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Harsh Deora, Kuntal Kanti Das, Awadhesh Jaiswal and Sanjay Behari

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Colin J. Przybylowski, Jacob F. Baranoski, Veronica M. So, Jeffrey Wilson and Nader Sanai

OBJECTIVE

The choice of transsylvian versus transcortical corridors for resection of insular gliomas remains controversial. Functional pathway compromise from transcortical transgression and vascular injury during transsylvian dissection are the primary concerns. In this study, data from a single-center experience with both approaches were compared to determine whether one approach was associated with a higher rate of morbidity than the other.

METHODS

The authors identified 100 consecutive patients who underwent resection of pure insular gliomas at the Barrow Neurological Institute. Volumetric analysis was performed using FLAIR and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI for low- and high-grade gliomas, respectively, for extent of resection (EOR) and diffusion-weighted sequences were used to detect for postoperative ischemia. Step-wise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of neurological morbidity.

RESULTS

Data from 100 patients with low-grade or high-grade insular gliomas were analyzed. Fifty-two patients (52%) underwent a transsylvian approach, and 48 patients (48%) underwent a transcortical approach. The mean (± SD) EOR was 91.6% ± 12.4% in the transsylvian group and 88.6% ± 14.2% in the transcortical group (p = 0.26). Clinical outcome metrics for the 2 groups were similar. Overall, 13 patients (25%) in the transsylvian group and 10 patients (21%) in the transcortical group had evidence of ischemia on postoperative MR images. For both approaches, high-grade histology was associated with permanent morbidity (p = 0.01). For patients with gliomas located within the superior-posterior quadrant of the insula, development of postoperative ischemia was associated with only the transsylvian approach (46% vs 0%, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Areas of restricted diffusion are common on postoperative MRI following resection of insular gliomas, but only a minority of these patients develop permanent neurological deficits. Insular glioma patients with high-grade histology may be at particular risk for developing symptomatic postoperative ischemia. Both the transcortical and transsylvian corridors are associated with reasonable morbidity profiles, although gliomas situated within the superior-posterior quadrant of the insula are more safely accessed with a transcortical approach.

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David G. Brachman, Emad Youssef, Christopher J. Dardis, Nader Sanai, Joseph M. Zabramski, Kris A. Smith, Andrew S. Little, Andrew G. Shetter, Theresa Thomas, Heyoung L. McBride, Stephen Sorensen, Robert F. Spetzler and Peter Nakaji

OBJECTIVE

Effective treatments for recurrent, previously irradiated intracranial meningiomas are limited, and resection alone is not usually curative. Thus, the authors studied the combination of maximum safe resection and adjuvant radiation using permanent intracranial brachytherapy (R+BT) in patients with recurrent, previously irradiated aggressive meningiomas.

METHODS

Patients with recurrent, previously irradiated meningiomas were treated between June 2013 and October 2016 in a prospective single-arm trial of R+BT. Cesium-131 (Cs-131) radiation sources were embedded in modular collagen carriers positioned in the operative bed on completion of resection. The Cox proportional hazards model with this treatment as a predictive term was used to model its effect on time to local tumor progression.

RESULTS

Nineteen patients (median age 64.5 years, range 50–78 years) with 20 recurrent, previously irradiated tumors were treated. The WHO grade at R+BT was I in 4 (20%), II in 14 (70%), and III in 2 (10%) cases. The median number of prior same-site radiation courses and same-site surgeries were 1 (range 1–3) and 2 (range 1–4), respectively; the median preoperative tumor volume was 11.3 cm3 (range 0.9–92.0 cm3). The median radiation dose from BT was 63 Gy (range 54–80 Gy). At a median radiographic follow-up of 15.4 months (range 0.03–47.5 months), local failure (within 1.5 cm of the implant bed) occurred in 2 cases (10%). The median treatment-site time to progression after R+BT has not been reached; that after the most recent prior therapy was 18.3 months (range 3.9–321.9 months; HR 0.17, p = 0.02, log-rank test). The median overall survival after R+BT was 26 months, with 9 patient deaths (47% of patients). Treatment was well tolerated; 2 patients required surgery for complications, and 2 experienced radiation necrosis, which was managed medically.

CONCLUSIONS

R+BT utilizing Cs-131 sources in modular carriers represents a potentially safe and effective treatment option for recurrent, previously irradiated aggressive meningiomas.

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Michael A. Mooney and Nader Sanai

The contralateral interhemispheric approach has several advantages for approaching parasagittal lesions, including lesions involving or approaching the medial precentral gyrus. Supplementing the interhemispheric approach with asleep motor mapping is useful for confirming the location of the corticospinal tracts from the contralateral transfalcine corridor and identifying subcortical motor fibers at the deep aspect of the resection cavity. The authors describe the contralateral interhemispheric, transfalcine approach with asleep motor mapping to resect a parasagittal metastatic lesion involving the medial precentral gyrus.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/L-fJ6m5kOWs.

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Richard W. Byrne, Nader Sanai, Jose A. Landeiro and Hugues Duffau

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David S. Xu, Al-Wala Awad, Chad Mehalechko, Jeffrey R. Wilson, Lynn S. Ashby, Stephen W. Coons and Nader Sanai

OBJECTIVE

Seizures are the most common presenting symptom of newly diagnosed WHO Grade II gliomas (low-grade glioma [LGG]) and significantly impair quality of life. Although gross-total resection of LGG is associated with better seizure control, it remains unclear whether an extent of resection (EOR) “threshold” exists for long-term seizure control. Specifically, what proportion of FLAIR-positive tissue in patients with newly diagnosed LGG must be removed to achieve Engel Class I seizure freedom? To clarify the EOR threshold for long-term seizure control, the authors analyzed data from a consecutive series of patients with newly diagnosed LGG who presented with seizures and subsequently underwent microsurgical resection.

METHODS

The authors identified consecutive patients with newly diagnosed LGG who presented with seizures and were treated at the Barrow Neurological Institute between 2002 and 2012. Patients were dichotomized into those who were seizure free postoperatively and those who were not. The EOR was calculated by quantitative comparison of pre- and postoperative MRI. Univariate analysis of these 2 groups included the chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U-test, and a multivariate logistic regression was constructed to predict the impact of multiple independent variables on the likelihood of postoperative seizure freedom. To determine a threshold of EOR that optimizes seizure freedom, a receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the optimal point of discrimination was determined.

RESULTS

Data from 128 patients were analyzed (male/female ratio 1.37:1; mean age 40.8 years). All 128 patients presented with seizures, usually generalized (n = 57, 44.5%) or simple partial (n = 57, 44.5%). The median EOR was 90.0%. Of 128 patients, 46 (35.9%) had 100% volumetric tumor resection, 64 (50.0%) had 90%–99% volumetric tumor resection, and 11 (8.6%) had 80%–89% volumetric tumor resection. Postoperatively, 105 (82%) patients were seizure free (Engel Class I); 23 (18%) were not (Engel Classes II–IV). The proportion of seizure-free patients increased in proportion to the EOR. Predictive variables included in the regression model were preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score, seizure type, time from diagnosis to surgery, preoperative number of antiepileptic drugs, and EOR. Only EOR significantly affected the likelihood of postoperative Engel Class I status (OR 11.5, 95% CI 2.4–55.6; p = 0.002). The receiver operating characteristic curve generated based on Engel Class I status showed a sensitivity of 0.65 and 1 – specificity of 0.175, corresponding to an EOR of 80%.

CONCLUSIONS

For adult patients with LGG who suffer seizures, the results suggest that seizure freedom can be attained when EOR > 80% is achieved. Improvements in both the proportion of seizure-free patients and the durability of seizure freedom were observed beyond this 80% threshold. Interestingly, this putative EOR seizure-freedom threshold closely approximates that reported for the overall survival benefit in newly diagnosed hemispheric LGGs, suggesting that a minimum level of residual tumor burden is necessary for both disease and symptomatic progression.

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Zaman Mirzadeh, Robert Bina, Yael Kusne, Stephen W. Coons, Robert F. Spetzler and Nader Sanai

Object

After complete resection and radiation therapy, the 10-year overall survival rates for adult patients with posterior fossa ependymomas approach 85%. This favorable outcome profile emphasizes the critical importance of functional preservation to this patient population. Here, the authors identify predictors of functional outcome following microsurgical resection of adult posterior fossa ependymomas.

Methods

The authors identified adult patients with newly diagnosed WHO Grade II posterior fossa ependymomas who underwent microsurgical resection at the Barrow Neurological Institute from 1990 to 2011. Clinical and radiographic variables were collected, including volumetric extent of resection, foramen of Luschka extension, cystic changes, peritumoral T2 signal changes, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).

Results

Forty-five patients were identified, with a median clinical follow-up of 103 months. The median PFS and OS were 6.8 and 8.6 years, respectively. Extent of resection and adjuvant radiotherapy were predictive of improved PFS (p = 0.005) and were nonsignificantly associated with improved OS. Univariate analysis revealed that tumor size (p < 0.001), cystic changes (p < 0.01), postoperative T2 signal (p < 0.01), and CSF diversion (p = 0.048) predicted functional and neurological recovery rates, based on KPS and NIHSS scores, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis identified tumor size (p < 0.001), cystic changes (p = 0.01), and CSF diversion (p = 0.02) as independent predictors of slower functional recovery, while only tumor size (p = 0.007) was an independent predictor of neurological recovery. Specifically, by 6 weeks postoperatively, baseline KPS score was recovered by only 43.8% of patients with tumors larger than 30 cm3 (vs 72.4% patients with tumors < 30 cm3), 35.3% of patients with cystic tumors (vs 78.6% of patients with noncystic tumors), and 46.7% of patients requiring CSF diversion (vs 70% of patients not requiring CSF diversion).

Conclusions

Greater extent of resection and adjuvant radiotherapy significantly improve PFS in adult patients with posterior fossa ependymomas. Tumor size, cystic changes, and the need for CSF diversion were independent predictors of the rate of functional recovery in this patient population. Taken together, these functional outcome predictors may guide preoperative estimations of recovery following microsurgical resection.