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  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics x
  • By Author: Attenello, Frank x
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Eisha A. Christian, Diana L. Jin, Frank Attenello, Timothy Wen, Steven Cen, William J. Mack, Mark D. Krieger and J. Gordon McComb


Even with improved prenatal and neonatal care, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) occurs in approximately 25%–30% of preterm infants, with a subset of these patients developing hydrocephalus. This study was undertaken to describe current trends in hospitalization of preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID).


The KID and NIS were combined to generate data for the years 2000–2010. All neonatal discharges with ICD-9-CM codes for preterm birth with IVH alone or with IVH and hydrocephalus were included.


There were 147,823 preterm neonates with IVH, and 9% of this group developed hydrocephalus during the same admission. Of patients with Grade 3 and 4 IVH, 25% and 28%, respectively, developed hydrocephalus in comparison with 1% and 4% of patients with Grade 1 and 2 IVH, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of patients with PHH had permanent ventricular shunts inserted. Mortality rates were 4%, 10%, 18%, and 40%, respectively, for Grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 IVH during initial hospitalization. Length of stay has been trending upward for both groups of IVH (49 days in 2000, 56 days in 2010) and PHH (59 days in 2000, 70 days in 2010). The average hospital cost per patient (adjusted for inflation) has also increased, from $201,578 to $353,554 (for IVH) and $260,077 to $495,697 (for PHH) over 11 years.


The number of neonates admitted with IVH has increased despite a decrease in the number of preterm births. Rates of hydrocephalus and mortality correlated closely with IVH grade. The incidence of hydrocephalus in preterm infants with IVH remained stable between 8% and 10%. Over an 11-year period, there was a progressive increase in hospital cost and length of stay for preterm neonates with IVH and PHH that may be explained by a concurrent increase in the proportion of patients with congenital cardiac anomalies.

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Matthew J. McGirt, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, April Atiba, Frank Attenello, Kevin C. Yao and George I. Jallo


With modern surgical advances, radical resection of pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) can be expected to preserve long-term neurological function. Nevertheless, postoperative neurological decline is not uncommon after surgery, and many patients continue to experience long-term dysesthetic symptoms. Preoperative predictors of postoperative neurological decline and sensory syndromes have not been investigated and may serve as a guide for surgical risk stratification.


Neurological function (as determined using the modified McCormick Scale [mMS]) preoperatively, postoperatively, and 3 months after surgery was retrospectively recorded from patient charts in 164 consecutive patients undergoing resection of IMSCTs. A median 4 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1–8 years) after surgery, long-term motor and sensory symptoms were assessed by telephone interviews and corroborated by subsequent medical visits in 120 available patients. This long-term assessment was retrospectively reviewed for the purposes of this study. The authors reviewed this series to assess long-term motor, sensory, and urinary outcomes and to determine independent risk factors of postoperative neurological decline and long-term sensory dysfunction.


Patients were 8.6 ± 5.7 years old and presented with a median mMS of 2 (IQR 2–4). Three months after surgery, 38 patients (23%) continued to experience decreased neurological function (1 mMS point) incurred perioperatively. Increasing age (p = 0.028), unilateral symptoms (p = 0.046), and urinary dysfunction at presentation (p = 0.004) independently predicted persistent 3-month perioperative decline. At long-term follow-up (median 4 years), 39 (33%) exhibited improvements in their mMS scores, 13 (30%) had improvement in their urinary dysfunction, and 27 (30%) had resolution of their dysesthesias. Seventy-eight patients (65%) experienced long-term dysesthetic symptoms. Increasing age (p = 0.024), preoperative symptom duration > 12 months (p = 0.027), and worsened postoperative mMS score at hospital discharge (p = 0.013) independently increased the risk of long-term dysesthesias.


In the authors' experience, nearly one third of patients may experience improvement in motor, sensory, and urinary dysfunction years after IMSCT resection, whereas the majority will continue to experience long-term dysesthetic symptoms. Improvement in motor deficits preceded improvement in sensory syndromes, and urinary dysfunction typically resolved much longer after surgery. The risk of persistent perioperative motor decline was increased with older age, unilateral symptoms, preoperative urinary symptoms, and less severe preoperative neurological deficit. The risk of long-term dysesthesias was increased with older age, increased duration of symptoms prior to resection, and greater postoperative neurological deficit.