Douglas Kondziolka, Mark Bernstein, S. M. Spiegel and Karel ter Brugge
✓ The authors describe three cases of clinical cerebral ischemia associated with angiographic evidence of cerebral arterial luminal narrowing presenting 7, 14, and 52 weeks after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and aneurysm clipping. Delayed vasospasm, in its usual time setting 1 or 2 weeks after hemorrhage, did not occur symptomatically in these patients. No evidence for aneurysm clip migration or rebleed was present. All patients responded favorably to volume expansion and elevation of blood pressure. This unusual occurrence of a very delayed vasospasm may further the understanding of the vasospastic process. The symptomatic onset of arterial luminal narrowing months after SAH may suggest that a proliferative vasculopathy more accurately explains the observed vessel narrowing, rather than conventional active constriction of vascular smooth muscle.
Douglas Kondziolka, Mark Bernstein, Lothar Resch, Charles H. Tator, J. F. Ross Fleming, R. G. Vanderlinden and Hart Schutz
✓ A retrospective clinical and pathological review of 905 consecutive brain tumor cases (excluding pituitary adenoma and recurrent tumor) was conducted to identify cases in which intratumoral hemorrhage was confirmed grossly and/or pathologically. There were 132 cases so identified, for an overall tumor hemorrhage rate of 14.6%; of these, 5.4% were classified as macroscopic and 9.2% as microscopic. The presence of hemorrhage was correlated with the neurological presentation. The highest hemorrhage rate (70.0%) was found in patients with prior neurological history who experienced apoplectic deterioration (acute-on-chronic presentation). Only 57.1% of patients with acute deterioration in the absence of prior neurological symptoms had hemorrhages. The highest hemorrhage rate for primary brain tumors was 29.2% for mixed oligodendroglioma/astrocytoma, while the highest hemorrhage rate for any tumor type was 50% for metastatic melanoma. The clinical relevance of tumor hemorrhage is discussed.