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Nickalus R. Khan, Kenneth Moore, Jaafar Basma, David S. Hersh, Asim F. Choudhri, Brandy Vaughn and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECTIVE

An ischemic stroke following an elective craniotomy in a child is perceived to be a rare event. However, to date there are few papers on this topic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of stroke following elective intracranial surgery at a children’s hospital.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients who developed a perioperative stroke following an elective craniotomy from 2010 through 2017. Data were collected using an institutional database that contained demographic, medical, radiological, and outcome variables.

RESULTS

A total of 1591 elective craniotomies were performed at the authors’ institution during the study period. Of these, 28 (1.8%) were followed by a perioperative stroke. Radiographic diagnosis of the infarction occurred at a median of 1.7 days (range 0–9 days) from the time of surgery, and neurological deficits were apparent within 24 hours of surgery in 18 patients (62.5%). Infarcts tended to occur adjacent to tumor resection sites (86% of cases), and in a unilateral (89%), unifocal (93%), and supratentorial (93%) location. Overall, 11 (39.3%) strokes were due to a perforating artery, 10 (35.7%) were due to a large vessel, 4 (14.3%) were venous, and 3 (10.7%) were related to hypoperfusion or embolic causes. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) was used in 11 of the 28 cases, and 6 (55%) infarcts were not detected, all of which were deep.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of stroke following an elective craniotomy is low, with nearly all cases (86%) occurring after tumor resection. Perforator infarcts were most common but may be missed on iMRI.

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Paul Klimo Jr., Cody L. Nesvick, Alberto Broniscer, Brent A. Orr and Asim F. Choudhri

OBJECT

Malignant tumors of the brainstem, excluding classic diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), are a very rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have been infrequently described in the literature. In this paper, the authors present their experiences with treating these unique cancers.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify eligible cases over a 15-year period. All tumors involving the pons were, by consensus, felt not to be DIPGs based on their neuroimaging features. Demographic information, pathological specimens, neuroimaging characteristics, surgical and nonsurgical management plans, and survival data were gathered for analysis.

RESULTS

Between January 2000 and December 2014, 29 patients were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.4 years (range 2 months to 25 years), and 17 (59%) patients were male. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were cranial neuropathies (n = 24; 83%), hemiparesis (n = 12; 41%), and ataxia or gait disturbance (n = 10; 34%). There were 18 glial and 11 embryonal tumors. Of the glial tumors, 5 were radiation-induced and 1 was a malignant transformation of a previously known low-grade tumor. Surgical intervention consisted of biopsy alone in 12 patients and some degree of resection in another 15 patients. Two tumors were diagnosed postmortem. The median overall survival for all patients was 196 days (range 15 to 3999 days). There are currently 5 (17%) patients who are still alive: 1 with an anaplastic astrocytoma and the remaining with embryonal tumors.

CONCLUSIONS

In general, malignant non-DIPG tumors of the brainstem carry a poor prognosis. However, maximal cytoreductive surgery may be an option for select patients with focal tumors. Long-term survival is possible in patients with nonmetastatic embryonal tumors after multimodal treatment, most importantly maximal resection.

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Joseph H. McAbee, Joseph Modica, Clinton J. Thompson, Alberto Broniscer, Brent Orr, Asim F. Choudhri, Frederick A. Boop and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECT

Cervicomedullary tumors (CMTs) represent a heterogeneous group of intrinsic neoplasms that are typically low grade and generally carry a good prognosis. This single-institution study was undertaken to document the outcomes and current treatment philosophy for these challenging neoplasms.

METHODS

The charts of all pediatric patients with CMTs who received treatment at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital between January 1988 and May 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, surgical, clinical, radiological, pathological, and survival data were collected. Treatment-free survival and overall survival were estimated, and predictors of recurrence were analyzed.

RESULTS

Thirty-one children (16 boys, 15 girls) with at least 12 months of follow-up data were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 6 years (range 7 months-17 years) and the median follow-up was 4.3 years. Low-grade tumors (Grade I or II) were present in 26 (84%) patients. Thirty patients underwent either a biopsy alone or resection, with the majority of patients undergoing biopsy only (n = 12, 39%) or subtotal resection (n = 14, 45%). Only 4 patients were treated solely with resection; 21 patients received radiotherapy alone or in combination with other treatments. Recurrent tumor developed in 14 children (45%) and 4 died as a result of their malignancy. A high-grade pathological type was the only independent variable that predicted recurrence. The 5- and 10-year treatment-free survival estimates are 64.7% and 45.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year overall survival estimate is 86.7%.

CONCLUSIONS

Children with CMTs typically have low-grade neoplasms and consequently long-term survival, but high risk of recurrence. Therapy should be directed at achieving local tumor control while preserving and even restoring neurological function.

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Frederick A. Boop, Berkeley Bate, Asim F. Choudhri, Brian Burkholder and Paul Klimo Jr.

The development of high-quality intraoperative MRI (iMRI) capability has offered a major advance in the care of patients with complex intracranial disease. To date, this technology has been limited by the need for pin fixation of the calvaria. The authors report their preliminary experience with an MRI-compatible horseshoe headrest that allows for the following: 1) iMRI in patients too young for pin fixation; 2) iMRI in patients with large calvarial defects; 3) the ability to move the head during iMRI surgery; and 4) the use of neuronavigation in such cases. The authors report 2 cases of infants in whom the Visius Surgical Theatre horseshoe headrest (IMRIS Inc.) was used. Image quality was equivalent to that of pin fixation. The infants suffered no skin issues. The use of neuronavigation with the system remained accurate and could be updated with the new iMRI information. The Visius horseshoe headrest offers a technical advance in iMRI technology for infants, for patients with cranial defects or prior craniotomies in whom pin fixation may not be safe, or for patients in whom the need to move the head during surgery is required. The image quality of the system remains excellent, and the ability to merge new images to the neuronavigation system is helpful.

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Ann Marie Flannery, Catherine A. Mazzola, Paul Klimo Jr., Ann-Christine Duhaime, Lissa C. Baird, Mandeep S. Tamber, David D. Limbrick Jr., Dimitrios C. Nikas, Joanna Kemp, Alexander F. Post, Kurtis I. Auguste, Asim F. Choudhri, Laura S. Mitchell and Debby Buffa