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George I. Jallo, Karl F. Kothbauer and I. Rick Abbott

The traditional treatment for all forms of hydrocephalus has been the implantation of ventricular shunt systems; however, these systems have inherent tendencies toward complications such as malfunction and infection. A significant advance in the treatment of hydrocephalus has been the evolution of endoscopy. The recent technological advances in this field have led to a renewed interest in endoscopic third ventriculostomy as the treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. Although several different endoscopes are available, the authors favor a rigid one to perform a blunt fenestration of the third ventricle floor. This description of the technique stresses the nuances for successful completion of this procedure.

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Khan W. Li, Chanland Roonprapunt, Herman C. Lawson, I. Rick Abbott, Jeffrey Wisoff, Fred Epstein and George I. Jallo


Tectal gliomas are a distinct form of pediatric brainstem tumor that present in patients with symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus. The natural history of these lesions is often uniquely indolent. Thus, initial surgical therapies are directed at treatment of hydrocephalus, usually with ventricular shunt placement. Recently, third ventriculostomy has been used in patients with tectal gliomas, both as an initial procedure and after shunt failures. In this report the authors review their experience with the treatment of hydrocephalus in patients with tectal gliomas.


The authors reviewed 31 consecutive cases of tectal gliomas and compared the success rates of ventricular shunt placement with the success rates of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Shunt placement procedures were associated with a significant number of malfunctions, and most patients required shunt revisions. The ETV procedure was attempted both as an initial treatment and after shunt malfunction. Overall, ETV was attempted in 18 patients and was performed successfully in all cases. At the time of follow-up evaluation, 16 patients (89%) were shunt free.


The authors found that ETV could be performed with good long-term success both as an initial treatment and after shunt failure. Overall, ETV was found to be superior to ventricular shunt placement in the management of hydrocephalus associated with tectal gliomas.