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Sean M. Barber, Sanjay Konakondla, Jonathan Nakhla, Jared S. Fridley, Jimmy Xia, Adetokunbo A. Oyelese, Albert E. Telfeian and Ziya L. Gokaslan

OBJECTIVE

While resection of the dural attachment has been shown by Simpson and others to reduce recurrence rates for intracranial meningiomas, the oncological benefit of dural resection for spinal meningiomas is less clear. The authors performed a systematic analysis of the literature, comparing recurrence rates for patients undergoing various Simpson grade resections of spinal meningiomas to better understand the role of dural resection on outcomes after resection of spinal meningiomas.

METHODS

The PubMed/Medline database was systematically searched to identify studies describing oncological and clinical outcomes after Simpson grade I, II, III, or IV resections of spinal meningiomas.

RESULTS

Thirty-two studies describing the outcomes of 896 patients were included in the analysis. Simpson grade I, grade II, and grade III/IV resections were performed in 27.5%, 64.6%, and 7.9% of cases, respectively. The risk of procedure-related complications (OR 4.75, 95% CI 1.27–17.8, p = 0.021) and new, unexpected postoperative neurological deficits (OR ∞, 95% CI NaN–∞, p = 0.009) were both significantly greater for patients undergoing Simpson grade I resections when compared with those undergoing Simpson grade II resections. Tumor recurrence was seen in 2.8%, 4.1%, and 39.4% of patients undergoing Simpson grade I, grade II, and grade III/IV resections over a mean radiographic follow-up period of 99.3 ± 46.4 months, 95.4 ± 57.1 months, and 82.4 ± 49.3 months, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the recurrence rates for Simpson grade I versus Simpson grade II resections (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.61–3.39, p = 0.43). A meta-analysis of 7 studies directly comparing recurrence rates for Simpson grade I and II resections demonstrated a trend toward a decreased likelihood of recurrence after Simpson grade I resection when compared with Simpson grade II resection, although this trend did not reach statistical significance (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.23–1.36, p = 0.20).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this analysis suggest with a low level of confidence that the rates of complications and new, unexpected neurological deficits after Simpson grade I resection of spinal meningiomas are greater than those seen with Simpson grade II resections, and that the recurrence rates for Simpson grade I and grade II resections are equivalent, although additional, long-term studies are needed before reliable conclusions may be drawn.

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Sean M. Barber, Sanjay Konakondla, Jonathan Nakhla, Jared S. Fridley, Jimmy Xia, Adetokunbo A. Oyelese, Albert E. Telfeian and Ziya L. Gokaslan

OBJECTIVE

Oncological outcomes for many malignant primary spinal tumors and isolated spinal metastases have been shown to correlate with extent of resection. For tumors with dural involvement, some authors have described spinal dural resection at the time of tumor resection in the interest of improving oncological outcomes. The complication profile associated with resection of the spinal dura for oncological purposes, however, and the relative influence of resecting tumor-involved dura on progression-free survival are not well defined. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature and identified cases in which the spinal dura was resected for oncological purposes in the interest of better understanding the associated risks and outcomes of this technique.

METHODS

Electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus) were systematically searched to identify studies that reported clinical and/or oncological outcomes of patients with malignant spinal neoplasms undergoing resection of tumor-involved dura at the time of surgical intervention.

RESULTS

Ten articles describing 15 patients were included in the analysis. The most common tumor histologies were chordoma (3/15, 20%), giant cell tumor (3/15, 20%), epithelioid sarcoma (2/15, 13.3%), osteosarcoma (2/15, 13.3%), and metastasis (2/15, 13.3%). Procedure-related complications were reported in 40% of patients. A trend was seen toward an increased complication rate in redo (66.7%) versus index (16.7%) operations, but this trend did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.24). New, unexpected postoperative neurological deficits were seen in 3 patients (of 14 reporting, 21.4%). A single patient experienced a profound, unexpected neurological deterioration (paraparesis/paraplegia) after surgery, which reportedly improved considerably at latest follow-up. Tumor recurrence was seen in 3 cases (of 12 reporting, 25%) at a mean of 28.34 ± 21.1 months postoperatively. The overall mean radiographic follow-up period was 49.6 ± 36.5 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Resection of the spinal dura for oncological purposes is rarely performed, although a limited number of reports and small series have demonstrated that it is feasible. Spinal dural resection is primarily performed in patients with isolated, primary spinal neoplasms with an intent to cure. The risk associated with spinal dura resection is nontrivial and the complication profile is significant. The influence of dural resection on oncological outcomes is not well defined, and further study is needed before definitive conclusions may be drawn regarding the oncological benefit of dural resection for any particular patient or pathology.

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Sean M. Barber, Jonathan Nakhla, Sanjay Konakondla, Jared S. Fridley, Adetokunbo A. Oyelese, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Albert E. Telfeian

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic discectomy (ED) has been advocated as a less-invasive alternative to open microdiscectomy (OM) and tubular microdiscectomy (TM) for lumbar disc herniations, with the potential to decrease postoperative pain and shorten recovery times. Large-scale, objective comparisons of outcomes between ED, OM, and TM, however, are lacking. The authors’ objective in this study was to conduct a meta-analysis comparing outcomes of ED, OM, and TM.

METHODS

The PubMed database was searched for articles published as of February 1, 2019, for comparative studies reporting outcomes of some combination of ED, OM, and TM. A meta-analysis of outcome parameters was performed assuming random effects.

RESULTS

Twenty-six studies describing the outcomes of 2577 patients were included. Estimated blood loss was significantly higher with OM than with both TM (p = 0.01) and ED (p < 0.00001). Length of stay was significantly longer with OM than with ED (p < 0.00001). Return to work time was significantly longer in OM than with ED (p = 0.001). Postoperative leg (p = 0.02) and back (p = 0.01) VAS scores, and Oswestry Disability Index scores (p = 0.006) at latest follow-up were significantly higher for OM than for ED. Serum creatine phosphokinase (p = 0.02) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.00001) levels on postoperative day 1 were significantly higher with OM than with ED.

CONCLUSIONS

Outcomes of TM and OM for lumbar disc herniations are largely equivalent. While this analysis demonstrated that several clinical variables were significantly improved in patients undergoing ED when compared with OM, the magnitude of many of these differences was small and of uncertain clinical relevance, and several of the included studies were retrospective and subject to a high risk of bias. Further high-quality prospective studies are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the comparative efficacy of the various surgical treatments for lumbar disc herniations.

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Sean M. Barber, Jonathan Nakhla, Sanjay Konakondla, Jared S. Fridley, Adetokunbo A. Oyelese, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Albert E. Telfeian

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic discectomy (ED) has been advocated as a less-invasive alternative to open microdiscectomy (OM) and tubular microdiscectomy (TM) for lumbar disc herniations, with the potential to decrease postoperative pain and shorten recovery times. Large-scale, objective comparisons of outcomes between ED, OM, and TM, however, are lacking. The authors’ objective in this study was to conduct a meta-analysis comparing outcomes of ED, OM, and TM.

METHODS

The PubMed database was searched for articles published as of February 1, 2019, for comparative studies reporting outcomes of some combination of ED, OM, and TM. A meta-analysis of outcome parameters was performed assuming random effects.

RESULTS

Twenty-six studies describing the outcomes of 2577 patients were included. Estimated blood loss was significantly higher with OM than with both TM (p = 0.01) and ED (p < 0.00001). Length of stay was significantly longer with OM than with ED (p < 0.00001). Return to work time was significantly longer in OM than with ED (p = 0.001). Postoperative leg (p = 0.02) and back (p = 0.01) VAS scores, and Oswestry Disability Index scores (p = 0.006) at latest follow-up were significantly higher for OM than for ED. Serum creatine phosphokinase (p = 0.02) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.00001) levels on postoperative day 1 were significantly higher with OM than with ED.

CONCLUSIONS

Outcomes of TM and OM for lumbar disc herniations are largely equivalent. While this analysis demonstrated that several clinical variables were significantly improved in patients undergoing ED when compared with OM, the magnitude of many of these differences was small and of uncertain clinical relevance, and several of the included studies were retrospective and subject to a high risk of bias. Further high-quality prospective studies are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the comparative efficacy of the various surgical treatments for lumbar disc herniations.

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The evolution of surgical management for vertebral column tumors

JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

Jared Fridley and Ziya L. Gokaslan

Surgery for the resection of vertebral column tumors has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past several decades. Multiple advancements in surgical techniques, spinal instrumentation, technology, radiation therapy, and medical therapy have led to improved patient survival, function, and decreased morbidity. In this review, the authors discuss major changes in each of these areas in further detail.

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Wataru Ishida, Joshua Casaos, Arun Chandra, Adam D’Sa, Seba Ramhmdani, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Nicholas Theodore, George Jallo, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Daniel M. Sciubba, Ali Bydon, Timothy F. Witham and Sheng-Fu L. Lo

OBJECTIVE

With the advent of intraoperative electrophysiological neuromonitoring (IONM), surgical outcomes of various neurosurgical pathologies, such as brain tumors and spinal deformities, have improved. However, its diagnostic and therapeutic value in resecting intradural extramedullary (ID-EM) spinal tumors has not been well documented in the literature. The objective of this study was to summarize the clinical results of IONM in patients with ID-EM spinal tumors.

METHODS

A retrospective patient database review identified 103 patients with ID-EM spinal tumors who underwent tumor resection with IONM (motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and free-running electromyography) from January 2010 to December 2015. Patients were classified as those without any new neurological deficits at the 6-month follow-up (group A; n = 86) and those with new deficits (group B; n = 17). Baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and IONM findings were collected and statistically analyzed. In addition, a meta-analysis in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines was performed to estimate the overall pooled diagnostic accuracy of IONM in ID-EM spinal tumor resection.

RESULTS

No intergroup differences were discovered between the groups regarding baseline characteristics and operative data. In multivariate analysis, significant IONM changes (p < 0.001) and tumor location (thoracic vs others, p = 0.018) were associated with new neurological deficits at the 6-month follow-up. In predicting these changes, IONM yielded a sensitivity of 82.4% (14/17), specificity of 90.7% (78/86), positive predictive value (PPV) of 63.6% (14/22), negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.3% (78/81), and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.893. The diagnostic value slightly decreased in patients with schwannomas (AUC = 0.875) and thoracic tumors (AUC = 0.842). Among 81 patients who did not demonstrate significant IONM changes at the end of surgery, 19 patients (23.5%) exhibited temporary intraoperative exacerbation of IONM signals, which were recovered by interruption of surgical maneuvers; none of these patients developed new neurological deficits postoperatively. Including the present study, 5 articles encompassing 323 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis, and the overall pooled diagnostic value of IONM was a sensitivity of 77.9%, a specificity of 91.1%, PPV of 56.7%, and NPV of 95.7%.

CONCLUSIONS

IONM for the resection of ID-EM spinal tumors is a reasonable modality to predict new postoperative neurological deficits at the 6-month follow-up. Future prospective studies are warranted to further elucidate its diagnostic and therapeutic utility.

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Nicolas Dea, Charles G. Fisher, Jeremy J. Reynolds, Joseph H. Schwab, Laurence D. Rhines, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Chetan Bettegowda, Arjun Sahgal, Áron Lazáry, Alessandro Luzzati, Stefano Boriani, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Ilya Laufer, Raphaële Charest-Morin, Feng Wei, William Teixeira, Niccole M. Germscheid, Francis J. Hornicek, Thomas F. DeLaney, John H. Shin and the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the spectrum of current treatment protocols for managing newly diagnosed chordoma of the mobile spine and sacrum.

METHODS

A survey on the treatment of spinal chordoma was distributed electronically to members of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor, including neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and radiation oncologists from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Survey participants were pre-identified clinicians from centers with expertise in the treatment of spinal tumors. The suvey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

RESULTS

Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) participants completed the survey. Most (80%) indicated that they favor en bloc resection without preoperative neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) when en bloc resection is feasible with acceptable morbidity. The main area of disagreement was with the role of postoperative RT, where 41% preferred giving RT only if positive margins were achieved and 38% preferred giving RT irrespective of margin status. When en bloc resection would result in significant morbidity, 33% preferred planned intralesional resection followed by RT, and 33% preferred giving neoadjuvant RT prior to surgery. In total, 8 treatment protocols were identified: 3 in which en bloc resection is feasible with acceptable morbidity and 5 in which en bloc resection would result in significant morbidity.

CONCLUSIONS

The results confirm that there is treatment variability across centers worldwide for managing newly diagnosed chordoma of the mobile spine and sacrum. This information will be used to design an international prospective cohort study to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy for patients with spinal chordoma.

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Hannah M. Carl, A. Karim Ahmed, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Eric W. Sankey, Zachary Pennington, Ali Bydon, Timothy F. Witham, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Justin M. Sacks, C. Rory Goodwin and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Resection of metastatic spine tumors can improve patients’ quality of life by addressing pain or neurological compromise. However, resections are often complicated by wound dehiscence, infection, instrumentation failures, and the need for reoperation. Moreover, when reoperations are needed, the most common indication is surgical site infection and wound breakdown. In turn, wound reoperations increase morbidity as well as the length and cost of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to examine perioperative risk factors associated with increased rate of wound reoperations after metastatic spine tumor resection.

METHODS

A retrospective study of patients at a single institution who underwent metastatic spine tumor resection between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. Factors with a p value < 0.200 in a univariate analysis were included in the multivariate model.

RESULTS

A total of 159 patients were included in this study. Karnofsky Performance Scale score > 70, smoking status, hypertension, thromboembolic events, hyperlipidemia, increasing number of vertebral levels, and posterior approach were included in the multivariate analysis. Thromboembolic events (95% CI 1.19–48.5, p = 0.032) and number of levels involved were independently associated with increased wound reoperation rates in the multivariate model. For each additional spinal level involved, the risk for wound reoperations increased by 21% (95% CI 1.03–1.43, p = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS

Although wound complications and subsequent reoperations are potential risks for all patients with metastatic spine tumor, due to adjuvant radiotherapy and other medical comorbidities, this study identified patients with thromboembolic events or those requiring a larger incision as being at the highest risk. Measures intended to decrease the occurrence of perioperative venous thromboembolism and to improve wound care, especially for long incisions, may decrease wound-related revision surgeries in this vulnerable group of patients.

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Adetokunbo A. Oyelese, Jared Fridley, David B. Choi, Albert Telfeian and Ziya L. Gokaslan

Upper lumbar (L1–2, L2–3) disc herniations are distinct in their diffuse presenting clinical symptomatology and have poorer outcomes with surgical intervention than those following mid and lower lumbar disc herniations and disc surgery. The authors present the cases of 3 patients with L1–2 disc herniations and significant stenosis of the spinal canal. The surgical approach used here combined the principles of transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and the extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedures with intraoperative CT-guided navigational assistance. The approach provides a safe corridor of direct visualization to the ventral thecal sac with minimal bony resection and could, in principle, reduce neurological injury and biomechanical instability, which likely contribute to poor outcomes at this level.

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Mohamed Macki, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Ashley A. Murgatroyd, Kenneth P. Mullinix, Xiaolei Sun, Bryan W. Cunningham, Brandon A. McCutcheon, Mohamad Bydon and Ziya L. Gokaslan

OBJECTIVE

Aggressive sacral tumors often require en bloc resection and lumbopelvic reconstruction. Instrumentation failure and pseudarthrosis remain a clinical concern to be addressed. The objective in this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of 3 distinct techniques for sacral reconstruction in vitro.

METHODS

In a human cadaveric model study, 8 intact human lumbopelvic specimens (L2–pelvis) were tested for flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), lateral bending, and axial rotation with a custom-designed 6-df spine simulator as well as axial compression stiffness with the MTS 858 Bionix Test System. Biomechanical testing followed this sequence: 1) intact spine; 2) sacrectomy (no testing); 3) Model 1 (L3–5 transpedicular instrumentation plus spinal rods anchored to iliac screws); 4) Model 2 (addition of transiliac rod); and 5) Model 3 (removal of transiliac rod; addition of 2 spinal rods and 2 S-2 screws). Range of motion was measured at L4–5, L5–S1/cross-link, L5–right ilium, and L5–left ilium.

RESULTS

Flexion-extension ROM of the intact specimen at L4–5 (6.34° ± 2.57°) was significantly greater than in Model 1 (1.54° ± 0.94°), Model 2 (1.51° ± 1.01°), and Model 3 (0.72° ± 0.62°) (p < 0.001). Flexion-extension at both the L5–right ilium (2.95° ± 1.27°) and the L5–left ilium (2.87° ± 1.40°) for Model 3 was significantly less than the other 3 cohorts at the same level (p = 0.005 and p = 0.012, respectively). Compared with the intact condition, all 3 reconstruction groups statistically significantly decreased lateral bending ROM at all measured points. Axial rotation ROM at L4–5 for Model 1 (2.01° ± 1.39°), Model 2 (2.00° ± 1.52°), and Model 3 (1.15° ± 0.80°) was significantly lower than the intact condition (5.02° ± 2.90°) (p < 0.001). Moreover, axial rotation for the intact condition and Model 3 at L5–right ilium (2.64° ± 1.36° and 2.93° ± 1.68°, respectively) and L5–left ilium (2.58° ± 1.43° and 2.93° ± 1.71°, respectively) was significantly lower than for Model 1 and Model 2 at L5–right ilium (5.14° ± 2.48° and 4.95° ± 2.45°, respectively) (p = 0.036) and L5–left ilium (5.19° ± 2.34° and 4.99° ± 2.31°) (p = 0.022). Last, results of the axial compression testing at all measured points were not statistically different among reconstructions.

CONCLUSIONS

The addition of a transverse bar in Model 2 offered no biomechanical advantage. Although the implementation of 4 iliac screws and 4 rods conferred a definitive kinematic advantage in Model 3, that model was associated with significantly restricted lumbopelvic ROM.