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Nasser Mohammed, Devi Prasad Patra, Vinayak Narayan, Amey R. Savardekar, Rimal Hanif Dossani, Papireddy Bollam, Shyamal Bir and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Spondylosis with or without spondylolisthesis that does not respond to conservative management has an excellent outcome with direct pars interarticularis repair. Direct repair preserves the segmental spinal motion. A number of operative techniques for direct repair are practiced; however, the procedure of choice is not clearly defined. The present study aims to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the different operative techniques and their outcomes.

METHODS

A meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). Studies of patients with spondylolysis with or without low-grade spondylolisthesis who underwent direct repair were included. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on the operative technique used: the Buck repair group, Scott repair group, Morscher repair group, and pedicle screw–based repair group. The pooled data were analyzed using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. Tests for bias and heterogeneity were performed. The I2 statistic was calculated, and the results were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect version 2.

RESULTS

Forty-six studies consisting of 900 patients were included in the study. The majority of the patients were in their 2nd decade of life. The Buck group included 19 studies with 305 patients; the Scott group had 8 studies with 162 patients. The Morscher method included 5 studies with 193 patients, and the pedicle group included 14 studies with 240 patients. The overall pooled fusion, complication, and outcome rates were calculated. The pooled rates for fusion for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle screw groups were 83.53%, 81.57%, 77.72%, and 90.21%, respectively. The pooled complication rates for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle screw groups were 13.41%, 22.35%, 27.42%, and 12.8%, respectively, and the pooled positive outcome rates for the Buck, Scott, Morscher, and pedicle screw groups were 84.33%, 82.49%, 80.30%, and 80.1%, respectively. The pedicle group had the best fusion rate and lowest complication rate.

CONCLUSIONS

The pedicle screw–based direct pars repair for spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis is the best choice of procedure, with the highest fusion and lowest complication rates, followed by the Buck repair. The Morscher and Scott repairs were associated with a high rate of complication and lower rates of fusion.

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Tanmoy Kumar Maiti, Subhas Konar, Shyamal Bir, Piyush Kalakoti, Papireddy Bollam and Anil Nanda

OBJECT

The difference in course and outcome of several neurodegenerative conditions and traumatic injuries of the nervous system points toward a possible role of genetic and environmental factors as prognostic markers. Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E), a key player in lipid metabolism, is recognized as one of the most powerful genetic risk factors for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, the current understanding of APOE polymorphism in various neurological disorders is discussed.

METHODS

The English literature was searched for various studies describing the role of APOE polymorphism as a prognostic marker in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injury. The wide ethnic distribution of APOE polymorphism was discussed, and the recent meta-analyses of role of APOE polymorphism in multiple diseases were analyzed and summarized in tabular form.

RESULTS

Results from the review of literature revealed that the distribution of APOE is varied in different ethnic populations. APOE polymorphism plays a significant role in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, particularly in Alzheimer’s disease. APOE ε4 is considered a marker for poor prognosis in various diseases, but APOE ε2 rather than APOE ε4 has been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related bleeding and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. The role of APOE polymorphism in various neurological diseases has not been conclusively elucidated.

CONCLUSIONS

Apo-E is a biomarker for various neurological and systemic diseases. Therefore, while analyzing the role of APOE polymorphism in neurological diseases, the interpretation should be done after adjusting all the confounding factors. A continuous quest to look for associations with various neurological diseases and wide knowledge of available literature are required to improve the understanding of the role of APOE polymorphism in these conditions and identify potential therapeutic targets.