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  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine x
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The effect of C2–3 disc angle on postoperative adverse events in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

Presented at the 2018 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

Bryan S. Lee, Kevin M. Walsh, Daniel Lubelski, Konrad D. Knusel, Michael P. Steinmetz, Thomas E. Mroz, Richard P. Schlenk, Iain H. Kalfas and Edward C. Benzel

OBJECTIVE

Complete radiographic and clinical evaluations are essential in the surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Prior studies have correlated cervical sagittal imbalance and kyphosis with disability and worse health-related quality of life. However, little is known about C2–3 disc angle and its correlation with postoperative outcomes. The present study is the first to consider C2–3 disc angle as an additional radiographic predictor of postoperative adverse events.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients with CSM who underwent surgeries from 2010 to 2014. Data collected included demographics, baseline presenting factors, and postoperative outcomes. Cervical sagittal alignment variables were measured using the preoperative and postoperative radiographs. Univariable logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between dependent and independent variables, and a multivariable logistic regression model was created using stepwise variable selection.

RESULTS

The authors identified 171 patients who had complete preoperative and postoperative radiographic and outcomes data. The overall rate of postoperative adverse events was 33% (57/171), and postoperative C2–3 disc angle, C2–7 sagittal vertical axis, and C2–7 Cobb angle were found to be significantly associated with adverse events. Inclusion of postoperative C2–3 disc angle in the analysis led to the best prediction of adverse events. The mean postoperative C2–3 disc angle for patients with any postoperative adverse event was 32.3° ± 17.2°, and the mean for those without any adverse event was 22.4° ± 11.1° (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

In the present retrospective analysis of postoperative adverse events in patients with CSM, the authors found a significant association between C2–3 disc angle and postoperative adverse events. They propose that C2–3 disc angle be used as an additional parameter of cervical spinal sagittal alignment and predictor for operative outcomes.

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Daniel Lubelski, Suzanne Tharin, John J. Como, Michael P. Steinmetz, Heather Vallier and Timothy Moore

OBJECTIVE

Few studies have investigated the advantages of early spinal stabilization in the patient with polytrauma in terms of reduction of morbidity and mortality. Previous analyses have shown that early stabilization may reduce ICU stay, with no effect on complication rates.

METHODS

The authors prospectively observed 340 polytrauma patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than 16 at a single Level 1 trauma center who were treated in accordance with a protocol termed “early appropriate care,” which emphasizes operative treatment of various fractures within 36 hours of injury. Of these patients, 46 had upper thoracic and/or cervical spine injuries. The authors retrospectively compared patients treated according to protocol versus those who were not. Continuous variables were compared using independent t-tests and categorical variables using Fisher’s exact test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to account for baseline confounding factors.

RESULTS

Fourteen of 46 patients (30%) did not undergo surgery within 36 hours. These patients were significantly more likely to be older than those in the protocol group (53 vs 38 years, p = 0.008) and have greater body mass index (BMI; 33 vs 27, p = 0.02), and they were less likely to have a spinal cord injury (SCI) (82% did not have an SCI vs 44% in the protocol group, p = 0.04). In terms of outcomes, patients in the protocol-breach group had significantly more total ventilator days (13 vs 6 days, p = 0.02) and total ICU days (16 vs 9 days, p = 0.03). Infection rates were 14% in the protocol-breach group and 3% in the protocol group (p = 0.2) Total complications trended toward being statistically significantly more common in the protocol-breach group (57% vs 31%). After controlling for potential confounding variables by logistic regression (including age, sex, BMI, race, and SCI), total complications were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the protocol-breach group (OR 29, 95% CI 1.9–1828). This indicates that the odds of developing “any complication” were 29 times greater if treatment was delayed more than 36 hours.

CONCLUSIONS

Early surgical stabilization in the polytrauma patient with a cervical or upper thoracic spine injury is associated with fewer complications and improved outcomes. Hospitals may consider the benefit of protocols that promote early stabilization in this patient population.

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Roy Xiao, Jacob A. Miller, Navin C. Sabharwal, Daniel Lubelski, Vincent J. Alentado, Andrew T. Healy, Thomas E. Mroz and Edward C. Benzel

OBJECTIVE

Improvements in imaging technology have steadily advanced surgical approaches. Within the field of spine surgery, assistance from the O-arm Multidimensional Surgical Imaging System has been established to yield superior accuracy of pedicle screw insertion compared with freehand and fluoroscopic approaches. Despite this evidence, no studies have investigated the clinical relevance associated with increased accuracy. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes following thoracolumbar spinal fusion associated with O-arm–assisted navigation. The authors hypothesized that increased accuracy achieved with O-arm–assisted navigation decreases the rate of reoperation secondary to reduced hardware failure and screw misplacement.

METHODS

A consecutive retrospective review of all patients who underwent open thoracolumbar spinal fusion at a single tertiary-care institution between December 2012 and December 2014 was conducted. Outcomes assessed included operative time, length of hospital stay, and rates of readmission and reoperation. Mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards modeling, with surgeon as a random effect, was used to investigate the association between O-arm–assisted navigation and postoperative outcomes.

RESULTS

Among 1208 procedures, 614 were performed with O-arm–assisted navigation, 356 using freehand techniques, and 238 using fluoroscopic guidance. The most common indication for surgery was spondylolisthesis (56.2%), and most patients underwent a posterolateral fusion only (59.4%). Although O-arm procedures involved more vertebral levels compared with the combined freehand/fluoroscopy cohort (4.79 vs 4.26 vertebral levels; p < 0.01), no significant differences in operative time were observed (4.40 vs 4.30 hours; p = 0.38). Patients who underwent an O-arm procedure experienced shorter hospital stays (4.72 vs 5.43 days; p < 0.01). O-arm–assisted navigation trended toward predicting decreased risk of spine-related readmission (0.8% vs 2.2%, risk ratio [RR] 0.37; p = 0.05) and overall readmissions (4.9% vs 7.4%, RR 0.66; p = 0.07). The O-arm was significantly associated with decreased risk of reoperation for hardware failure (2.9% vs 5.9%, RR 0.50; p = 0.01), screw misplacement (1.6% vs 4.2%, RR 0.39; p < 0.01), and all-cause reoperation (5.2% vs 10.9%, RR 0.48; p < 0.01). Mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that O-arm–assisted navigation was a significant predictor of decreased risk of reoperation (HR 0.49; p < 0.01). The protective effect of O-arm–assisted navigation against reoperation was durable in subset analysis of procedures involving < 5 vertebral levels (HR 0.44; p = 0.01) and ≥ 5 levels (HR 0.48; p = 0.03). Further subset analysis demonstrated that O-arm–assisted navigation predicted decreased risk of reoperation among patients undergoing posterolateral fusion only (HR 0.39; p < 0.01) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), but not posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate clinical outcomes associated with O-arm–assisted navigation following thoracolumbar spinal fusion. O-arm–assisted navigation decreased the risk of reoperation to less than half the risk associated with freehand and fluoroscopic approaches. Future randomized controlled trials to corroborate the findings of the present study are warranted.

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Daniel Lubelski, Matthew D. Alvin, Sergiy Nesterenko, Swetha J. Sundar, Nicolas R. Thompson, Edward C. Benzel and Thomas E. Mroz

OBJECT

Studies comparing surgical treatments for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are heterogeneous, using a variety of different quality of life (QOL) outcomes and myelopathy-specific measures. This study sought to evaluate the relationship of these measures to each other, and to better understand their use in evaluating patients with CSM.

METHODS

A retrospective study was performed in all patients with CSM who underwent either ventral or dorsal cervical spine surgery at a single tertiary-care institution between January 2008 and July 2013. Severity of myelopathy was assessed pre- and postoperatively using both the Nurick scale and the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) classification of disability. Prospectively collected QOL outcomes data included Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9), and EQ-5D. Spearman rank correlations were calculated to assess the construct convergent validity for each pair of health status measures (HSMs). To assess each HSM’s ability to discriminate favorable EQ-5D index, we performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and assessed the area under the curve (AUC).

RESULTS

A total of 119 patients were included. The PDQ total score had the highest correlation with EQ-5D index (Spearman’s rho = −0.82). Neither of the myelopathy scales (mJOA or Nurick) had strong correlations between themselves (0.41) or with the other QOL measures (absolute value range 0.13–0.49). In contrast, the QOL measures correlated relatively well with each other (absolute value range 0.68–0.97). For predicting favorable EQ-5D outcomes, PDQ total score had an AUC of 0.909. The AUCs were significantly greater for the QOL measures in comparison with the myelopathy measures (AUCs were 0.677 and 0.607 for mJOA and Nurick scale scores, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that all included measures of QOL and CSM-specific (mJOA or Nurick scale) measures were valid and responsive. The PDQ was the most predictive of positive QOL after surgery (as measured by the EQ-5D index) for patients with CSM. The substantially lower correlation between myelopathy and QOL outcomes, compared with the various QOL measures themselves, suggests that these questionnaires are measuring different aspects of the patient experience. Solely assessing the myelopathy or disease-specific signs and symptoms is likely insufficient to fully understand and appreciate clinical outcome in its totality. These questionnaire types should be used together to best evaluate patients pre- and postoperatively.

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Megan M. Lockwood, Gabriel A. Smith, Joseph Tanenbaum, Daniel Lubelski, Andreea Seicean, Jonathan Pace, Edward C. Benzel, Thomas E. Mroz and Michael P. Steinmetz

OBJECT

Screening for vertebral artery injury (VAI) following cervical spine fractures is routinely performed across trauma centers in North America. From 2002 to 2007, the total number of neck CT angiography (CTA) studies performed in the Medicare population after trauma increased from 9796 to 115,021. In the era of cost-effective medical care, the authors aimed to evaluate the utility of CTA screening in detecting VAI and reduce chances of posterior circulation strokes after traumatic cervical spine fractures.

METHODS

A retrospective review of all patients presenting with cervical spine fractures to Northeast Ohio’s Level I trauma institution from 2002 to 2012 was performed.

RESULTS

There was a total of 1717 cervical spine fractures in patients presenting to Northeast Ohio’s Level I trauma institution between 2002 and 2012. CTA screening was performed in 732 patients, and 51 patients (0.7%) were found to have a VAI. Fracture patterns with increased odds of VAI were C-1 and C-2 combined fractures, transverse foramen fractures, and subluxation of adjacent vertebral levels. Ten posterior circulation strokes were identified in this patient population (0.6%) and found in only 4 of 51 cases of VAI (7.8%). High-risk fractures defined by Denver Criteria, VAI, and antiplatelet treatment of VAI were not independent predictors of stroke.

CONCLUSIONS

Cost-effective screening must be reevaluated in the setting of blunt cervical spine fractures on a case-by-case basis. Further prospective studies must be performed to elucidate the utility of screening for VAI and posterior circulation stroke prevention, if identified.

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Andrew T. Healy, Prasath Mageswaran, Daniel Lubelski, Benjamin P. Rosenbaum, Virgilio Matheus, Edward C. Benzel and Thomas E. Mroz

OBJECT

The degenerative process of the spinal column results in instability followed by a progressive loss of segmental motion. Segmental degeneration is associated with intervertebral disc and facet changes, which can be quantified. Correlating this degeneration with clinical segmental motion has not been investigated in the thoracic spine. The authors sought to determine if imaging-determined degeneration would correlate with native range of motion (ROM) or the change in ROM after decompressive procedures, potentially guiding clinical decision making in the setting of spine trauma or following decompressive procedures in the thoracic spine.

METHODS

Multidirectional flexibility tests with image analysis were performed on thoracic cadaveric spines with intact ib cage. Specimens consisted of 19 fresh frozen human cadaveric spines, spanning C-7 to L-1. ROM was obtained for each specimen in axial rotation (AR), flexion-extension (FE), and lateral bending (LB) in the intact state and following laminectomy, unilateral facetectomy, and unilateral costotransversectomy performed at either T4–5 (in 9 specimens) or T8–9 (in 10 specimens). Image grading of segmental degeneration was performed utilizing 3D CT reconstructions. Imaging scores were obtained for disc space degeneration, which quantified osteophytes, narrowing, and endplate sclerosis, all contributing to the Lane disc summary score. Facet degeneration was quantified using the Weishaupt facet summary score, which included the scoring of facet osteophytes, narrowing, hypertrophy, subchondral erosions, and cysts.

RESULTS

The native ROM of specimens from T-1 to T-12 (n = 19) negatively correlated with age in AR (Pearson’s r coefficient = -0.42, p = 0.070) and FE (r = -0.42, p = 0.076). When regional ROM (across 4 adjacent segments) was considered, the presence of disc osteophytes negatively correlated with FE (r = −0.69, p = 0.012), LB (r = −0.82, p = 0.001), and disc narrowing trended toward significance in AR (r = −0.49, p = 0.107). Facet characteristics, scored using multiple variables, showed minimal correlation to native ROM (r range from −0.45 to +0.19); however, facet degeneration scores at the surgical level revealed strong negative correlations with regional thoracic stability following decompressive procedures in AR and LB (Weishaupt facet summary score: r = −0.52 and r = −0.71; p = 0.084 and p = 0.010, respectively). Disc degeneration was not correlated (Lane disc summary score: r = −0.06, p = 0.861).

CONCLUSIONS

Advanced age was the most important determinant of decreasing native thoracic ROM, whereas imaging characteristics (T1–12) did not correlate with the native ROM of thoracic specimens with intact rib cages. Advanced facet degeneration at the surgical level did correlate to specimen stability following decompressive procedures, and is likely indicative of the terminal stages of segmental degeneration.

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Benjamin D. Kuhns, Daniel Lubelski, Matthew D. Alvin, Jason S. Taub, Matthew J. McGirt, Edward C. Benzel and Thomas E. Mroz

OBJECT

Infections following spine surgery negatively affect patient quality of life (QOL) and impose a significant financial burden on the health care system. Postoperative wound infections occur at higher rates following dorsal cervical procedures than ventral procedures. Quantifying the health outcomes and costs associated with infections following dorsal cervical procedures may help to guide treatment strategies to minimize the deleterious consequences of these infections. Therefore, the goals of this study were to determine the cost and QOL outcomes affecting patients who developed deep wound infections following subaxial dorsal cervical spine fusions.

METHODS

The authors identified 22 (4.0%) of 551 patients undergoing dorsal cervical fusions who developed deep wound infections requiring surgical debridement. These patients were individually matched with control patients who did not develop infections. Health outcomes were assessed using the EQ-5D, Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and visual analog scale (VAS). QOL outcome measures were collected preoperatively and after 6 and 12 months. Health resource utilization was recorded from patient electronic medical records over an average follow-up of 18 months. Direct costs were estimated using Medicare national payment amounts, and indirect costs were based on patients' missed workdays and income.

RESULTS

No significant differences in preoperative QOL scores were found between the 2 cohorts. At 6 months postsurgery, the noninfection cohort had significant pre- to postoperative improvement in EQ-5D (p = 0.02), whereas the infection cohort did not (p = 0.2). The noninfection cohort also had a significantly higher 6-month postoperative EQ-5D scores than the infection cohort (p = 0.04). At 1 year postsurgery, there was no significant difference in EQ-5D scores between the groups. Health care–associated costs for the infection cohort were significantly higher ($16,970 vs $7658; p < 0.0001). Indirect costs for the infection cohort and the noninfection cohort were $6495 and $2756, respectively (p = 0.03). Adjusted for inflation, the total costs for the infection cohort were $21,778 compared with $9159 for the noninfection cohort, reflecting an average cost of $12,619 associated with developing a postoperative deep wound infection (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Dorsal cervical infections temporarily decrease patient QOL postoperatively, but with no long-term impact; they do, however, dramatically increase the cost of care. Knowledge of the financial burden of wound infections following dorsal cervical fusion may stimulate the development and use of improved prophylactic and therapeutic techniques to manage this serious complication.

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Daniel Lubelski, Nicolas R. Thompson, Sachin Bansal, Thomas E. Mroz, Daniel J. Mazanec, Edward C. Benzel and Tagreed Khalaf

OBJECT

The goal of this study was to determine whether pretreatment depression is predictive of quality of life (QOL) improvement for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) who are treated conservatively.

METHODS

This retrospective cohort study included patients with LSS and concordant neurogenic claudication who were treated nonoperatively at a single institution between September 2010 and March 2013. Patient QOL measures were recorded pretreatment and then 4 months after treatment. Pretreatment depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9). Successful outcome was defined as posttreatment improvement in EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index or in Pain and Disability Questionnaire (PDQ) scores. Regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of outcome while controlling for confounding variables.

RESULTS

A total of 502 patients were included in the study. The average age for these patients was 66.1 years, with 51% female and 90.6% white. After adjusting for baseline demographic and clinical variables, there was a statistically significant association between baseline PHQ-9 score and posttreatment change in EQ-5D index (β = −0.007, p = 0.0002). All other things being equal, a patient with a baseline PHQ-9 score of 0 (no depression) would be expected to improve in the EQ-5D index by 0.14 points (greater than the minimum clinically important difference) more than would a patient with a baseline PHQ-9 score of 20 (major depression). There was no significant association between baseline PHQ-9 score and change in Pain and Disability Questionnaire scores.

CONCLUSIONS

When controlling for other baseline characteristics, severely depressed patients with LSS who are treated nonoperatively have significantly less improvement in their QOL compared with those with little or no depression. These data are similar to the negative predictive effects of depression on posttreatment QOL following lumbar fusion surgery.

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Daniel Lubelski, Nilgun Senol, Michael P. Silverstein, Matthew D. Alvin, Edward C. Benzel, Thomas E. Mroz and Richard Schlenk

OBJECT

The authors investigated quality of life (QOL) outcomes after primary versus revision discectomy.

METHODS

A retrospective review was performed for all patients who had undergone a primary or revision discectomy at the Cleveland Clinic Center for Spine Health from January 2008 through December 2011. Among patients in the revision cohort, they identified those who needed a second revision discectomy. Patient QOL measures were recorded before and after surgery. These measures included responses to the EQ-5D health questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire–9, Pain and Disability Questionnaire, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cohorts were compared by using independent-sample t-tests and Fisher exact tests for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounding.

RESULTS

A total of 196 patients were identified (116 who underwent primary discectomy and 80 who underwent revision discectomy); average follow-up time was 150 days. There were no preoperative QOL differences between groups. Postoperatively, both groups improved significantly in all QOL measures. For QALYs, the primary cohort improved by 0.25 points (p < 0.001) and the revision cohort improved by 0.18 points (p < 0.001). QALYs improved for significantly more patients in the primary than in the revision cohort (76% vs 59%, respectively; p = 0.02), and improvement exceeded the minimum clinically important difference for more patients in the primary cohort (62% vs 45%, respectively; p = 0.03). Of the 80 patients who underwent revision discectomy, yet another recurrent herniation (third herniation) occurred in 14 (17.5%). Of these, 4 patients (28.6%) chose to undergo a second revision discectomy and the other 10 (71.4%) underwent conservative management. For those who underwent a second revision discectomy, QOL worsened according to all questionnaire scores.

CONCLUSIONS

QOL, pain and disability, and psychosocial outcomes improved after primary and revision discectomy, but the improvement diminished after revision discectomy.

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Daniel Lubelski, William E. McCormick, Lisa Ferrara, Edward C. Benzel and Mark Kayanja

Object

The authors conducted a study to compare biomechanical effects on the cervical spine of bridging fixation and intermediate fixation techniques, in both fixed and dynamic modes.

Methods

A biaxial, servohydraulic machine biomechanically tested 23 human cervical spines for stiffness and strain in compression, extension, flexion, and lateral bending through 3 specimen states: 1) intact, 2) defect (corpectomy and discectomy), and 3) grafting with plate application in 1 of 4 constructs: C3–7 dynamized long strut (DLS), C3–7 fixed long strut (FLS), C3–5–7 dynamized multisegment (DMS), and C3–5–7 fixed multisegment (FMS).

Results

Compared with FMS, FLS had significantly greater strain in extension (at C-3 and at the rostral and caudal parts of the graft) and in lateral bending (at C-3 and at the caudal part of the graft). Fixed (FLS and FMS) constructs had greater flexion stiffness than did dynamized (DLS and DMS) constructs and showed a trend toward greater lateral bending stiffness. Instrumentation revealed greater extension strain with the long fixed (FLS and DLS) constructs than with the multifixed (FMS and FMS) constructs at the rostral and caudal parts of the graft but no significant differences between the dynamized (DLS and DMS) and fixed (FLS and FMS) constructs.

Conclusions

Multisegmental fixation provided greater stabilizing forces than did bridging constructs for both dynamized and fixed plates. Use of multisegmental fixation can potentially decrease strain at the screw-plate interface and reduce the rate of hardware failure.