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  • By Author: Berger, Mitchel S. x
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Maria Luisa Mandelli, Mitchel S. Berger, Monica Bucci, Jeffrey I. Berman, Bagrat Amirbekian and Roland G. Henry

Object

The aim of this paper was to validate the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model for delineation of the corticospinal tract using cortical and subcortical white matter electrical stimulation for the location of functional motor pathways.

Methods

The authors compare probabilistic versus deterministic DTI fiber tracking by reconstructing the pyramidal fiber tracts on preoperatively acquired DTI in patients with brain tumors. They determined the accuracy and precision of these 2 methods using subcortical stimulation points and the sensitivity using cortical stimulation points. The authors further explored the reliability of these methods by estimation of the potential that the found connections were due to a random chance using a novel neighborhood permutation method.

Results

The probabilistic tracking method delineated tracts that were significantly closer to the stimulation points and was more sensitive than deterministic DTI fiber tracking to define the tracts directed to the motor sites. However, both techniques demonstrated poor sensitivity to finding lateral motor regions.

Conclusions

This study highlights the importance of the validation and quantification of preoperative fiber tracking with the aid of electrophysiological data during the surgery. The poor sensitivity of DTI to delineate lateral motor pathways reported herein suggests that DTI fiber tracking must be used with caution and only as adjunctive data to established methods for motor mapping.

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Jeffrey I. Berman, Mitchel S. Berger, Sungwon Chung, Srikantan S. Nagarajan and Roland G. Henry

Object

Resecting brain tumors involves the risk of damaging the descending motor pathway. Diffusion tensor (DT)–imaged fiber tracking is a noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) technique that can delineate the subcortical course of the motor pathway. The goal of this study was to use intraoperative subcortical stimulation mapping of the motor tract and magnetic source imaging to validate the utility of DT-imaged fiber tracking as a tool for presurgical planning.

Methods

Diffusion tensor-imaged fiber tracks of the motor tract were generated preoperatively in nine patients with gliomas. A mask of the resultant fiber tracks was overlaid on high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted anatomical MR images and used for stereotactic surgical navigation. Magnetic source imaging was performed in seven of the patients to identify functional somatosensory cortices. During resection, subcortical stimulation mapping of the motor pathway was performed within the white matter using a bipolar electrode.

Results

A total of 16 subcortical motor stimulations were stereotactically identified in nine patients. The mean distance between the stimulation sites and the DT-imaged fiber tracks was 8.7 ±3.1 mm (±standard deviation). The measured distance between subcortical stimulation sites and DT-imaged fiber tracks combines tracking technique errors and all errors encountered with stereotactic navigation.

Conclusions

Fiber tracks delineated using DT imaging can be used to identify the motor tract in deep white matter and define a safety margin around the tract.

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Jeffrey I. Berman, Mitchel S. Berger, Pratik Mukherjee and Roland G. Henry

Object. The goal of this study was to use diffusion-tensor (DT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to track fibers combined with cortical stimulation mapping to delineate descending motor pathways. Subcortical localization of motor pathways in relation to a glioma may provide critical information to guide tumor resection and prevent surgical morbidity.

Methods. Eleven adult patients harboring gliomas underwent MR imaging 1 day prior to image-guided intraoperative cortical motor mapping and tumor resection. Screens depicting 27 cortical motor sites on a surgical navigation system were saved to launch DT imaging of fiber tracks of descending motor pathways. The position and organization of motor tracts were visualized by fiber tracking. Tracks from 16 motor stimulation sites followed descending pathways from the precentral gyrus, through the corona radiata and internal capsule, and into the cerebral peduncle. These tracks were also observed on DT images to diverge along crossing white matter bundles (four patients) and to terminate or deviate in regions of peritumoral vasogenic edema (five patients).

Conclusions. The use of precise intraoperative cortical mapping information and DT images of fiber tracks can reveal the course of motor pathways beneath the cortex. The subcortical fiber tracks generated are consistent with the known anatomical course and somatotopic organization of the motor tract in relation to its cortical origins. Tracking fibers by using DT imaging in combination with functional localization has the potential to reduce surgical morbidity by revealing subcortical connections of the functional cortex.