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Chirag G. Patil, Shivanand P. Lad, Griffith R. Harsh, Edward R. Laws Jr. and Maxwell Boakye

Object

Information about complications, patient outcomes, and mortality rate after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease has been derived largely from single-institution series. In this study the authors report on inpatient death, morbidity, and outcomes following TSS for Cushing's disease on a national level.

Methods

All patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database who had undergone transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor for Cushing's disease between 1993 and 2002 were included in the study. The number of cases per year, length of stay (LOS), and rates of inpatient complications, death, and adverse outcomes (death or discharge to institution other than home) were abstracted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on outcome measures.

Results

According to the NIS, there were an estimated 3525 cases of TSS for Cushing's disease in the US between 1993 and 2002. During this period, there was a trend toward a small increase in the number of TSSs for Cushing's disease. The in-hospital mortality rate was 0.7%, and the complication rate was 42.1%. Diabetes insipidus (15%), fluid and electrolyte abnormalities (12.5%), and neurological deficits (5.6%) were the most common complications reported. Multivariate analysis showed that complications were more likely in patients with pre-operative comorbidities. Patients older than 64 years were much more likely to have an adverse outcome (odds ratio [OR] 20.8) and a prolonged hospital stay (OR 2.2). Women were less likely than men to have an adverse outcome (OR 0.3). A single postoperative complication increased the mean LOS by 3 days, more than tripled the odds of an adverse outcome, and increased the hospital charges by more than US $7000.

Conclusions

The authors provided a national perspective on trends, inpatient complications, and outcomes after TSS for Cushing's disease in the US. Postoperative complications had a significantly negative effect on LOS, adverse outcome, and resource utilization. Advanced age and multiple preoperative comorbidities were identified as important risk factors, and their effects on patient outcomes were quantified.