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  • By Author: Brown, Robert D. x
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Robert D. Ecker, Robert D. Brown Jr, Douglas A. Nichols, Robyn L. McClelland, Megan S. Reinalda, David G. Piepgras, Harry J. Cloft and David F. Kallmes

Object. Definitive data characterizing the safety and efficacy of carotid angioplasty with stent placement (CAS) for symptomatic, occlusive carotid artery (CA) disease require further refinements and standardization of techniques as well as large prospective studies on a par with the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). Despite the absence of such data, many surgeons have performed angioplasty and stent placement in patients with clinical or anatomical features known to add significant perioperative risk and capable of disqualifying the patients from participation in NASCET. There exists no cost analysis comparing high-risk endarterectomy with percutaneous angioplasty and stent insertion.

Methods. Forty-five patients (29 men and 16 women) with high-risk, symptomatic CA stenosis have been treated with CAS at the authors' institution since 1996. Indications for this procedure included symptomatic recurrent stenosis following CA endarterectomy (CEA), active coronary disease, high CA bifurcation, and severe medical comorbidities. A long-standing CEA computer database was screened for control patients with similar risk factors; 391 patients (276 men and 115 women) were identified. Actual cost data, duration of hospital stay, and relevant clinical data from the time of treatment until hospital discharge were collected in each patient. The median total cost of CAS was $10,628, whereas that for CEA was $10,148 (p = 0.495).

Conclusions. In patients with high-risk, NASCET-ineligible CA stenosis there was no overall statistically significant cost difference between CEA and CAS. Given that there may not be a cost advantage for either procedure, procedural risk, efficacy, and durability should be key factors in determining the optimal treatment strategy.

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Editorial

Unruptured aneurysms

David O. Wiebers, David G. Piepgras, Robert D. Brown Jr., Irene Meissner, James Torner, Neal F. Kassell, Jack P. Whisnant, John Huston III and Douglas A. Nichols

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Douglas A. Nichols, Robert D. Brown Jr., Kent R. Thielen, Fredric B. Meyer, John L. D. Atkinson and David G. Piepgras

✓ The authors report their experience using electrolytically detachable coils for the treatment of ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms. Twenty-six patients with 28 posterior circulation aneurysms were treated. All patients were referred for endovascular treatment by experienced vascular neurosurgeons. Patients underwent follow-up angiography immediately after treatment, 1 to 6 weeks posttreatment, and 6 months posttreatment. Six-month follow-up angiograms obtained in 19 patients with 20 aneurysms demonstrated that 18 (90%) of the 20 aneurysms were 99 to 100% occluded, one aneurysm (5%) was approximately 90% occluded, and one aneurysm (5%) was approximately 75% occluded. The patient with the aneurysm that was approximately 75% occluded needed additional treatment, consisting of parent artery balloon occlusion, and was considered a treatment failure (3.8% of patients). There was one treatment-associated mortality (3.8%) but no treatment-associated serious neurological or nonneurological morbidity in the patient group. There was no recurrent aneurysm rupture during treatment or during the mean 27-month follow-up period.

Endovascular treatment of ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms with electrolytically detachable coils can be accomplished with low morbidity and mortality rates. The primary goal of treatment—preventing recurrent aneurysm—can be achieved over the short term.

Endovascular coil occlusion will play an important role in the treatment of ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms, particularly if long-term efficacy in preventing recurrent aneurysm hemorrhage can be documented.

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Robert D. Brown Jr., David O. Wiebers and Douglas A. Nichols

✓ This long-term follow-up study of 54 patients clarifies the angiographic predictors of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and clinical outcome in individuals with unoperated intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (AVF's). All of these patients were examined at the Mayo Clinic between 1976 and 1989, and all available cerebral arteriograms were reviewed by a neuroradiologist. Follow-up information was obtained for 52 patients (96%) until death or treatment intervention, or for at least 1 year after diagnosis, with a mean follow-up period of 6.6 years.

Throughout this 6.6-year follow-up period, ICH related to dural AVF occurred in five of the 52 patients, for a crude risk of hemorrhage of 1.6% per year. The risk of hemorrhage at the time of mean follow-up examination was 1.8% per year. Angiographic examination revealed several characteristics that were considered potential predictors of ICH during the follow-up period. Lesions of the petrosal sinus and straight sinus had a higher propensity to bleed, although the small numbers in the series precluded a definite conclusion. A person suffering from a dural AVF with a venous varix on a draining vein had an increased risk of hemorrhage, whereas no hemorrhage was seen in the 20 patients without a varix (p < 0.05). Lesions draining into leptomeningeal veins had an increased occurrence of hemorrhage, although this increased risk was not statistically significant. Patients' initial symptoms were compared to those at follow-up evaluation. Pulsatile tinnitus improved in more than half of the 52 patients, and resolved in 75% of those showing some improvement. Individuals without a sinus or venous outflow occlusion at initial cerebral angiography were more likely to improve or remain stable (89%), whereas patients with an occlusion showed infrequent improvement (11%; p < 0.05).