Daniel M. Sciubba, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Graeme F. Woodworth, Matthew J. McGirt, Ziya L. Gokaslan and George I. Jallo
The indications remain unclear for fusion at the time of cervical laminectomy for intradural tumor resection. To identify patients who may benefit from initial fusion, the authors assessed clinical, radiological/imaging, and operative factors associated with subsequent symptomatic cervical instability requiring fusion after cervical laminectomy for intradural tumor resection.
The authors reviewed 10 years of data obtained in patients who underwent cervical laminectomy without fusion for intradural tumor resection and who had normal spinal stability and alignment preoperatively. The association of pre- and intraoperative variables with the subsequent need for fusion for progressive symptomatic cervical instability was assessed using logistic regression analysis, and percentages were compared using Fisher exact tests when appropriate.
Thirty-two patients (mean age 41 ± 17 years) underwent cervical laminectomy without fusion for resection of an intradural tumor (18 intramedullary and 14 extramedullary). Each increasing number of laminectomies performed was associated with a 3.1-fold increase in the likelihood of subsequent vertebral instability (odds ratio 3.114, 95% confidence interval 1.207–8.034, p = 0.02). At a mean follow-up interval of 25.2 months, 33% (4 of 12) of the patients who had undergone a ≥ 3-level laminectomy required subsequent fusion compared with 5% (1 of 20) who had undergone a ≤ 2-level laminectomy (p = 0.03). Four (36%) of 11 patients initially presenting with myelopathic motor disturbance required subsequent fusion compared with 1 (5%) of 21 presenting initially with myelopathic sensory or radicular symptoms (p = 0.02). Age, the presence of a syrinx, intramedullary tumor, C-2 laminectomy, C-7 laminectomy, and laminoplasty were not associated with subsequent symptomatic instability requiring fusion.
In the authors' experience with intradural cervical tumor resection, patients presenting with myelopathic motor symptoms or those undergoing a ≥ 3-level cervical laminectomy had an increased likelihood of developing subsequent symptomatic instability requiring fusion. A ≥ 3-level laminectomy with myelopathic motor symptoms may herald patients most likely to benefit from cervical fusion at the time of tumor resection.
Daniel M. Sciubba, Li-Mei Lin, Graeme F. Woodworth, Matthew J. McGirt, Benjamin Carson and George I. Jallo
Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) systems may decrease the incidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infections. However, there is a reluctance to use AIS components because of their increased cost. In the present study the authors evaluated factors contributing to the medical costs associated with the treatment of CSF shunt infections in a hydrocephalic pediatric population, those implanted with AIS systems compared with those implanted with standard shunt systems.
The authors retrospectively reviewed data obtained in all pediatric patients who had undergone CSF shunt insertion at their institution over a 3-year period. All patients were followed up for 12 months after surgery. The independent association between AIS catheter use and subsequent shunt infection was assessed by performing a multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis. Factors contributing to the medical costs associated with shunt infection were evaluated.
Two hundred eleven pediatric patients underwent 353 shunting procedures. Two hundred eight shunts (59%) were placed with nonimpregnated catheters and 145 shunts (41%) were placed with AIS catheters. Twenty-five patients (12%) with non-AIS catheters experienced shunt infection, whereas only two patients (1.4%) with AIS catheters had a shunt infection within the 6-month follow-up period (p < 0.01). Among infected patients, infected patients with standard shunt components had a longer average hospital stay, more inpatient complications related to infection treatment, and more multiple organism infections and multiple antibiotic regimens, compared with those with AIS components.
Although individual AIS components are more expensive than standard ones, factors contributing to medical costs are fewer in pediatric patients with infected shunts when the components are antibiotic-impregnated rather than standard.
Daniel M. Sciubba, R. Morgan Stuart, Matthew J. McGirt, Graeme F. Woodworth, Amer Samdani, Benjamin Carson and George I. Jallo
The majority of shunt infections occur within 6 months of shunt placement and chiefly result from perioperative colonization of shunt components by skin flora. Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) systems have been designed to prevent such colonization. In this study, the authors evaluate the incidence of shunt infection after introduction of an AIS system in a population of children with hydrocephalus.
The authors retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients who had undergone cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt insertion at their institution over a 3-year period between April 2001 and March 2004. During the 18 months prior to October 2002, all CSF shunts included standard, nonimpregnated catheters. During the 18 months after October 2002, all CSF shunts included antibiotic-impregnated catheters. All patients were followed up for 6 months after shunt surgery, and all shunt-related complications, including shunt infection, were evaluated. The independent association of AIS catheter use with subsequent shunt infection was assessed via multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis.
A total of 211 pediatric patients underwent 353 shunt placement procedures. In the 18 months prior to October 2002, 208 (59%) shunts were placed with nonimpregnated catheters; 145 (41%) shunts were placed with AIS catheters in the 18 months after October 2002. Of patients with nonimpregnated catheters, 25 (12%) experienced shunt infection, whereas only two patients (1.4%) with antibiotic-impregnated catheters experienced shunt infection within the 6-month follow-up period (p < 0.01). Adjusting for intercohort differences via multivariate analysis, AIS catheters were independently associated with a 2.4-fold decreased likelihood of shunt infection.
The AIS catheter significantly reduced incidence of CSF shunt infection in children with hydrocephalus during the early postoperative period (< 6 months). The AIS system used is an effective instrument to prevent perioperative colonization of CSF shunt components.