate and the median 5-year survival time.

Results

A total of 253 patients were studied with an almost equal sex distribution. There were 92 patients with congenital hydrocephalus, 69 with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, 48 with craniospinal dysraphism, and 44 with other causes. Programmable shunts were used in 73 patients (other types of shunts were used in 180 patients). A total of 197 patients (78%) underwent revision surgeries due to shunt failures. The mortality rate was 1.6%. Age at first revision, the 5-year survival rate, and the median 5-year survival time were significantly less for both posthemorrhagic and craniospinal dysraphism than for either the congenital or “other” group (p < 0.05). The failure rate and number of revisions were not significantly reduced with programmable shunts compared with either pressure-controlled or no-valve shunts (p > 0.5).

Conclusions

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and craniospinal dysraphism hydrocephalus had significantly earlier revisions than congenital and other etiologies. Programmable systems did not reduce the failure rate or the average number of shunts revisions.

Restricted access

Brian Willis, Vijayakumar Javalkar, Prasad Vannemreddy, Gloria Caldito, Junko Matsuyama, Bharat Guthikonda, Papireddy Bollam and Anil Nanda

Object

The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome of surgical treatment for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants.

Methods

From 1990 to 2006, 32 premature infants underwent surgical treatment for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and their charts were retrospectively reviewed to analyze the complications and outcome with respect to shunt revisions. Multivariate analysis and time series were used to identify factors that influence the outcome in terms of shunt revisions.

Results

The mean gestational age was 27 ± 3.3 weeks, and mean birth weight was 1192 ± 660 g. Temporary reservoir placement was performed in 15 patients, while 17 underwent permanent CSF diversion with a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. In 2 patients, reservoir tapping alone was sufficient to halt the progression of hydrocephalus; 29 patients received VP shunts. The mean follow-up period was 37.3 months. The neonates who received VP shunts first were significantly older (p = 0.02) and heavier (p = 0.04) than those who initially underwent reservoir placement. Shunts were revised in 14 patients; 42% of patients in the reservoir group had their shunts revised, while 53% of infants who had initially received a VP shunt required a revision. The revision rate per patient in the reservoir group was half that in the direct VP shunt group (p = 0.027). No patient in the reservoir group had > 2 revisions. Shunt infections developed in 3 patients (10.3%), and 2 patients in the reservoir group died of nonneurological issues related to prematurity.

Conclusions

Birth weight and age are useful parameters in decision making. Preterm neonates with low birth weights benefit from initial CSF drainage procedures followed by permanent CSF diversion with respect to the number of shunt revisions.

Restricted access

Nima Majlesi, Howard Greller and Mark Su

Restricted access

Prasad Vannemreddy, Gloria Caldito, Brian Willis and Anil Nanda

Object

The purpose of this study was to determine whether cocaine use is a significant prognostic factor for outcome measures such as Hunt and Hess grade and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score among patients presenting with ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs).

Methods

The authors performed a MEDLINE/PubMed search for cases of ruptured IAs associated with cocaine use. Fourteen cases from the authors' experience were combined with 50 from a literature review, for a total of 64 cases associated with cocaine use. These 64 cases were compared with 65 cases without cocaine use (controls), which had been obtained from an aneurysm database. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine significant prognostic factors for a poor Hunt and Hess grade and a poor GOS score, and a general linear model was applied to identify significant factors for these measures among cocaine users.

Results

There were 40 women in each group. The mean age was 32.3 ± 8.1 years in the cocaine group and 49.7 ± 10.6 years in the control group; thus, patients in the cocaine group were significantly younger (p < 0.01). Cocaine was snorted in 21% of cases, smoked in 55%, and intravenously injected or taken in through a combination of routes in 24%. Fifty-one percent of cocaine users and 7.7% of nonusers presented with a poor GOS score (p < 0.01). Fifty-six percent had ictus during cocaine abuse. At the end of a 30-day follow-up, 51% of the patients in the cocaine group had a good GOS score compared with 92% in the control group (p < 0.01). Controlling for the effects of other significant factors, cocaine use had a significant effect on Hunt and Hess grade (p < 0.03) and GOS score (p < 0.01). The odds of having a poor Hunt and Hess grade among cocaine users were 4.2 times greater than those in nonusers, and the odds of having a poor GOS score among cocaine users were 38.8 times greater.

Conclusions

Aneurysms were significantly smaller and ruptured at a younger age among cocaine users compared with nonusers. Although the poor clinical grade was not significantly different between the 2 groups, outcome was significantly worse in cocaine users.

Restricted access

Anthony H. Sin, Gloria Caldito, Donald Smith, Mahmoud Rashidi, Brian Willis and Anil Nanda

Object

A dural tear resulting in a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a well-known risk of lumbar spinal procedures. The authors hypothesized that the incidence of CSF leakage is higher in cases involving repeated operations and those in which the surgeon performing the surgery is less experienced; however, they postulated that the overall outcome of the patient would not be adversely affected by a dural tear.

Methods

An institutional review board–approved protocol at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, was initiated in August 2003 to allow prospective comparison of data obtained in patients in whom a CSF leak occurred (Group A) and those in whom no CSF leak occurred (Group B) during lumbar surgery. Basic demographic information, descriptive findings regarding the tear, history of other surgeries, hospital length of stay (LOS), and immediate disposition at the time of discharge were compared between the two groups.

Seventy-seven patients were eligible for this study. One patient refused to participate. In 12 (15.8%) of 76 patients CSF leakage developed. In three patients the presence of a tear was questioned, and the patients were clinically treated as if a tear were present. The patients in Group A were older than those in Group B (59.8 ± 16.9 and 49.4 ± 13.6 years of age, respectively; p = 0.02, Fisher exact test). In terms of those with a history of surgery, there was no significant difference between patients with and patients without a CSF leak (three [25%] of 12 patients [Group A] compared with 28 [43.8%] of 64 patients [Group B]; p = 0.34, two-sample t-test). In the 12 patients with dural tears, nine (75%) were caused by a resident-in-training, and the Kerrison punch was the instrument most often being used at the time (55%). This is significantly greater than 50% at the 5% level (p = 0.044, binomial test). The authors were able to repair the tear primarily with suture in all but one patient, whose tear was along the nerve root sleeve. In all cases fibrin glue and a muscle/fat graft were used to cover the tear, and all patients were assigned to bed rest from 24 to 48 hours after the operation. In Group A one patient required rehabilitation at discharge. The LOS in Group A was greater than that in Group B (median 5 days compared with 3 days), but no additional complication was noted.

Conclusions

The incidence of CSF leakage was 16% in 76 patients, and there were no other complications. Older patient age and higher level of the surgeon’s training were factors contributing to the incidence, but the history of surgery was not.

Full access

Ajay Jawahar, Rishi Wadhwa, Caglar Berk, Gloria Caldito, Allyson Delaune, Federico Ampil, Brian Willis, Donald Smith and Anil Nanda

Object

There are various surgical treatment alternatives for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), but there is no single scale that can be used uniformly to assess and compare one type of intervention with the others. In this study the objectives were to determine factors associated with pain control, pain-free survival, residual pain, and recurrence after gamma knife surgery (GKS) treatment for TN, and to correlate the patients' self-reported quality of life (QOL) and satisfaction with the aforementioned factors.

Methods

Between the years 2000 and 2004, the authors treated 81 patients with medically refractory TN by using GKS. Fifty-two patients responded to a questionnaire regarding pain control, activities of daily living, QOL, and patient satisfaction.

The median follow-up duration was 16.5 months. Twenty-two patients (42.3%) had complete pain relief, 14 (26.9%) had partial but satisfactory pain relief, and in 16 patients (30.8%) the treatment failed. Seven patients (13.5%) reported a recurrence during the follow-up period, and 25 (48.1%) reported a significant (> 50%) decrease in their pain within the 1st month posttreatment. The mean decrease in the total dose of pain medication was 75%. Patients' self-reported QOL scores improved 90% and the overall patient satisfaction score was 80%.

Conclusions

The authors found that GKS is a minimally invasive and effective procedure that yields a favorable outcome for patients with recurrent or refractory TN. It may also be offered as a first-line surgical modality for any patients with TN who are unsuited or unwilling to undergo microvascular decompression.