Sandi Lam, Thomas G. Luerssen, William E. Whitehead, Andrew Jea and I-Wen Pan
Caroline Hadley, Carrie A. Mohila, Thomas G. Luerssen and Sandi Lam
In infants, the presence of a cranial defect may be due to a variety of traumatic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and congenital abnormalities. Differentiation between these possible etiologies is facilitated by clinical presentation, patient history, and physical examination. Congenital cutaneous neural crest–derived lesions are unlikely to be considered in a patient presenting with an asymptomatic cranial defect without overlying mass or skin pigmentation. The authors present an unusual case of a 2-month-old infant with an asymptomatic calvarial defect with normal overlying skin. Pathology of the excised tissue showed features consistent with a congenital neurocristic tumor: a pigmented, neural crest–derived hamartomatous tumor that typically presents as a melanotic skin lesion.
Sandi Lam, I-Wen Pan, Andrew Jea and Thomas G. Luerssen
Sandi Lam, I-Wen Pan, Ben A. Strickland, Caroline Hadley, Bradley Daniels, Jim Brookshier and Thomas G. Luerssen
Following institution of the Back to Sleep Campaign, the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome decreased while the prevalence of positional skull deformation increased dramatically. The management of positional deformity is controversial, and treatment recommendations and outcomes reporting are variable. The authors reviewed their institutional experience (2008–2014) with the treatment of positional plagiocephaly to explore factors associated with measured improvement.
A retrospective chart review was conducted with risk factors and treatment for positional head shape deformity recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the impact of these variables on the change in measured oblique diagonal difference (ODD) on head shape surface scanning pre- and posttreatment.
A total of 991 infants aged less than 1 year were evaluated for cranial positional deformity in a dedicated clinical program. The most common deformity was occipital plagiocephaly (69.5%), followed by occipital brachycephaly (18.4%) or a combination of both deformities (12.1%). Recommended treatment included repositioning (RP), physical therapy (PT) if indicated, or orthotic treatment with a customized cranial orthosis (CO) according to an age- and risk factor–dependent algorithm that the authors developed for this clinic. Of the 991 eligible patients, 884 returned for at least 1 follow-up appointment. A total of 552 patients were followed to completion of their treatment and had a full set of records for analysis: these patients had pre- and posttreatment 2D surface scanner evaluations. The average presenting age was 6.2 months (corrected for prematurity for treatment considerations). Of the 991 patients, 543 (54.8%) had RP or PT as first recommended treatment. Of these 543 patients, 137 (25.2%) transitioned to helmet therapy after the condition did not improve over 4–8 weeks. In the remaining cases, RP/PT had already failed before the patients were seen in this program, and the starting treatment recommendation was CO. At the end of treatment, the measured improvements in ODD were 36.7%, 33.5%, and 15.1% for patients receiving CO, RP/PT/CO, and RP/PT, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that sex, race, insurance, diagnosis, sleep position preference, torticollis history, and multiple gestation were not significantly associated with magnitude of ODD change during treatment. On multivariate analysis, corrected age at presentation and type of treatment received were significantly associated with magnitude of ODD change. Orthotic treatment corresponded with the largest ODD change, while the RP/PT group had the least change in ODD. Earlier age at presentation corresponded with larger ODD change.
Earlier age at presentation and type of treatment impact the degree of measured deformational head shape correction in positional plagiocephaly. This retrospective study suggests that treatment with a custom CO can result in more improvement in objective measurements of head shape.
Sandi Lam, Thomas G. Luerssen, Caroline Hadley, Bradley Daniels, Ben A. Strickland, Jim Brookshier and I-Wen Pan
This study aimed to examine factors associated with adherence to recommended treatment among pediatric patients with positional skull deformity by reviewing a single-institution experience (2007–2014) with the treatment of positional plagiocephaly.
A retrospective chart review was conducted. Risk factors, treatment for positional head shape deformity, and parent-reported adherence were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the impact of patient clinical and demographic characteristics on adherence.
A total of 991 patients under age 12 months were evaluated for positional skull deformity at the Texas Children's Hospital Cranial Deformity Clinic between 2007 and 2014. According to an age- and risk factor–based treatment algorithm, patients were recommended for repositioning, physical therapy, or cranial orthosis therapy or crossover from repositioning/physical therapy into cranial orthosis therapy. The patients' average chronological age at presentation was 6.2 months; 69.3% were male. The majority were white (40.7%) or Hispanic (32.6%); 38.7% had commercial insurance and 37.9% had Medicaid. The most common initial recommended treatment was repositioning or physical therapy; 85.7% of patients were adherent to the initial recommended treatment.
Univariate analysis showed differences in adherence rates among subgroups. Children's families with Medicaid were less likely to be adherent to treatment recommendations (adherence rate, 80.2%). Families with commercial insurance were more likely to be adherent to the recommended treatment (89.6%). Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that factors associated with parent-reported adherence to recommended treatment included primary insurance payer, diagnosis (plagiocephaly vs brachycephaly), and the nature of the recommended treatment. Families were less likely to be adherent if they had Medicaid, a child with a diagnosis of brachycephaly, or were initially recommended for cranial orthosis therapy than families with commercial insurance, a child with a diagnosis of plagiocephaly, or an initial recommendation for repositioning or physical therapy.
Factors associated with treatment completion included corrected age, insurance, diagnosis, recommended treatment, and distance to provider from patient's residence. Patients with commercial insurance (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10–2.02, p = 0.009), those diagnosed with both brachycephaly and plagiocephaly (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.31–3.90, p = 0.003), those recommended for treatment with cranial orthosis (OR 4.55, 95% CI = 3.24–6.38, p < 0.001), and those living in proximity to the provider (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.00–1.96, p = 0.047) were more likely to complete treatment.
Insurance type, degree of head shape deformity, and types of recommended treatment appear to affect rates of adherence to recommended treatments for positional skull deformation.