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Wataru Ishida, Joshua Casaos, Arun Chandra, Adam D’Sa, Seba Ramhmdani, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Nicholas Theodore, George Jallo, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Daniel M. Sciubba, Ali Bydon, Timothy F. Witham and Sheng-Fu L. Lo

OBJECTIVE

With the advent of intraoperative electrophysiological neuromonitoring (IONM), surgical outcomes of various neurosurgical pathologies, such as brain tumors and spinal deformities, have improved. However, its diagnostic and therapeutic value in resecting intradural extramedullary (ID-EM) spinal tumors has not been well documented in the literature. The objective of this study was to summarize the clinical results of IONM in patients with ID-EM spinal tumors.

METHODS

A retrospective patient database review identified 103 patients with ID-EM spinal tumors who underwent tumor resection with IONM (motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and free-running electromyography) from January 2010 to December 2015. Patients were classified as those without any new neurological deficits at the 6-month follow-up (group A; n = 86) and those with new deficits (group B; n = 17). Baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and IONM findings were collected and statistically analyzed. In addition, a meta-analysis in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines was performed to estimate the overall pooled diagnostic accuracy of IONM in ID-EM spinal tumor resection.

RESULTS

No intergroup differences were discovered between the groups regarding baseline characteristics and operative data. In multivariate analysis, significant IONM changes (p < 0.001) and tumor location (thoracic vs others, p = 0.018) were associated with new neurological deficits at the 6-month follow-up. In predicting these changes, IONM yielded a sensitivity of 82.4% (14/17), specificity of 90.7% (78/86), positive predictive value (PPV) of 63.6% (14/22), negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.3% (78/81), and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.893. The diagnostic value slightly decreased in patients with schwannomas (AUC = 0.875) and thoracic tumors (AUC = 0.842). Among 81 patients who did not demonstrate significant IONM changes at the end of surgery, 19 patients (23.5%) exhibited temporary intraoperative exacerbation of IONM signals, which were recovered by interruption of surgical maneuvers; none of these patients developed new neurological deficits postoperatively. Including the present study, 5 articles encompassing 323 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis, and the overall pooled diagnostic value of IONM was a sensitivity of 77.9%, a specificity of 91.1%, PPV of 56.7%, and NPV of 95.7%.

CONCLUSIONS

IONM for the resection of ID-EM spinal tumors is a reasonable modality to predict new postoperative neurological deficits at the 6-month follow-up. Future prospective studies are warranted to further elucidate its diagnostic and therapeutic utility.

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Seba Ramhmdani, Marc Comair, Camilo A. Molina, Daniel M. Sciubba and Ali Bydon

Interspinous process devices (IPDs) have been developed as less-invasive alternatives to spinal fusion with the goal of decompressing the spinal canal and preserving segmental motion. IPD implantation is proposed to treat symptoms of lumbar spinal stenosis that improve during flexion. Recent indications of IPD include lumbar facet joint syndrome, which is seen in patients with mainly low-back pain. Long-term outcomes in this subset of patients are largely unknown. The authors present a previously unreported complication of coflex (IPD) placement: the development of a large compressive lumbar synovial cyst. A 64-year-old woman underwent IPD implantation (coflex) at L4–5 at an outside hospital for low-back pain that occasionally radiates to the right leg. Postoperatively, her back and right leg pain persisted and worsened. MRI was repeated and showed a new, large synovial cyst at the previously treated level, severely compressing the patient’s cauda equina. Four months later, she underwent removal of the interspinous process implant, bilateral laminectomy, facetectomy, synovial cyst resection, interbody fusion, and stabilization. At the 3-month follow-up, she reported significant back pain improvement with some residual leg pain. This case suggests that facet arthrosis may not be an appropriate indication for placement of coflex.

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Corinna C. Zygourakis, A. Karim Ahmed, Samuel Kalb, Alex M. Zhu, Ali Bydon, Neil R. Crawford and Nicholas Theodore

The Excelsius GPS (Globus Medical, Inc.) was approved by the FDA in 2017. This novel robot allows for real-time intraoperative imaging, registration, and direct screw insertion through a rigid external arm—without the need for interspinous clamps or K-wires. The authors present one of the first operative cases utilizing the Excelsius GPS robotic system in spinal surgery. A 75-year-old man presented with severe lower back pain and left leg radiculopathy. He had previously undergone 3 decompressive surgeries from L3 to L5, with evidence of instability and loss of sagittal balance. Robotic assistance was utilized to perform a revision decompression with instrumented fusion from L3 to S1. The usage of robotic assistance in spinal surgery may be an invaluable resource in minimally invasive cases, minimizing the need for fluoroscopy, or in those with abnormal anatomical landmarks.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/yVI-sJWf9Iw.

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Hannah M. Carl, A. Karim Ahmed, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Eric W. Sankey, Zachary Pennington, Ali Bydon, Timothy F. Witham, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Justin M. Sacks, C. Rory Goodwin and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Resection of metastatic spine tumors can improve patients’ quality of life by addressing pain or neurological compromise. However, resections are often complicated by wound dehiscence, infection, instrumentation failures, and the need for reoperation. Moreover, when reoperations are needed, the most common indication is surgical site infection and wound breakdown. In turn, wound reoperations increase morbidity as well as the length and cost of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to examine perioperative risk factors associated with increased rate of wound reoperations after metastatic spine tumor resection.

METHODS

A retrospective study of patients at a single institution who underwent metastatic spine tumor resection between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. Factors with a p value < 0.200 in a univariate analysis were included in the multivariate model.

RESULTS

A total of 159 patients were included in this study. Karnofsky Performance Scale score > 70, smoking status, hypertension, thromboembolic events, hyperlipidemia, increasing number of vertebral levels, and posterior approach were included in the multivariate analysis. Thromboembolic events (95% CI 1.19–48.5, p = 0.032) and number of levels involved were independently associated with increased wound reoperation rates in the multivariate model. For each additional spinal level involved, the risk for wound reoperations increased by 21% (95% CI 1.03–1.43, p = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS

Although wound complications and subsequent reoperations are potential risks for all patients with metastatic spine tumor, due to adjuvant radiotherapy and other medical comorbidities, this study identified patients with thromboembolic events or those requiring a larger incision as being at the highest risk. Measures intended to decrease the occurrence of perioperative venous thromboembolism and to improve wound care, especially for long incisions, may decrease wound-related revision surgeries in this vulnerable group of patients.

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Seba Ramhmdani and Ali Bydon

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Rafael De la Garza Ramos, C. Rory Goodwin, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Ali Bydon, Timothy F. Witham, Jean-Paul Wolinsky and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of spinal tuberculosis (TB) in the US between 2002 and 2011.

METHODS

The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2002 to 2011 was used to identify patients with a discharge diagnosis of TB and spinal TB. Demographic and hospital data were obtained for all admissions, and included age, sex, race, comorbid conditions, insurance status, hospital location, hospital teaching status, and hospital region. The incidence rate of spinal TB adjusted for population growth was calculated after application of discharge weights.

RESULTS

A total of 75,858 patients with a diagnosis of TB were identified, of whom 2789 had a diagnosis of spinal TB (3.7%); this represents an average of 278.9 cases per year between 2002 and 2011. The incidence of spinal TB decreased significantly—from 0.07 cases per 100,000 persons in 2002 to 0.05 cases per 100,000 in 2011 (p < 0.001), corresponding to 1 case per 2 million persons in the latter year. The median age for patients with spinal TB was 51 years, and 61% were male; 11.6% were patients with diabetes, 11.4% reported recent weight loss, and 8.1% presented with paralysis. There were 619 patients who underwent spinal surgery for TB, with the most common location being the thoracolumbar spine (61.9% of cases); 50% of patients had instrumentation of 3 or more spinal segments.

CONCLUSIONS

During the examined 10-year period, the incidence of spinal TB was found to significantly decrease over time in the US, reaching a rate of 1 case per 2 million persons in 2011. However, the absolute reduction was relatively small, suggesting that although it is uncommon, spinal TB remains a public health concern and most commonly affects male patients approximately 50 years of age. Approximately 20% of patients with spinal TB underwent surgery, most commonly in the thoracolumbar spine.

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Benjamin D. Elder, Wataru Ishida, C. Rory Goodwin, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky and Timothy F. Witham

OBJECTIVE

With the advent of new adjunctive therapy, the overall survival of patients harboring spinal column tumors has improved. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the optimal bone graft options following resection of spinal column tumors, due to their relative rarity and because fusion outcomes in this cohort are affected by various factors, such as radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Furthermore, bone graft options are often limited following tumor resection because the use of local bone grafts and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are usually avoided in light of microscopic infiltration of tumors into local bone and potential carcinogenicity of BMP. The objective of this study was to review and meta-analyze the relevant clinical literature to provide further clinical insight regarding bone graft options.

METHODS

A web-based MEDLINE search was conducted in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, which yielded 27 articles with 383 patients. Information on baseline characteristics, tumor histology, adjunctive treatments, reconstruction methods, bone graft options, fusion rates, and time to fusion were collected. Pooled fusion rates (PFRs) and I2 values were calculated in meta-analysis. Meta-regression analyses were also performed if each variable appeared to affect fusion outcomes. Furthermore, data on 272 individual patients were available, which were additionally reviewed and statistically analyzed.

RESULTS

Overall, fusion rates varied widely from 36.0% to 100.0% due to both inter- and intrastudy heterogeneity, with a PFR of 85.7% (I2 = 36.4). The studies in which cages were filled with morselized iliac crest autogenic bone graft (ICABG) and/or other bone graft options were used for anterior fusion showed a significantly higher PFR of 92.8, compared with the other studies (83.3%, p = 0.04). In per-patient analysis, anterior plus posterior fusion resulted in a higher fusion rate than anterior fusion only (98.8% vs 86.4%, p < 0.001). Although unmodifiable, RT (90.3% vs 98.6%, p = 0.03) and lumbosacral tumors (74.6% vs 97.9%, p < 0.001) were associated with lower fusion rates in univariate analysis. The mean time to fusion was 5.4 ± 1.4 months (range 3–9 months), whereas 16 of 272 patients died before the confirmation of solid fusion with a mean survival of 3.1 ± 2.1 months (range 0.5–6 months). The average time to fusion of patients who received RT and chemotherapy were significantly longer than those who did not receive these adjunctive treatments (RT: 6.1 months vs 4.3 months, p < 0.001; chemotherapy: 6.0 months vs 4.3 months, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Due to inter- and intrastudy heterogeneity in patient, disease, fusion criteria, and treatment characteristics, the optimal surgical techniques and factors predictive of fusion remain unclear. Clearly, future prospective, randomized studies will be necessary to better understand the issues surrounding bone graft selection following resection of spinal column tumors.

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Daniel M. Sciubba, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, C. Rory Goodwin, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Ali Bydon, Timothy F. Witham, Chetan Bettegowda, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Jean-Paul Wolinsky

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate the local recurrence rate and long-term survival after resection of spinal sarcomas.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients who underwent resection of primary or metastatic spinal sarcomas between 1997 and 2015 was performed. Tumors were classified according to the Enneking classification, and resection was categorized as Enneking appropriate (EA) if the specimen margins matched the Enneking recommendation, and as Enneking inappropriate (EI) if they did not match the recommendation. The primary outcome measure for all tumors was overall survival; local recurrence was also an outcome measure for primary sarcomas. The association between clinical, surgical, and molecular (tumor biomarker) factors and outcomes was also investigated.

RESULTS

A total of 60 patients with spinal sarcoma were included in this study (28 men and 32 women; median age 38 years). There were 52 primary (86.7%) and 8 metastatic sarcomas (13.3%). Thirty-nine tumors (65.0%) were classified as high-grade, and resection was considered EA in 61.7% of all cases (n = 37). The local recurrence rate was 10 of 52 (19.2%) for primary sarcomas; 36.8% for EI resection and 9.1% for EA resection (p = 0.010). Twenty-eight patients (46.7%) died during the follow-up period, and median survival was 26 months. Overall median survival was longer for patients with EA resection (undefined) compared with EI resection (13 months, p < 0.001). After multivariate analysis, EA resection significantly decreased the hazard of local recurrence (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.06–0.93; p = 0.039). Age 40 years or older (HR 4.23, 95% CI 1.73–10.31; p = 0.002), previous radiation (HR 3.44, 95% CI 1.37–8.63; p = 0.008), and high-grade sarcomas (HR 3.17, 95% CI 1.09–9.23; p = 0.034) were associated with a significantly increased hazard of death, whereas EA resection was associated with a significantly decreased hazard of death (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.09–0.52; p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The findings in the present study suggest that EA resection may be the strongest independent prognostic factor for improved survival in patients with spinal sarcoma. Additionally, patients who underwent EA resection had lower local recurrence rates. Patients 40 years or older, those with a history of previous radiation, and those with high-grade tumors had an increased hazard of mortality in this study.