Matthew R. Test, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Marcie Langley, Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle and Tamara D. Simon
Infection is a common complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts, occurring in 6%–20% of children. Although studies are limited, Staphylococcus aureus is thought to cause more rapid and aggressive infection than coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) or gram-negative organisms. The authors’ objective was to evaluate the relationship between the causative organisms of CSF shunt infection and the timing of infection.
The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent CSF shunt placement at a tertiary care children’s hospital over a 9-year period and subsequently developed a CSF shunt infection. The primary predictor variable was the causative organism recovered from CSF culture, characterized as S. aureus, CONS, or gram-negative organisms. The primary outcome was time to infection, defined as the number of days from most recent shunt intervention to the diagnosis of the infection. The association between causative organism and time to infection was visualized using Kaplan-Meier curves, and statistical comparisons were made using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests.
Among 103 children in whom a CSF shunt infection developed, the causative organism was CONS in 57 (55%), S. aureus in 19 (18%), and gram-negative organisms in 9 (9%). The median time to infection did not differ (p = 0.81) for infections caused by CONS (20 days, IQR 11–40), S. aureus (26 days, IQR 12–95), and gram-negative organisms (23 days, IQR 17–34).
No significant difference in time to infection based on the causative organism was observed among children with a CSF shunt infection.
Tamara D. Simon, Matthew P. Kronman, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Samuel R. Browd, Richard Holubkov, John R. W. Kestle, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Marcie Langley, David D. Limbrick Jr., Thomas G. Luerssen, W. Jerry Oakes, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Curtis Rozzelle, Chevis N. Shannon, Mandeep Tamber, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead and Nicole Mayer-Hamblett
CSF shunt infection treatment requires both surgical and antibiotic decisions. Using the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) Registry and 2004 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines that were not proactively distributed to HCRN providers, the authors previously found high adherence to surgical recommendations but poor adherence to intravenous (IV) antibiotic duration recommendations. In general, IV antibiotic duration was longer than recommended. In March 2017, new IDSA guidelines expanded upon the 2004 guidelines by including recommendations for selection of specific antibiotics. The objective of this study was to describe adherence to both 2004 and 2017 IDSA guideline recommendations for CSF shunt infection treatment, and to report reinfection rates associated with adherence to guideline recommendations.
The authors investigated a prospective cohort of children younger than 18 years of age who underwent treatment for first CSF shunt infection at one of 7 hospitals from April 2008 to December 2012. CSF shunt infection was diagnosed by recovery of bacteria from CSF culture (CSF-positive infection). Adherence to 2004 and 2017 guideline recommendations was determined. Adherence to antibiotics was further classified as longer or shorter duration than guideline recommendations. Reinfection rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were generated.
There were 133 children with CSF-positive infections addressed by 2004 IDSA guideline recommendations, with 124 at risk for reinfection. Zero reinfections were observed among those whose treatment was fully adherent (0/14, 0% [95% CI 0%–20%]), and 15 reinfections were observed among those whose infection treatment was nonadherent (15/110, 14% [95% CI 8%–21%]). Among the 110 first infections whose infection treatment was nonadherent, 74 first infections were treated for a longer duration than guidelines recommended and 9 developed reinfection (9/74, 12% [95% CI 6%–22%]). There were 145 children with CSF-positive infections addressed by 2017 IDSA guideline recommendations, with 135 at risk for reinfection. No reinfections were observed among children whose treatment was fully adherent (0/3, 0% [95% CI 0%–64%]), and 18 reinfections were observed among those whose infection treatment was nonadherent (18/132, 14% [95% CI 8%–21%]).
There is no clear evidence that either adherence to IDSA guidelines or duration of treatment longer than recommended is associated with reduction in reinfection rates. Because IDSA guidelines recommend shorter IV antibiotic durations than are typically used, improvement efforts to reduce IV antibiotic use in CSF shunt infection treatment can and should utilize IDSA guidelines.
Tamara D. Simon, Matthew P. Kronman, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Nancy E. Gove, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, Samuel R. Browd, D. Douglas Cochrane, Richard Holubkov, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Marcie Langley, David D. Limbrick Jr., Thomas G. Luerssen, W. Jerry Oakes, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Curtis Rozzelle, Chevis Shannon, Mandeep Tamber, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead and John R. W. Kestle
CSF shunt infection requires both surgical and antibiotic treatment. Surgical treatment includes either total shunt removal with external ventricular drain (EVD) placement followed by new shunt insertion, or distal shunt externalization followed by new shunt insertion once the CSF is sterile. Antibiotic treatment includes the administration of intravenous antibiotics. The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) registry provides a unique opportunity to understand reinfection following treatment for CSF shunt infection. This study examines the association of surgical and antibiotic decisions in the treatment of first CSF shunt infection with reinfection.
A prospective cohort study of children undergoing treatment for first CSF infection at 7 HCRN hospitals from April 2008 to December 2012 was performed. The HCRN consensus definition was used to define CSF shunt infection and reinfection. The key surgical predictor variable was surgical approach to treatment for CSF shunt infection, and the key antibiotic treatment predictor variable was intravenous antibiotic selection and duration. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to address the time-varying nature of the characteristics associated with shunt surgeries.
Of 233 children in the HCRN registry with an initial CSF shunt infection during the study period, 38 patients (16%) developed reinfection over a median time of 44 days (interquartile range [IQR] 19–437). The majority of initial CSF shunt infections were treated with total shunt removal and EVD placement (175 patients; 75%). The median time between infection surgeries was 15 days (IQR 10–22). For the subset of 172 infections diagnosed by CSF culture, the mean ± SD duration of antibiotic treatment was 18.7 ± 12.8 days. In all Cox proportional hazards models, neither surgical approach to infection treatment nor overall intravenous antibiotic duration was independently associated with reinfection. The only treatment decision independently associated with decreased infection risk was the use of rifampin. While this finding did not achieve statistical significance, in all 5 Cox proportional hazards models both surgical approach (other than total shunt removal at initial CSF shunt infection) and nonventriculoperitoneal shunt location were consistently associated with a higher hazard of reinfection, while the use of ultrasound was consistently associated with a lower hazard of reinfection.
Neither surgical approach to treatment nor antibiotic duration was associated with reinfection risk. While these findings did not achieve statistical significance, surgical approach other than total removal at initial CSF shunt infection was consistently associated with a higher hazard of reinfection in this study and suggests the feasibility of controlling and standardizing the surgical approach (shunt removal with EVD placement). Considerably more variation and equipoise exists in the duration and selection of intravenous antibiotic treatment. Further consideration should be given to the use of rifampin in the treatment of CSF shunt infection. High-quality studies of the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment are critical to the creation of evidence-based guidelines for CSF shunt infection treatment.
Tamara D. Simon, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle, Margaret Rosenfeld, J. Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, Marcie Langley and Nicole Mayer-Hamblett
The neurosurgical literature has conflicting findings regarding the association between indications for CSF shunt placement and subsequent shunt surgery. The object of this study was to identify baseline factors at the time of initial CSF shunt placement that are independently associated with subsequent surgery.
This was a retrospective cohort study of children ages 0–18 years who underwent initial CSF shunt placement between January 1, 1997, and October 12, 2006, at a tertiary care children's hospital. The outcome of interest was CSF shunt surgery (either for revision or infection) within 12 months after initial placement. Associations between subsequent CSF shunt surgery and indication for the initial shunt, adjusting for patient age and surgeon factors at the time of initial placement, were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Medical and surgical decisions, which varied according to surgeon, were examined separately in a univariate analysis.
Of the 554 children in the study cohort, 233 (42%) underwent subsequent CSF shunt surgery, either for revision (167 patients [30%]) or infection (66 patients [12%]). In multivariate logistic regression modeling, significant risk factors for subsequent CSF shunt surgery included (compared with aqueductal stenosis) intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) secondary to prematurity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.5) and other unusual indications (AOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.0–13.6). The patient's age at initial CSF shunt placement was not significantly associated with increased odds of subsequent surgery after adjusting for other associated factors.
The occurrence of IVH is associated with increased odds of subsequent CSF shunt surgery within 12 months after shunt placement. Families of and care providers for children with IVH should be attuned to their increased risk of shunt failure.