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  • By Author: McGirt, Matthew J. x
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Matthew J. McGirt, Frank J. Attenello, Ghazala Datoo, Muraya Gathinji, April Atiba, Jon D. Weingart, Benjamin Carson and George I. Jallo

Object

Indications for duraplasty in treatment of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) remain unclear. In the present study, the authors evaluate their surgical experience to determine whether intraoperative ultrasonography is effective in the selection of patients with CM-I who can be adequately treated with craniectomy alone without duraplasty.

Methods

The authors reviewed the records of 256 children who underwent first-time hindbrain decompression for CM-I. Craniectomy alone (without duraplasty) was performed when intraoperative ultrasonography suggested adequate decompression of the subarachnoid spaces ventral and dorsal to the tonsils after suboccipital craniectomy alone. Duraplasty was performed if intraoperative ultrasonography demonstrated persistent dural compression of the tonsils following craniectomy. Symptom recurrence as a function of time was compared between cases of duraplasty versus suboccipital decompression alone stratified by extent of tonsillar herniation.

Results

Duraplasty was performed in 140 patients (55%), and suboccipital decompression alone was performed in 116 patients (45%). Patients underwent follow-up for 29 ± 15 months. Symptoms included headache in 192 patients (75%) and lower cranial nerve and brainstem dysfunction in 68 (27%). In 38 patients (15%) there was tonsillar herniation rostral to the C-1 lamina, in 195 (76%) it extended between the C-1 and C-2 lamina, and in 23 patients (9%) there was herniation caudal to the lower border of the C-2 lamina. In children with tonsillar herniation caudal to C-1, ultrasonography-guided suboccipital decompression alone was associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of symptom recurrence compared with those who also underwent duraplasty (p = 0.01). In children with tonsillar herniation rostral to C-1, outcome was equivalent between suboccipital decompression alone and duraplasty (p = 0.41).

Conclusions

In the setting of moderate-to-severe tonsillar CM-I, intraoperative ultrasonography demonstrating decompression of the subarachnoid spaces ventral and dorsal to the tonsils may not effectively select patients in whom bone decompression alone is sufficient. Duraplasty may be warranted in cases of tonsillar herniation that extends below the C-1 lamina regardless of intraoperative ultrasonography findings. More objective cerebrospinal fluid flow or volumetric measures may be needed intraoperatively to guide duraplasty in patients with more pronounced tonsillar herniation.

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Frank J. Attenello, Matthew J. McGirt, April Atiba, Muraya Gathinji, Ghazala Datoo, Jon Weingart, Benjamin Carson and George I. Jallo

Object

Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is often associated with scoliosis. It remains unclear which subgroups of patients are most likely to experience progression of spinal deformity after cervicomedullary decompression. The authors' goal was to determine the time frame of curvature progression and assess which patient subgroups are at greatest risk for progression of spinal deformity after surgery.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all pediatric patients with significant scoliosis in whom suboccipital decompression was performed to treat for CM-I during a 10-year period at a single academic institution. Clinical, radiological, and operative variables were assessed as independent factors for failure (worsening of scoliosis) by using a univariate regression analysis.

Results

Twenty-one children (mean age 9 ± 3 years; 4 male) underwent hindbrain decompression for CM-I–associated scoliosis and were followed for a mean of 39 months. All patients harbored a syrinx. Eight patients (38%) experienced improvement in scoliosis curvature, whereas 10 (48%) suffered a progression. Thoracolumbar junction scoliosis (p = 0.04) and failure of the syrinx to improve (p = 0.05) were associated with 5- and 4-fold respective increases in the likelihood of deformity progression. Each increasing degree of preoperative Cobb angle was associated with an 11% increase in the likelihood of scoliotic curve progression (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Over one third of patients with CM-I–associated scoliosis will improve after cervicomedullary decompression alone. Cervicomedullary decompression is a good first-line option, particularly in children with concordant posterior fossa symptoms. Patients presenting with more severe scoliosis (increasing Cobb angle) or scoliosis that crosses the thoracolumbar junction may benefit from earlier orthopedic involvement and should be monitored regularly for curvature progression after cervicomedullary decompression. In cases in which there is a failure of the syrinx to show improvement after suboccipital decompression, the patients are also more likely to develop curvature progression.

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Daniel M. Sciubba, Li-Mei Lin, Graeme F. Woodworth, Matthew J. McGirt, Benjamin Carson and George I. Jallo

Object

Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) systems may decrease the incidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infections. However, there is a reluctance to use AIS components because of their increased cost. In the present study the authors evaluated factors contributing to the medical costs associated with the treatment of CSF shunt infections in a hydrocephalic pediatric population, those implanted with AIS systems compared with those implanted with standard shunt systems.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed data obtained in all pediatric patients who had undergone CSF shunt insertion at their institution over a 3-year period. All patients were followed up for 12 months after surgery. The independent association between AIS catheter use and subsequent shunt infection was assessed by performing a multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis. Factors contributing to the medical costs associated with shunt infection were evaluated.

Results

Two hundred eleven pediatric patients underwent 353 shunting procedures. Two hundred eight shunts (59%) were placed with nonimpregnated catheters and 145 shunts (41%) were placed with AIS catheters. Twenty-five patients (12%) with non-AIS catheters experienced shunt infection, whereas only two patients (1.4%) with AIS catheters had a shunt infection within the 6-month follow-up period (p < 0.01). Among infected patients, infected patients with standard shunt components had a longer average hospital stay, more inpatient complications related to infection treatment, and more multiple organism infections and multiple antibiotic regimens, compared with those with AIS components.

Conclusions

Although individual AIS components are more expensive than standard ones, factors contributing to medical costs are fewer in pediatric patients with infected shunts when the components are antibiotic-impregnated rather than standard.

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Daniel M. Sciubba, R. Morgan Stuart, Matthew J. McGirt, Graeme F. Woodworth, Amer Samdani, Benjamin Carson and George I. Jallo

Object

The majority of shunt infections occur within 6 months of shunt placement and chiefly result from perioperative colonization of shunt components by skin flora. Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) systems have been designed to prevent such colonization. In this study, the authors evaluate the incidence of shunt infection after introduction of an AIS system in a population of children with hydrocephalus.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients who had undergone cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt insertion at their institution over a 3-year period between April 2001 and March 2004. During the 18 months prior to October 2002, all CSF shunts included standard, nonimpregnated catheters. During the 18 months after October 2002, all CSF shunts included antibiotic-impregnated catheters. All patients were followed up for 6 months after shunt surgery, and all shunt-related complications, including shunt infection, were evaluated. The independent association of AIS catheter use with subsequent shunt infection was assessed via multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis.

A total of 211 pediatric patients underwent 353 shunt placement procedures. In the 18 months prior to October 2002, 208 (59%) shunts were placed with nonimpregnated catheters; 145 (41%) shunts were placed with AIS catheters in the 18 months after October 2002. Of patients with nonimpregnated catheters, 25 (12%) experienced shunt infection, whereas only two patients (1.4%) with antibiotic-impregnated catheters experienced shunt infection within the 6-month follow-up period (p < 0.01). Adjusting for intercohort differences via multivariate analysis, AIS catheters were independently associated with a 2.4-fold decreased likelihood of shunt infection.

Conclusions

The AIS catheter significantly reduced incidence of CSF shunt infection in children with hydrocephalus during the early postoperative period (< 6 months). The AIS system used is an effective instrument to prevent perioperative colonization of CSF shunt components.