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Shireen Parsai, Jacob A. Miller, Aditya Juloori, Samuel T. Chao, Rupesh Kotecha, Alireza M. Mohammadi, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, Erin S. Murphy, Gene H. Barnett, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Lilyana Angelov, David M. Peereboom and John H. Suh

OBJECTIVE

With increasing survival for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer in the trastuzumab era, there is an increased risk of brain metastasis. Therefore, there is interest in optimizing intracranial disease control. Lapatinib is a small-molecule dual HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor that has demonstrated intracranial activity against HER2+ breast cancer brain metastases. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of lapatinib combined with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on local control of brain metastases.

METHODS

Patients with HER2+ breast cancer brain metastases who underwent SRS from 1997–2015 were included. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of local failure following SRS. Secondary outcomes included the cumulative incidence of radiation necrosis and overall survival.

RESULTS

One hundred twenty-six patients with HER2+ breast cancer who underwent SRS to 479 brain metastases (median 5 lesions per patient) were included. Among these, 75 patients had luminal B subtype (hormone receptor-positive, HER2+) and 51 patients had HER2-enriched histology (hormone receptor-negative, HER2+). Forty-seven patients received lapatinib during the course of their disease, of whom 24 received concurrent lapatinib with SRS. The median radiographic follow-up among all patients was 17.1 months. Concurrent lapatinib was associated with reduction in local failure at 12 months (5.7% vs 15.1%, p < 0.01). For lesions in the ≤ 75th percentile by volume, concurrent lapatinib significantly decreased local failure. However, for lesions in the > 75th percentile (> 1.10 cm3), concurrent lapatinib did not significantly improve local failure. Any use of lapatinib after development of brain metastasis improved median survival compared to SRS without lapatinib (27.3 vs 19.5 months, p = 0.03). The 12-month risk of radiation necrosis was consistently lower in the lapatinib cohort compared to the SRS-alone cohort (1.3% vs 6.3%, p < 0.01), despite extended survival.

CONCLUSIONS

For patients with HER2+ breast cancer brain metastases, the use of lapatinib concurrently with SRS improved local control of brain metastases, without an increased rate of radiation necrosis. Concurrent lapatinib best augments the efficacy of SRS for lesions ≤ 1.10 cm3 in volume. In patients who underwent SRS for HER2+ breast cancer brain metastases, the use of lapatinib at any time point in the therapy course was associated with a survival benefit. The use of lapatinib combined with radiosurgery warrants further prospective evaluation.

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Aditya Juloori, Jacob A. Miller, Shireen Parsai, Rupesh Kotecha, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, Alireza M. Mohammadi, Erin S. Murphy, John H. Suh, Gene H. Barnett, Jennifer S. Yu, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Brian Rini, Jorge Garcia, Glen H. Stevens, Lilyana Angelov and Samuel T. Chao

OBJECTIVE

The object of this retrospective study was to investigate the impact of targeted therapies on overall survival (OS), distant intracranial failure, local failure, and radiation necrosis among patients treated with radiation therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the brain.

METHODS

All patients diagnosed with RCC brain metastasis (BM) between 1998 and 2015 at a single institution were included in this study. The primary outcome was OS, and secondary outcomes included local failure, distant intracranial failure, and radiation necrosis. The timing of targeted therapies was recorded. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to model OS, while multivariate competing-risks regression was used to model local failure, distant intracranial failure, and radiation necrosis, with death as a competing risk.

RESULTS

Three hundred seventy-six patients presented with 912 RCC BMs. Median OS was 9.7 months. Consistent with the previously validated diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA) for RCC BM, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and number of BMs were the only factors prognostic for OS. One hundred forty-seven patients (39%) received vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Median OS was significantly greater among patients receiving TKIs (16.8 vs 7.3 months, p < 0.001). Following multivariate analysis, KPS, number of metastases, and TKI use remained significantly associated with OS.

The crude incidence of local failure was 14.9%, with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 13.4%. TKIs did not significantly decrease the 12-month cumulative incidence of local failure (11.4% vs 14.5%, p = 0.11). Following multivariate analysis, age, number of BMs, and lesion size remained associated with local failure. The 12-month cumulative incidence of radiation necrosis was 8.0%. Use of TKIs within 30 days of SRS was associated with a significantly increased 12-month cumulative incidence of radiation necrosis (10.9% vs 6.4%, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

Use of targeted therapies in patients with RCC BM treated with intracranial SRS was associated with improved OS. However, the use of TKIs within 30 days of SRS increases the rate of radiation necrosis without improving local control or reducing distant intracranial failure. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the optimal timing to reduce the rate of necrosis without detracting from survival.

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Jacob A. Miller, Ehsan H. Balagamwala, Camille A. Berriochoa, Lilyana Angelov, John H. Suh, Edward C. Benzel, Alireza M. Mohammadi, Todd Emch, Anthony Magnelli, Andrew Godley, Peng Qi and Samuel T. Chao

OBJECTIVE

Spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a safe and effective treatment for spinal metastases. However, it is unknown whether this highly conformal radiation technique is suitable at instrumented sites given the potential for microscopic disease seeding. The authors hypothesized that spinal decompression with instrumentation is not associated with increased local failure (LF) following SRS.

METHODS

A 2:1 propensity-matched retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing SRS for spinal metastasis was conducted. Patients with less than 1 month of radiographic follow-up were excluded. Each SRS treatment with spinal decompression and instrumentation was propensity matched to 2 controls without decompression or instrumentation on the basis of demographic, disease-related, dosimetric, and treatment-site characteristics. Standardized differences were used to assess for balance between matched cohorts.

The primary outcome was the 12-month cumulative incidence of LF, with death as a competing risk. Lesions demonstrating any in-field progression were considered LFs. Secondary outcomes of interest were post-SRS pain flare, vertebral compression fracture, instrumentation failure, and any Grade ≥ 3 toxicity. Cumulative incidences analysis was used to estimate LF in each cohort, which were compared via Gray’s test. Multivariate competing-risks regression was then used to adjust for prespecified covariates.

RESULTS

Of 650 candidates for the control group, 166 were propensity matched to 83 patients with instrumentation. Baseline characteristics were well balanced. The median prescription dose was 16 Gy in each cohort. The 12-month cumulative incidence of LF was not statistically significantly different between cohorts (22.8% [instrumentation] vs 15.8% [control], p = 0.25). After adjusting for the prespecified covariates in a multivariate competing-risks model, decompression with instrumentation did not contribute to a greater risk of LF (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.74–1.98, p = 0.45). The incidences of post-SRS pain flare (11% vs 14%, p = 0.55), vertebral compression fracture (12% vs 22%, p = 0.04), and Grade ≥ 3 toxicity (1% vs 1%, p = 1.00) were not increased at instrumented sites. No instrumentation failures were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

In this propensity-matched analysis, LF and toxicity were similar among cohorts, suggesting that decompression with instrumentation does not significantly impact the efficacy or safety of spine SRS. Accordingly, spinal instrumentation may not be a contraindication to SRS. Future studies comparing SRS to conventional radiotherapy at instrumented sites in matched populations are warranted.

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Rupesh Kotecha, Jacob A. Miller, Vyshak A. Venur, Alireza M. Mohammadi, Samuel T. Chao, John H. Suh, Gene H. Barnett, Erin S. Murphy, Pauline Funchain, Jennifer S. Yu, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Lilyana Angelov and Manmeet S. Ahluwalia

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), BRAF status, and targeted and immune-based therapies on the recurrence patterns and factors associated with overall survival (OS) among patients with melanoma brain metastasis (MBM).

METHODS

A total of 366 patients were treated for 1336 MBMs; a lesion-based analysis was performed on 793 SRS lesions. The BRAF status was available for 78 patients: 35 had BRAF mut and 43 had BRAF wild-type (BRAF-WT) lesions. The Kaplan-Meier method evaluated unadjusted OS; cumulative incidence analysis determined the incidences of local failure (LF), distant failure, and radiation necrosis (RN), with death as a competing risk.

RESULTS

The 12-month OS was 24% (95% CI 20%–29%). On multivariate analysis, younger age, lack of extracranial metastases, better Karnofsky Performance Status score, and fewer MBMs, as well as treatment with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi), anti–PD-1/CTLA-4 therapy, or cytokine therapy were significantly associated with OS. For patients who underwent SRS, the 12-month LF rate was lower among those with BRAF mut lesions (6%, 95% CI 2%–11%) compared with those with BRAF-WT lesions (22%, 95% CI 13%–32%; p < 0.01). The 12-month LF rates among lesions treated with BRAFi and PD-1/CTLA-4 agents were 1% (95% CI 1%–4%) and 7% (95% CI 1%–13%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, BRAF inhibition within 30 days of SRS was protective against LF (HR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.55; p = 0.01). The 12-month rates of RN were low among lesions treated with BRAFi (0%, 95% CI 0%–0%), PD-1/CTLA-4 inhibitors (2%, 95% CI 1%–5%), and cytokine therapies (6%, 95% CI 1%–13%).

CONCLUSIONS

Prognostic schema should incorporate BRAFi or immunotherapy status and use of targeted therapies. Treatment with a BRAF inhibitor within 4 weeks of SRS improves local control without an increased risk of RN.

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Jacob A. Miller, Ehsan H. Balagamwala, Samuel T. Chao, Todd Emch, John H. Suh, Toufik Djemil and Lilyana Angelov

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to define symptomatic and radiographic outcomes following spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

METHODS

All patients with pathological diagnoses of myeloma undergoing spine SRS at a single institution were included. Patients with less than 1 month of follow-up were excluded. The primary outcome measure was the cumulative incidence of pain relief after spine SRS, while secondary outcomes included the cumulative incidences of radiographic failure and vertebral fracture. Pain scores before and after treatment were prospectively collected using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), a validated questionnaire used to assess severity and impact of pain upon daily functions.

RESULTS

Fifty-six treatments (in 38 patients) were eligible for inclusion. Epidural disease was present in nearly all treatment sites (77%). Moreover, preexisting vertebral fracture (63%), thecal sac compression (55%), and neural foraminal involvement (48%) were common. Many treatment sites had undergone prior local therapy, including external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; 30%), surgery (23%), and kyphoplasty (21%). At the time of consultation for SRS, the worst, current, and average BPI pain scores at these treatment sites were 6, 4, and 4, respectively. The median prescription dose was 16 Gy in a single fraction. The median clinical follow-up duration after SRS was 26 months. The 6- and 12-month cumulative incidences of radiographic failure were 6% and 9%, respectively. Among painful treatment sites, 41% achieved pain relief adjusted for narcotic usage, with a median time to relief of 1.6 months. The 6- and 12-month cumulative incidences of adjusted pain progression were 13% and 15%, respectively. After SRS, 1-month and 3-month worst, current, and average BPI scores all significantly decreased (p < 0.01). Vertebral fracture occurred following 12 treatments (21%), with an 18% cumulative incidence of fracture at 6 and 12 months. Two patients (4%) developed pain flare following spine SRS.

CONCLUSIONS

This study reports the largest series of myeloma lesions treated with spine SRS. A rapid and durable symptomatic response was observed, with a median time to pain relief of 1.6 months. This response was durable among 85% of patients at 12 months following treatment, with 91% local control. The efficacy and minimal toxicity of spine SRS is likely related to the delivery of ablative and conformal radiation doses to the target. SRS should be considered with doses of 14–16 Gy in a single fraction for patients with multiple myeloma and limited spinal disease, myelosuppression requiring “marrow-sparing” radiation therapy, or recurrent disease after EBRT.

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Jacob A. Miller, Ehsan H. Balagamwala, Lilyana Angelov, John H. Suh, Brian Rini, Jorge A. Garcia, Manmeet Ahluwalia and Samuel T. Chao

OBJECT

Systemic control of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has substantially improved with the development of VEGF, mTOR, and checkpoint inhibitors. The current first-line standard of care is a VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). In preclinical models, TKIs potentiate the response to radiotherapy. Such improved efficacy may prolong the time to salvage therapies, including whole-brain radiotherapy or second-line systemic therapy.

As the prevalence of mRCC has increased, the utilization of spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has also increased. However, clinical outcomes following concurrent treatment with SRS and TKIs remain largely undefined. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the safety and efficacy of TKIs when delivered concurrently with SRS. The authors hypothesized that first-line TKIs delivered concurrently with SRS significantly increase local control compared with SRS alone or TKIs alone, without increased toxicity.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing spine SRS for mRCC was conducted. Patients undergoing SRS were divided into 4 cohorts: those receiving concurrent first-line TKI therapy (A), systemic therapy–naïve patients (B), and patients who were undergoing SRS with (C) or without (D) concurrent TKI treatment after failure of first-line therapy. A negative control cohort (E) was also included, consisting of patients with spinal metastases managed with TKIs alone. The primary outcome was 12-month local failure, defined as any in-field radiographic progression. Multivariate competing risks regression was used to determine the independent effect of concurrent first-line TKI therapy upon local failure.

RESULTS

One hundred patients who underwent 151 spine SRS treatments (232 vertebral levels) were included. At the time of SRS, 46% were receiving concurrent TKI therapy. In each SRS cohort, the median prescription dose was 16 Gy in 1 fraction. Patients in Cohort A had the highest burden of epidural disease (96%, p < 0.01).

At 12 months, the cumulative incidence of local failure was 4% in Cohort A, compared with 19%–27% in Cohorts B–D and 57% in Cohort E (p < 0.01). Multivariate competing risks regression demonstrated that concurrent first-line TKI treatment (Cohort A) was independently associated with a local control benefit (HR 0.21, p = 0.04). In contrast, patients treated with TKIs alone (Cohort E) experienced an increased rate of local failure (HR 2.43, p = 0.03). No toxicities of Grade 3 or greater occurred following SRS with concurrent TKI treatment, and the incidence of post-SRS vertebral fracture (overall 21%) and pain flare (overall 17%) were similar across cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

The prognosis for patients with mRCC has significantly improved with TKIs. The present investigation suggests a local control benefit with the addition of concurrent first-line TKI therapy to spine SRS. These results have implications in the oligometastatic setting and support a body of preclinical radiobiological research.