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Peyton L. Nisson, Ibrahim Hussain, Roger Härtl, Samuel Kim and Ali A. Baaj

OBJECTIVE

An arachnoid web of the spine (AWS) is a rare and oftentimes challenging lesion to diagnose, given its subtle radiographic findings. However, when left untreated, this lesion can have devastating effects on a patient’s neurological function. To date, only limited case reports and series have been published on this topic. In this study, the authors sought to better describe this lesion, performing a systematic literature review and including 2 cases from their institution’s experience.

METHODS

A systematic literature search was performed in September 2018 that queried Ovid MEDLINE (1946–2018), PubMed (1946–2018), Wiley Cochrane Library: Central Register of Controlled Trials (1898–2018), and Thompson Reuters Web of Science: Citation Index (1900–2018), per PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria specified all studies and case reports of patients with an AWS in which any relevant surgery types were considered and applied. Studies on arachnoid cysts and nonhuman populations, and those that did not report patient treatments or outcomes were excluded from the focus review.

RESULTS

A total of 19 records and 2 patients treated by the senior authors were included in the systematic review, providing a total of 43 patients with AWS. The mean age was 52 years (range 28–77 years), and the majority of patients were male (72%, 31/43). A syrinx was present in 67% (29/43) of the cases. All AWSs were located in the thoracic spine, and all but 2 (95%) were located dorsally (1 ventrally and 1 circumferentially). Weakness was the most frequently reported symptom (67%, 29/43), followed by numbness and/or sensory loss (65%, 28/43). Symptoms predominated in the lower extremities (81%, 35/43). It was found that nearly half (47%, 20/43) of patients had been experiencing symptoms for 1 year or longer before surgical intervention was performed, and 35% (15/43) of reports stated that symptoms were progressive in nature. The most commonly used surgical technique was a laminectomy with intradural excision of the arachnoid web (86%, 36/42). Following surgery, 91% (39/43) of patients had reported improvement in their neurological symptoms. The mean follow-up was 9.2 months (range 0–51 months).

CONCLUSIONS

AWS of the spine can be a debilitating disease of the spine with no more than an indentation of the spinal cord found on advanced imaging studies. The authors found this lesion to be reported in twice as many males than females, to be associated with a syrinx more than two-thirds of the time, and to only have been reported in the thoracic spine; over 90% of patients experienced improvement in their neurological function following surgery.

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Michael D. Staudt, Doron Rabin, Ali A. Baaj, Neil R. Crawford and Neil Duggal

OBJECTIVE

There are limited data regarding the implications of revision posterior surgery in the setting of previous cervical arthroplasty (CA). The purpose of this study was to analyze segmental biomechanics in human cadaveric specimens with and without CA, in the context of graded posterior resection.

METHODS

Fourteen human cadaveric cervical spines (C3–T1 or C2–7) were divided into arthroplasty (ProDisc-C, n = 7) and control (intact disc, n = 7) groups. Both groups underwent sequential posterior element resections: unilateral foraminotomy, laminoplasty, and finally laminectomy. Specimens were studied sequentially in two different loading apparatuses during the induction of flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation.

RESULTS

Range of motion (ROM) after artificial disc insertion was reduced relative to that in the control group during axial rotation and lateral bending (13% and 28%, respectively; p < 0.05) but was similar during flexion and extension. With sequential resections, ROM increased by a similar magnitude following foraminotomy and laminoplasty in both groups. Laminectomy had a much greater effect: mean (aggregate) ROM during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was increased by a magnitude of 52% following laminectomy in the setting of CA, compared to an 8% increase without arthroplasty. In particular, laminectomy in the setting of CA introduced significant instability in flexion-extension, characterized by a 90% increase in ROM from laminoplasty to laminectomy, compared to a 16% increase in ROM from laminoplasty to laminectomy without arthroplasty (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Foraminotomy and laminoplasty did not result in significant instability in the setting of CA, compared to controls. Laminectomy alone, however, resulted in a significant change in biomechanics, allowing for significantly increased flexion and extension. Laminectomy alone should be used with caution in the setting of previous CA.

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Ajit Jada, Charles E. Mackel, Steven W. Hwang, Amer F. Samdani, James H. Stephen, James T. Bennett and Ali A. Baaj

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a 3D spinal deformity affecting children between the ages of 11 and 18, without an identifiable etiology. The authors here reviewed the available literature to provide spine surgeons with a summary and update on current management options.

Smaller thoracic and thoracolumbar curves can be managed conservatively with observation or bracing, but corrective surgery may be indicated for rapidly growing or larger curves. The authors summarize the atypical features to look for in patients who may warrant further investigation with MRI during diagnosis and review the fundamental principles of the surgical management of AIS.

Patients with AIS can be managed very well with a combination of conservative and surgical options. Outcomes for these children are excellent with sustained longer-term results.

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Ali A. Baaj, Douglas Brockmeyer, Andrew Jea and Amer F. Samdani

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Mauricio J. Avila, Jesse Skoch, Vernard S. Fennell, Sheri K. Palejwala, Christina M. Walter, Samuel Kim and Ali A. Baaj

Primary bone tumors of the spine are rare entities with a poor prognosis if left untreated. En bloc excision is the preferred surgical approach to minimize the rate of recurrence. Paraspinal primary bone tumors are even less common. In this technical note the authors present an approach to the en bloc resection of primary bone tumors of the paraspinal thoracic region with posterior vertebral body hemiosteotomies and lateral thoracotomy. They also describe 2 illustrative cases.

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Vernard S. Fennell, Sheri Palejwala, Jesse Skoch, David A. Stidd and Ali A. Baaj

Object

Experience with freehand thoracic pedicle screw placement is well described in the literature. Published techniques rely on various starting points and trajectories for each level or segment of the thoracic spine. Furthermore, few studies provide specific guidance on sagittal and axial trajectories. The goal of this study was to propose a uniform entry point and sagittal trajectory for all thoracic levels during freehand pedicle screw placement and determine the accuracy of this technique.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed postoperative CT scans of 33 consecutive patients who underwent open, freehand thoracic pedicle-screw fixation using a uniform entry point and sagittal trajectory for all levels. The same entry point for each level was defined as a point 3 mm caudal to the junction of the transverse process and the lateral margin of the superior articulating process, and the sagittal trajectory was always orthogonal to the dorsal curvature of the spine at that level. The medial angulation (axial trajectory) was approximately 30° at T-1 and T-2, and 20° from T-3 to T-12. Breach was defined as greater than 25% of the screw diameter residing outside of the pedicle or vertebral body.

Results

A total of 219 thoracic pedicle screws were placed with a 96% accuracy rate. There were no medial breaches and 9 minor lateral breaches (4.1%). None of the screws had to be repositioned postoperatively, and there were no neurovascular complications associated with the breaches.

Conclusions

It is feasible to place freehand thoracic pedicle screws using a uniform entry point and sagittal trajectory for all levels. The entry point does not have to be adjusted for each level as reported in existing studies, although this technique was not tested in severe scoliotic spines. While other techniques are effective and widely used, this particular method provides more specific parameters and may be easier to learn, teach, and adopt.

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Juan S. Uribe, Edwin Ramos, Sammy Youssef, Fernando L. Vale and Ali A. Baaj