Paul T. Boulos, Neal F. Kassell, Nasser Razack, Charles A. Sansur, Mary E. Jensen and Aaron S. Dumont
Invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2004
John A. Jane Sr., Jonathan H. Sherman, Paul T. Boulos, Craig Luce and Aaron S. Dumont
✓ Although its management continues to evolve, lumbar stenosis remains a common societal problem. The present article is based on an invited lecture at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons/American Association of Neurological Surgeons Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. In it the authors provide a historical overview of lumbar stenosis and describe how the senior author's treatment of this condition has evolved over the past four decades. Within each era of treatment, the reasons for modification of treatment methods and relevant outcome measures are outlined. Additionally, specific subsets of patients with lumbar stenosis are also discussed to emphasize unique characteristics that affect treatment strategies. The authors' present technique for management of lumbar stenosis is also illustrated.
Aaron S. Dumont, Paul T. Boulos, John A. Jane Jr., Dilantha B. Ellegala, Steven A. Newman and John A. Jane Sr.
Fibrous dysplasia is a benign but slowly progressive disorder of bone in which normal cancellous bone is replaced by immature woven bone and fibrous tissue. Significant deformity and both acute and chronic visual impairment can result. A contemporary understanding of fibrous dysplasia, emphasizing the origins of visual impairment, indications for decompressive surgery, and the techniques for correction of the cosmetic deformity are presented.
In their experience and review of the literature, the authors found the most frequent clinical presentations to be exophthalmos, displacement of the globe, abnormalities of extraocular motility, cosmetic deformity, and visual impairment. Although traditionally the cause of visual impairment has been ascribed to impingement of the optic canal on the optic nerve, the authors' experience is that the most common cause of visual loss is cystic degeneration of the tumor, particularly with those involving the anterior clinoid process. Exophthalmos and optic canal stenosis are less common causes of visual impairment. Indications for surgical intervention include acute and/or serially radiographically documented and relentless visual impairment and significant cosmetic deformity. Individualized management strategies are also discussed.
Paul T. Boulos, Aaron S. Dumont, James W. Mandell and John A. Jane Sr.
Meningiomas are the most frequently occurring benign intracranial neoplasms. Compared with other intracranial neoplasms they grow slowly, and they are potentially amenable to a complete surgical cure. They cause neurological compromise by direct compression of adjacent neural structures. Orbital meningiomas are interesting because of their location. They can compress the optic nerve, the intraorbital contents, the contents of the superior orbital fissure, the cavernous sinus, and frontal and temporal lobes. Because of its proximity to eloquent neurological structures, this lesion often poses a formidable operative challenge. Recent advances in techniques such as preoperative embolization and new modifications to surgical approaches allow surgeons to achieve their surgery-related goals and ultimately optimum patient outcome. Preoperative embolization may be effective in reducing intraoperative blood loss and in improving intraoperative visualization of the tumor by reducing the amount of blood obscuring the field and allowing unhurried microdissection. Advances in surgical techniques allow the surgeon to gain unfettered exposure of the tumor while minimizing the manipulation of neural structures. Recent advances in technology—namely, frameless computer-assisted image guidance—assist the surgeon in the safe resection of these tumors. Image guidance is particularly useful when resecting the osseous portion of the tumor because the tissue does not shift with respect to the calibration frame. The authors discuss their experience and review the contemporary literature concerning meningiomas of the orbit and the care of patients harboring such lesions.