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Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Douglas A. Hardesty, Brandon D. Liebelt and Peter Nakaji

Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) have a near-universal association with cortical venous drainage and a malignant clinical course. Endovascular treatment options are often limited due to the high frequency of ophthalmic artery ethmoidal supply. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with syncope and was found to have a right ethmoidal DAVF. Rather than the traditional bicoronal craniotomy, an endoscope-assisted mini-pterional approach for clip ligation is demonstrated. The mini-pterional craniotomy allows a minimally invasive approach to ethmoidal DAVF via a lateral trajectory. The endoscope can help achieve full visualization in the narrow corridor.

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Harjot Thind, Douglas A. Hardesty, Joseph M. Zabramski, Robert F. Spetzler and Peter Nakaji


The successful treatment of an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) requires complete obliteration of blood flow through the fistulous point. Surgical ligation is often used along with endovascular techniques. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be used to confirm fistula obliteration; however, this technique can be cumbersome intraoperatively and difficult to correlate anatomically with the surgical field. Near-infrared indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography has been described as a complementary tool for this purpose.


The authors examined intracranial dAVF cases in which microscope-integrated intraoperative ICG videoangiography was used to identify and/or confirm obliteration of the dAVF during surgery. Retrospective evaluation of all intracranial dAVF cases treated with surgical ligation over a 10-year period at the Barrow Neurological Institute (n = 47) revealed 28 cases in which ICG videoangiography was used. The results were compared with findings on preoperative and intraoperative or postoperative DSA.


ICG videoangiography successfully confirmed the fistulous point intraoperatively in 96% (22/23) of the cases. It also revealed complete obliteration of fistulas, comparable to intraoperative or postoperative DSA, in 91% (21/23) of the cases. The false-negative rate of ICG was 8.7% (2/23), which is similar to the false-negative rate of intraoperative DSA alone (10.5% [2/19]).


Microscope-based ICG videoangiography provides real-time information about the intraoperative anatomy of dAVFs. In addition, it can confirm complete obliteration of a fistula. This technique may be useful during dAVF surgery as an independent form of angiography or as an adjunct to intraoperative or postoperative DSA.

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Douglas A. Hardesty, Wyatt Ramey, Mohammad Afrasiabi, Brian Beck, Omar Gonzalez, Ana Moran and Peter Nakaji


Coccidioidomycosis is a common fungal infection in the southwestern US. Hydrocephalus is a serious complication of cranial coccidioidomycosis, and the surgical management of coccidioidomycosis-related hydrocephalus has unique challenges. The authors reviewed their institutional experience with hydrocephalus in the setting of coccidioidomycosis.


The authors retrospectively identified 44 patients diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis-related hydrocephalus at their institution since 1990, who underwent a total of 99 shunting procedures. The authors examined patient demographics, type of shunt and valve used, pressure settings, failure rates, medical treatment, ventricular response to shunting, and other variables.


The majority of patients were young (average age 37 years) men (male/female ratio 28:16) with a mean follow-up of 63 months. Patients of Asian and African descent were overrepresented in the cohort compared with regional demographic data. The overall shunt failure rate during follow-up was 50%, and the average number of revisions required if the shunt failed was 2.5 (range 1–8). Low to moderate draining pressures (mean 88 mm H2O) were used in this cohort. Fourteen patients received intrathecal antifungals, and a trend of initiating intrathecal therapy after need for a shunt revision was observed (p = 0.051). The majority of shunt failures (81%) were due to mechanical blockages in the drainage system. Most patients (59%) had at least partial persistent postoperative ventriculomegaly despite successful CSF diversion. Four patients (9%) died due to coccidioidomycosis during the follow-up period.


Coccidioidomycosis-related hydrocephalus more often affected young males in the study's cohort, especially those of African and Asian descent. Despite the best medical therapy, there was a high rate of shunt failure due to clogged catheters or valves due to the underlying disease process. Many patients continued to have ventriculomegaly even with adequate CSF diversion. The morbidity and mortality of this chronic disease process must be recognized by the treatment team, and patients should be appropriately counseled.

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Douglas A. Hardesty, Andrew B. Wolf, David G. Brachman, Heyoung L. McBride, Emad Youssef, Peter Nakaji, Randall W. Porter, Kris A. Smith, Robert F. Spetzler and Nader Sanai


Patients with atypical meningioma often undergo gross-total resection (GTR) at initial presentation, but the role of adjuvant radiation therapy remains unclear. The increasing prevalence of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the modern neurosurgical era has led to the use of routine postoperative radiation therapy in the absence of evidence-based guidelines. This study sought to define the long-term recurrence rate of atypical meningiomas and identify the value of SRS in affecting outcome.


The authors identified 228 patients with microsurgically treated atypical meningiomas who underwent a total of 257 resections at the Barrow Neurological Institute over the last 20 years. Atypical meningiomas were diagnosed according to current WHO criteria. Clinical and radiographic data were collected retrospectively.


Median clinical and radiographic follow-up was 52 months. Gross-total resection, defined as Simpson Grade I or II resection, was achieved in 149 patients (58%). The median proliferative index was 6.9% (range 0.4%–20.6%). Overall 51 patients (22%) demonstrated tumor recurrence at a median of 20.2 months postoperatively. Seventy-one patients (31%) underwent adjuvant radiation postoperatively, with 32 patients (14%) receiving adjuvant SRS and 39 patients (17%) receiving adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The recurrence rate for patients receiving SRS was 25% (8/32) and for IMRT was 18% (7/39), which was not significantly different from the overall group. Gross-total resection was predictive of progression-free survival (PFS; relative risk 0.255, p < 0.0001), but postoperative SRS was not associated with improved PFS in all patients or in only those with subtotal resections.


Atypical meningiomas are increasingly irradiated, even after complete or near-complete microsurgical resection. This analysis of the largest patient series to date suggests that close observation remains reasonable in the setting of aggressive microsurgical resection. Although postoperative adjuvant SRS did not significantly affect tumor recurrence rates in this experience, a larger cohort study with longer follow-up may reveal a therapeutic benefit in the future.