Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • By Author: Vance, Mary Lee x
  • By Author: Sheehan, Jason P. x
Clear All
Restricted access

Diogo Cordeiro, Zhiyuan Xu, Gautam U. Mehta, Dale Ding, Mary Lee Vance, Hideyuki Kano, Nathaniel Sisterson, Huai-che Yang, Douglas Kondziolka, L. Dade Lunsford, David Mathieu, Gene H. Barnett, Veronica Chiang, John Lee, Penny Sneed, Yan-Hua Su, Cheng-chia Lee, Michal Krsek, Roman Liscak, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Amr El-Shehaby, Khaled Abdel Karim, Wael A. Reda, Nuria Martinez-Moreno, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Kevin Blas, Inga Grills, Kuei C. Lee, Mikulas Kosak, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Gennadiy A. Katsevman and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Recurrent or residual adenomas are frequently treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The most common complication after GKRS for pituitary adenomas is hypopituitarism. In the current study, the authors detail the timing and types of hypopituitarism in a multicenter, international cohort of pituitary adenoma patients treated with GKRS.

METHODS

Seventeen institutions pooled clinical data obtained from pituitary adenoma patients who were treated with GKRS from 1988 to 2016. Patients who had undergone prior radiotherapy were excluded. A total of 1023 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The treated lesions included 410 nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), 262 cases of Cushing’s disease (CD), and 251 cases of acromegaly. The median follow-up was 51 months (range 6–246 months). Statistical analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate factors associated with the development of new-onset hypopituitarism.

RESULTS

At last follow-up, 248 patients had developed new pituitary hormone deficiency (86 with NFPA, 66 with CD, and 96 with acromegaly). Among these patients, 150 (60.5%) had single and 98 (39.5%) had multiple hormone deficiencies. New hormonal changes included 82 cortisol (21.6%), 135 thyrotropin (35.6%), 92 gonadotropin (24.3%), 59 growth hormone (15.6%), and 11 vasopressin (2.9%) deficiencies. The actuarial 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, 7-year, and 10-year rates of hypopituitarism were 7.8%, 16.2%, 22.4%, 27.5%, and 31.3%, respectively. The median time to hypopituitarism onset was 39 months.

In univariate analyses, an increased rate of new-onset hypopituitarism was significantly associated with a lower isodose line (p = 0.006, HR = 8.695), whole sellar targeting (p = 0.033, HR = 1.452), and treatment of a functional pituitary adenoma as compared with an NFPA (p = 0.008, HR = 1.510). In multivariate analyses, only a lower isodose line was found to be an independent predictor of new-onset hypopituitarism (p = 0.001, HR = 1.38).

CONCLUSIONS

Hypopituitarism remains the most common unintended effect of GKRS for a pituitary adenoma. Treating the target volume at an isodose line of 50% or greater and avoiding whole-sellar radiosurgery, unless necessary, will likely mitigate the risk of post-GKRS hypopituitarism. Follow-up of these patients is required to detect and treat latent endocrinopathies.

Restricted access

Edward H. Oldfield, John A. Jane Jr., Michael O. Thorner, Carrie L. Pledger, Jason P. Sheehan and Mary Lee Vance

OBJECTIVE

The relationship between growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor–1 (IGF-1) in patients with acromegaly as serial levels drop over time after treatment has not been examined previously. Knowledge of this relationship is important to correlate pretreatment levels that best predict response to treatment. To examine the correlation between GH and IGF-1 and IGF-1 z-scores over a wide range of GH levels, the authors examined serial GH and IGF-1 levels at intervals before and after surgery and radiosurgery for acromegaly.

METHODS

This retrospective analysis correlates 414 pairs of GH and IGF-1 values in 93 patients with acromegaly.

RESULTS

Absolute IGF-1 levels increase linearly with GH levels only up to a GH of 4 ng/ml, and with IGF-1 z-scores only to a GH level of 1 ng/ml. Between GH levels of 1 and 10 ng/ml, increases in IGF-1 z-scores relative to changes in GH diminish and then plateau at GH concentrations of about 10 ng/ml. From patient to patient there is a wide range of threshold GH levels beyond which IGF-1 increases are no longer linear, GH levels at which the IGF-1 response plateaus, IGF-1 levels at similar GH values after the IGF-1 response plateaus, and of IGF-1 levels at similar GH levels.

CONCLUSIONS

In acromegaly, although IGF-1 levels represent a combination of the integrated effects of GH secretion and GH action, the tumor produces GH, not IGF-1. Nonlinearity between GH and IGF-1 occurs at GH levels far below those previously recognized. To monitor tumor activity and tumor viability requires measurement of GH levels.

Restricted access

Gautam U. Mehta, Jason P. Sheehan and Mary Lee Vance

Object

Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a significant and frequent risk for patients with Cushing's disease (CD) who undergo bilateral adrenalectomy. A recent study has shown tumor progression in 47% of patients at risk for NS. The authors sought to define the rate of NS in patients who were treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GK SRS) prior to bilateral adrenalectomy.

Methods

Consecutive patients with CD who were treated with GK SRS after pituitary surgery but before bilateral adrenalectomy were included. Serial MRI sequences were analyzed to evaluate for pituitary tumor growth. Clinical evaluations were performed to screen for NS. Follow-up for adrenocorticotropic hormone levels and hormone studies of other pituitary axes was performed.

Results

Twenty consecutive patients were followed with neuroimaging and clinically for a median of 5.4 years (range 0.6–12 years). One patient (5%) developed pituitary tumor growth consistent with NS 9 months after adrenalectomy. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, progression-free survival was 94.7% at 1, 3, and 7 years. No predisposing factors were identified for the tumor progression. Two patients developed new pituitary dysfunction and no patient developed cranial neuropathy or visual deficit after GK SRS.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that GK SRS not only serves a role as second-line therapy for CD, but that it also provides prophylaxis for NS when used before bilateral adrenalectomy.

Restricted access

Jason P. Sheehan, Zhiyuan Xu, David J. Salvetti, Paul J. Schmitt and Mary Lee Vance

Object

Cushing's disease is a challenging neuroendocrine disorder. Although resection remains the primary treatment option for most patients, the disease persists if there is residual or recurrent tumor. Stereotactic radiosurgery has been used to treat patients with persistent Cushing's disease after a prior resection. The authors report on the long-term risks and benefits of radiosurgery for Cushing's disease.

Methods

A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of radiosurgery patients was undertaken at the University of Virginia. All patients with Cushing's disease treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) were identified. Those without at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up were excluded from this analysis. Rates of endocrine remission, tumor control, and adverse events were assessed. Statistical methods were used to identify favorable and unfavorable prognostic factors.

Results

Ninety-six patients with the required follow-up data were identified. The mean tumor margin dose was 22 Gy. The median follow-up was 48 months (range 12–209.8 months). At the last follow-up, remission of Cushing's disease occurred in 70% of patients. The median time to remission among all patients was 16.6 months (range 1–165.7 months). The median time to remission in those who had temporarily stopped taking ketoconazole at the time of GKS was 12.6 months, whereas it was 21.8 months in those who continued to receive ketoconazole (p < 0.012). Tumor control was achieved in 98% of patients. New loss of pituitary function occurred in 36% of patients. New or worsening cranial neuropathies developed in 5 patients after GKS, with the most common involving cranial nerves II and III.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery offers a high rate of tumor control and a reasonable rate of endocrine remission in patients with Cushing's disease. The cessation of cortisol-lowering medications around the time of GKS appears to result in a more rapid rate of remission. Delayed hypopituitarism and endocrine recurrence develop in a minority of patients and underscore the need for long-term multidisciplinary follow-up.

Restricted access

Martin H. Weiss

Restricted access

Jason P. Sheehan, Nader Pouratian, Ladislau Steiner, Edward R. Laws and Mary Lee Vance

Object

Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is a common treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas. This study evaluates a large cohort of patients with a pituitary adenoma to characterize factors related to endocrine remission, control of tumor growth, and development of pituitary deficiency.

Methods

A total of 418 patients who underwent GKS with a minimum follow-up of 6 months (median 31 months) and for whom there was complete follow-up were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate for significant factors (p < 0.05) related to treatment outcomes.

Results

In patients with a secretory pituitary adenoma, the median time to endocrine remission was 48.9 months. The tumor margin radiation dose was inversely correlated with time to endocrine remission. Smaller adenoma volume correlated with improved endocrine remission in those with secretory adenomas. Cessation of pituitary suppressive medications at the time of GKS had a trend toward statistical significance in regard to influencing endocrine remission. In 90.3% of patients there was tumor control. A higher margin radiation dose significantly affected control of adenoma growth.

New onset of a pituitary hormone deficiency following GKS was seen in 24.4% of patients. Treatment with pituitary hormone suppressive medication at the time of GKS, a prior craniotomy, and larger adenoma volume at the time of radiosurgery were significantly related to loss of pituitary function.

Conclusions

Smaller adenoma volume improves the probability of endocrine remission and lowers the risk of new pituitary hormone deficiency with GKS. A higher margin dose offers a greater chance of endocrine remission and control of tumor growth.

Restricted access

Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010

Restricted access

Dibyendu Kumar Ray, Chun Po Yen, Mary Lee Vance, Edward R. Laws, Beatriz Lopes and Jason P. Sheehan

Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a relatively uncommon autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting the pituitary gland. It most frequently occurs in women of child-bearing age. The authors report on their experience with a patient who presented with diplopia and marked enlargement of the pituitary gland. She underwent transsphenoidal surgery, and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis. The disease proved refractory to resection, and any attempt at withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy resulted in a return of the patient's symptoms and enlargement of the sellar contents.

The patient underwent Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) to the sella and both cavernous sinuses. After GKS, the patient was able to discontinue steroid therapy without return of her symptoms. Follow-up MR images demonstrated no evidence of recurrence of lymphocytic hypophysitis.

For persistent lymphocytic hypophysitis, GKS is a reasonable treatment option.

Restricted access

William J. Mauermann, Jason P. Sheehan, Daniel R. Chernavvsky, Edward R. Laws, Ladislau Steiner and Mary Lee Vance

Object

Patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting pituitary adenomas may require a bilateral adrenalectomy to treat their Cushing's disease. Approximately one third of these patients, however, will experience progressive enlargement of the residual pituitary adenoma, develop hyperpigmentation, and have an elevated level of serum ACTH. These patients with Nelson's syndrome can be treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS).

Methods

The prospectively collected University of Virginia Gamma Knife database of patients with pituitary adenomas was reviewed to identify all individuals with Nelson's syndrome who were treated with GKS. Twenty-three patients with a minimum of 6 months of follow up were identified in the database. These patients were assessed for tumor control (that is, lack of tumor growth over time) with neuroimaging studies (median follow-up duration 22 months) and for biochemical normalization of their ACTH levels (median follow-up duration 50 months). Neuroimaging follow-up studies were available for 22 patients, and endocrine follow up was available for 15 patients in whom elevation of ACTH levels was documented prior to GKS.

In the 22 patients in whom neuroimaging follow-up studies were available, 12 had a decrease in tumor size, eight had no tumor growth, and two had an increase in tumor volume. Ten of 15 patients with elevated ACTH levels prior to GKS showed a decrease in their ACTH levels at last follow up; three of these 10 patients achieved normal ACTH levels (< 50 pg/ml) and the other five patients with initially elevated values had an increase in ACTH levels.

Ten patients were thoroughly evaluated for post-GKS pituitary function; four were found to have new pituitary hormone deficiency and six did not have hypopituitarism after GKS. One patient suffered a permanent third cranial nerve palsy and four patients are now deceased.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery may control the residual pituitary adenoma and decrease ACTH levels in patients with Nelson's syndrome. Delayed hypopituitarism or cranial nerve palsies can occur after GKS. Patients with Nelson's syndrome require continued multidisciplinary follow-up care. Given the difficulties associated with management of Nelson's syndrome, even the modest results of GKS may be helpful for a number of patients.

Restricted access

Martin H. Weiss and William T. Couldwell