Mahdi Malekpour, Charles Kulwin, Bradley N. Bohnstedt, Golnar Radmand, Rishabh Sethia, Stephen K. Mendenhall, Jonathan Weyhenmeyer, Benjamin K. Hendricks, Thomas Leipzig, Troy D. Payner, Mitesh V. Shah, John Scott, Andrew DeNardo, Daniel Sahlein and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol
Aneurysmal rebleeding before definitive obliteration of the aneurysm is a cause of mortality and morbidity. There are limited data on the role of short-term antifibrinolytic therapy among patients undergoing endovascular intervention.
All consecutive patients receiving endovascular therapy for their ruptured saccular aneurysm at the authors' institution between 2000 and 2011 were included in this study. These patients underwent endovascular coiling of their aneurysm within 72 hours of admission. In patients receiving ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the EACA administration was continued until the time of the endovascular procedure. Complications and clinical outcomes of endovascular treatment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were compared between EACA-treated and untreated patients.
During the 12-year study period, 341 patients underwent endovascular coiling. Short-term EACA treatment was administered in 146 patients and was withheld in the other 195 patients. EACA treatment did not change the risk of preinterventional rebleeding in this study (OR 0.782, 95% CI 0.176–3.480; p = 0.747). Moreover, EACA treatment did not increase the rate of thromboembolic events. On the other hand, patients who received EACA treatment had a significantly longer duration of hospital stay compared with their counterparts who were not treated with EACA (median 19 days, interquartile range [IQR] 12.5–30 days vs median 14 days, IQR 10–23 days; p < 0.001). EACA treatment was associated with increased odds of shunt requirement (OR 2.047, 95% CI 1.043–4.018; p = 0.037) and decreased odds of developing cardiac complications (OR 0.138, 95% CI 0.031–0.604; p = 0.009) and respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.471, 95% CI 0.239–0.926; p = 0.029). Short-term EACA treatment did not affect the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge, 6 months, or 1 year following discharge.
In this study, short-term EACA treatment in patients who suffered from aSAH and received endovascular aneurysm repair did not decrease the risk of preinterventional rebleeding or increase the risk of thrombotic events. EACA did not affect outcome. Randomized clinical trials are required to provide robust clinical recommendation on short-term use of EACA.
Mason A. Brown, Jonathan Parish, Cristian F. Guandique, Troy D. Payner, Terry Horner, Thomas Leipzig, Karishma V. Rupani, Richard Kim, Bradley N. Bohnstedt and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol
With the recent evolution of endovascular therapies, objective evaluation of the efficacy of clip ligation for cerebral aneurysms should be performed. This study was undertaken to evaluate the durability of microsurgical clip ligation, identify risk factors for recurrence, and assess the need for long-term follow-up imaging.
A retrospective review of medical records identified 616 consecutive patients (156 male and 460 female patients; mean age 48.4 ± 12.4 years; range 6–90 years) who underwent microsurgical clip ligation and follow-up imaging at least 1 year after discharge between 1990 and 2010 at our institution. Of a total of 926 aneurysms in 616 patients, 758 aneurysms were microsurgically clip-ligated. At presentation, 431 of these aneurysms were ruptured and 327 aneurysms were unruptured. All patients underwent postoperative baseline imaging within the 1st month of their operation. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify which variables are more likely to predict recurrence.
Late follow-up angiographic imaging was obtained at a mean of 7.2 ± 4.7 years postdischarge (median 5.7 years; range 1–23 years). Of the 699 clipped aneurysms without residua, late follow-up angiography revealed only 1 (0.14%) recurrent aneurysm. Of the 59 residual aneurysms that remained after initial clip ligation on early postoperative imaging, 8 (13.6%) demonstrated growth. All of these aneurysms required treatment. None of the recurrences were due to broken or delayed displacement of clips. A total of 111 patients presented with multiple aneurysms. De novo aneurysm formation occurred in 8 (0.97%) patients, all of whom initially presented with multiple aneurysms.
This study provides additional evidence to support the long-term efficacy of aneurysm clip ligation. The chance of aneurysm recurrence after complete clip ligation is very small. However, there is a regrowth risk of 1.83% per year for aneurysm remnants after incomplete clip ligation. These findings support the necessity for continued followup, late angiographic imaging, and the potential need for further intervention of incompletely ligated aneurysms. Furthermore, completely clip-ligated aneurysms may not require additional surveillance imaging unless multiple aneurysms were evident at presentation.
Jonathan Weyhenmeyer, Cristian F. Guandique, Adam Leibold, Stephen Lehnert, Jonathan Parish, Woody Han, Chad Tuchek, Janit Pandya, Thomas Leipzig, Troy Payner, Andrew DeNardo, John Scott and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol
Most patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) initially present to a hospital that lacks a neurosurgical unit. These patients require interhospital transfer (IHT) to tertiary facilities capable of multidisciplinary neurosurgical intervention. Yet, little is known about the effects of IHT on the outcomes of patients suffering from aSAH. In this study, the authors examined the effects of IHT and transport method on the timing of treatment, rebleed rates, and overall outcomes of patients who have experienced aSAH.
A retrospective review of medical records identified all consecutive patients who presented with aSAH at an outside hospital and subsequently underwent IHT to a tertiary aneurysm care center and patients who initially presented directly to a tertiary aneurysm care facility between 2008 and 2015. Demographic, operative, radiological, hospital of initial evaluation, transfer method, and outcome data were retrospectively collected.
The authors identified 763 consecutive patients who were evaluated for aSAH at a tertiary aneurysm care facility either directly or following IHT. For patients who underwent IHT and after accounting for these patients' clinical variability and dichotomizing the patients into groups transferred less than 20 miles and more than 20 miles, the authors noted a significant increase in mortality rates: 7% (< 20 miles) and 18.8% (> 20 miles) (p = 0.004). The increased mortality rate was partially explained by an increased rate of initial presentation to an accredited stroke center in patients undergoing IHT of less than 20 miles (p = 0.000). The method of transport (ground or air ambulance) was found to have significant effect on the patients' outcomes as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale score (p = 0.021); patients who underwent ground transport demonstrated a higher likelihood of discharge to home (p = 0.004). The increased severity of presentation in the patient cohort undergoing IHT by air as defined by the Glasgow Coma Scale score, a need for an external ventricular drain, Hunt and Hess grade, and intubation status at presentation did not result in increased mortality when compared with the ground cohort (p = 0.074). In addition, there was an 8-hour increase in duration of time from admission to treatment for the air cohort as compared with the ground cohort (p = 0.054), indicating a potential for further improvement in the overall outcome of this patient group.
Aneurysmal SAH remains a challenging neurosurgical disease process requiring highly coordinated care in tertiary referral centers. In this study, the overall distance traveled and the transport method affected patient outcomes. The time from admission to treatment should continue to improve. Further analysis of IHT with a focus on patient monitoring and treatment during transport is warranted.