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  • By Author: Martin, Neil A. x
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Matthias Oertel, Daniel F. Kelly, David McArthur, W. John Boscardin, Thomas C. Glenn, Jae Hong Lee, Tooraj Gravori, Dennis Obukhov, Duncan Q. McBride and Neil A. Martin

Object. Progressive intracranial hemorrhage after head injury is often observed on serial computerized tomography (CT) scans but its significance is uncertain. In this study, patients in whom two CT scans were obtained within 24 hours of injury were analyzed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical significance of progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI).

Methods. The diagnosis of PHI was determined by comparing the first and second CT scans and was categorized as epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), intraparenchymal contusion or hematoma (IPCH), or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Potential risk factors, the daily mean intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure were analyzed. In a cohort of 142 patients (mean age 34 ± 14 years; median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8, range 3–15; male/female ratio 4.3:1), the mean time from injury to first CT scan was 2 ± 1.6 hours and between first and second CT scans was 6.9 ± 3.6 hours. A PHI was found in 42.3% of patients overall and in 48.6% of patients who underwent scanning within 2 hours of injury. Of the 60 patients with PHI, 87% underwent their first CT scan within 2 hours of injury and in only one with PHI was the first CT scan obtained more than 6 hours postinjury. The likelihood of PHI for a given lesion was 51% for IPCH, 22% for EDH, 17% for SAH, and 11% for SDH. Of the 46 patients who underwent craniotomy for hematoma evacuation, 24% did so after the second CT scan because of findings of PHI. Logistic regression was used to identify male sex (p = 0.01), older age (p = 0.01), time from injury to first CT scan (p = 0.02), and initial partial thromboplastin time (PTT) (p = 0.02) as the best predictors of PHI. The percentage of patients with mean daily ICP greater than 20 mm Hg was higher in those with PHI compared with those without PHI. The 6-month postinjury outcome was similar in the two patient groups.

Conclusions. Early progressive hemorrhage occurs in almost 50% of head-injured patients who undergo CT scanning within 2 hours of injury, it occurs most frequently in cerebral contusions, and it is associated with ICP elevations. Male sex, older age, time from injury to first CT scan, and PTT appear to be key determinants of PHI. Early repeated CT scanning is indicated in patients with nonsurgically treated hemorrhage revealed on the first CT scan.

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Daniel F. Kelly, Neil A. Martin, Rouzbeh Kordestani, George Counelis, David A. Hovda, Marvin Bergsneider, Duncan Q. McBride, Ehud Shalmon, Dena Herman and Donald P. Becker

✓ As part of a prospective study of the cerebrovascular effects of head injury, 54 moderate and severely injured patients underwent 184 133Xe—cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies to determine the relationship between the period of maximum blood flow and outcome. The lowest blood flows were observed on the day of injury (Day 0) and the highest CBFs were documented on postinjury Days 1 to 5. Patients were divided into three groups based on CBF values obtained during this period of maximum flow: Group 1 (seven patients), CBF less than 33 ml/100 g/minute on all determinations; Group 2 (13 patients), CBF both less than and greater than or equal to 33 ml/100 g/minute; and Group 3 (34 patients), CBF greater than or equal to 33 ml/100 g/minute on all measurements. For Groups 1, 2, and 3, mean CBF during Days 1 to 5 postinjury was 25.7 ± 4, 36.5 ± 4.2, and 49.4 ± 9.3 ml/100 g/minute, respectively, and PaCO2 at the time of the CBF study was 31.4 ± 6, 32.7 ± 2.9, and 33.4 ± 4.7 mm Hg, respectively.

There were significant differences across Groups 1, 2, and 3 regarding mean age, percentage of individuals younger than 35 years of age (42.9%, 23.1%, and 76.5%, respectively), incidence of patients requiring evacuation of intradural hematomas (57.1%, 38.5%, and 17.6%, respectively) and incidence of abnormal pupils (57.1%, 61.5%, and 32.4%, respectively). Favorable neurological outcome at 6 months postinjury in Groups 1, 2, and 3 was 0%, 46.2%, and 58.8%, respectively (p < 0.05). Further analysis of patients in Group 3 revealed that of 14 with poor outcomes, six had one or more episodes of hyperemia-associated intracranial hypertension (simultaneous CBF > 55 ml/100 g/minute and ICP > 20 mm Hg). These six patients were unique in having the highest CBFs for postinjury Days 1 to 5 (mean 59.8 ml/100 g/minute) and the most severe degree of intracranial hypertension and reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (p < 0.0001).

These results indicate that a phasic elevation in CBF acutely after head injury is a necessary condition for achieving functional recovery. It is postulated that for the majority of patients, this rise in blood flow results from an increase in metabolic demands in the setting of intact vasoreactivity. In a minority of individuals, however, the constellation of supranormal CBF, severe intracranial hypertension, and poor outcome indicates a state of grossly impaired vasoreactivity with uncoupling between blood flow and metabolism.

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Daniel F. Kelly, Neil A. Martin, Rouzbeh Kordestani, George Counelis, David A. Hovda, Marvin Bergsneider, Ehud Shalmon, Duncan Q. McBride, Dena Herman and Donald P. Becker

As part of a prospective study of the cerebrovascular effects of head injury, 54 moderate and severely injured patients underwent 184 133Xe-cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies to determine the relationship between the period of maximum blood flow and outcome. The lowest blood flows were observed on the day of injury (Day 0) and the highest CBFs were documented on postinjury Days 1 to 5. Patients were divided into three groups based on CBF values obtained during this period of maximum flow: Group 1 (seven patients), CBF less than 33 ml/100 g/minute on all determinations; Group 2 (13 patients), CBF both less than and greater than or equal to 33 ml/100 g/minute; and Group 3 (34 patients), CBF greater than or equal to 33 ml/100 g/minute on all measurements. For Groups 1, 2, and 3, mean CBF during Days 1 to 5 postinjury was 25.7 ± 4, 36.5 ± 4.2, and 49.4 ± 9.3 ml/100 g/minute, respectively, and PaCO2 at the time of the CBF study was 31.4 ± 6, 32.7 ± 2.9, and 33.4 ± 4.7 mm Hg, respectively.

There were significant differences across Groups 1, 2, and 3 regarding mean age, percentage of individuals younger than 35 years of age (42.9%, 23.1%, and 76.5%, respectively), incidence of patients requiring evacuation of intradural hematomas (57.1%, 38.5%, and 17.6%, respectively) and incidence of abnormal pupils (57.1%, 61.5%, and 32.4%, respectively). Favorable neurological outcome at 6 months postinjury in Groups 1, 2, and 3 was 0%, 46.2%, and 58.8%, respectively (p < 0.05). Further analysis of patients in Group 3 revealed that of 14 with poor outcomes, six had one or more episodes of hyperemia-associated intracranial hypertension (simultaneous CBF > 55 ml/100 g/minute and ICP > 20 mm Hg). These six patients were unique in having the highest CBFs for postinjury Days 1 to 5 (mean 59.8 ml/100 g/minute) and the most severe degree of intracranial hypertension and reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (p < 0.0001).

These results indicate that a phasic elevation in CBF acutely after head injury is a necessary condition for achieving functional recovery. It is postulated that for the majority of patients, this rise in blood flow results from an increase in metabolic demands in the setting of intact vasoreactivity. In a minority of individuals, however, the constellation of supranormal CBF, severe intracranial hypertension, and poor outcome indicates a state of grossly impaired vasoreactivity with uncoupling between blood flow and metabolism.