Periosteal chondromas located in the spine are rare. The authors document an even more infrequent occurrence of a recurrent periosteal chondroma in the cervical spine of a 6-year-old boy. During the operation, a giant (> 7 cm in diameter) periosteal chondroma with involvement of the C-5 and C-6 vertebral bodies was resected. The vertebral column was reconstructed with anterior-posterior instrumentation. The pathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of chondroid tissue with typical chondrocytes, confirming the diagnosis of periosteal chondroma.
Daniel K. Fahim, Keyne K. Johnson, William E. Whitehead, Daniel J. Curry, Thomas G. Luerssen and Andrew Jea
Benjamin D. Fox, Vikram V. Nayar, Keyne K. Johnson, Andrew Jea, Daniel Curry, Thomas G. Luerssen and William E. Whitehead
Andrew Jea, Keyne K. Johnson, William E. Whitehead and Thomas G. Luerssen
The use of spinal instrumentation to stabilize the occipitocervical junction in pediatric patients has increased and evolved in recent years. Wiring techniques have now given way to screw-rod or screw-plate techniques with or without postoperative external immobilization. Although C-2 translaminar screws have been used in these constructs, subaxial translaminar screws have not, to date, been described in either the pediatric or adult patient populations.
The authors describe the feasibility of translaminar screw placement in the C-3 lamina. Rigid fixation with translaminar screws offers an alternative to subaxial fixation with lateral mass screws, allowing for formation of biomechanically sound spinal constructs and minimizing potential neurovascular morbidity. Their use requires careful analysis of preoperative imaging studies, intact posterior elements, and avoidance of violation of the inner laminar wall.
Keyne K. Johnson, Mark J. Dannenbaum, Meenakshi B. Bhattacharjee, Anna Illner, Robert C. Dauser, William E. Whitehead, Andrew Jea and Thomas G. Luerssen
Primary skull lesions, albeit rare in the pediatric population, have been well described and classified. These lesions are usually benign and commonly present as a painless mass. The most common lesions are epidermoid, dermoid, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Cranial fasciitis, encountered less frequently, is usually not considered in this differential diagnosis. Given such few cases reported, it is commonly misdiagnosed preoperatively.
The authors retrospectively reviewed data obtained in 4 patients with cranial fasciitis in whom the diagnosis was based on histopathological findings. In 2 patients the onset of the lesion was spontaneous. One patient had a lesion 4 months following a vacuum extraction and subsequent cephalohematoma formation. One patient developed a lesion following a previous craniectomy. Presentation, imaging studies, and histopathological findings were all reviewed and analyzed. All patients presented with a firm nontender mass. Radiological features included a lytic bone lesion with a mildly sclerotic margin, T1 isodensity, T2 heterogeneous hyperdensity, and heterogeneous enhancement. The enhancing portion was not bright on T2-weighted MR images, likely representing the fibrous component; the nonenhancing portion was bright on T2-weighted images, likely representing the myxoid matrix. Histopathological examination revealed proliferating fibroblasts in a myxoid matrix.
Cranial fasciitis is a benign, painless but rapidly growing lesion of the skull mainly limited to the pediatric population. It is histologically similar to nodular fasciitis, a fibroblastic proliferation of varying size. These lesions are often related to trauma but can also be insidious or can develop at a prior craniectomy site. The appropriate clinical picture and distinguishing radiographic features may help to differentiate cranial fasciitis from other lesions of the skull allowing for earlier intervention.