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Nohra Chalouhi, Mario Zanaty, Alex Whiting, Steven Yang, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Robert M. Starke, Shannon Hann, Christine Hammer, David Kung, Robert Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECT

Flow diverters are increasingly used for treatment of intracranial aneurysms. In most series, the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) was used for the treatment of large, giant, complex, and fusiform aneurysms. Little is known about the use of the PED in small aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the PED in small aneurysms (≤ 7 mm).

METHODS

A total of 100 consecutive patients were treated with the PED at the authors' institution between May 2011 and September 2013. Data on procedural safety and efficacy were retrospectively collected.

RESULTS

The mean aneurysm size was 5.2 ± 1.5 mm. Seven patients (7%) had sustained a subarachnoid hemorrhage. All except 5 aneurysms (95%) arose from the anterior circulation. The number of PEDs used was 1.2 per aneurysm. Symptomatic procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (3%): 1 distal parenchymal hemorrhage that was managed conservatively and 2 ischemic events. At the latest follow-up (mean 6.3 months), 54 (72%) aneurysms were completely occluded (100%), 10 (13%) were nearly completely occluded (≥ 90%), and 11 (15%) were incompletely occluded (< 90%). Six aneurysms (8%) required further treatment. Increasing aneurysm size (OR 3.8, 95% CI 0.99–14; p = 0.05) predicted retreatment. All patients achieved a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–2) at follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, treatment of small aneurysms with the PED was associated with low complication rates and high aneurysm occlusion rates. These findings suggest that the PED is a safe and effective alternative to conventional endovascular techniques for small aneurysms. Randomized trials with long-term follow-up are necessary to determine the optimal treatment that leads to the highest rate of obliteration and the best clinical outcomes.

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Nohra Chalouhi, Cory D. Bovenzi, Vismay Thakkar, Jeremy Dressler, Pascal Jabbour, Robert M. Starke, Sonia Teufack, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Richard Dalyai, Aaron S. Dumont, Robert Rosenwasser and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

Object

Aneurysm recurrence after coil therapy remains a major shortcoming in the endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms. The need for long-term imaging follow-up was recently investigated. This study assessed the diagnostic yield of long-term digital subtraction angiography (DSA) follow-up and determined predictors of delayed aneurysm recurrence and retreatment.

Methods

Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) available short-term and long-term (> 36 months) follow-up DSA images, and 2) no or only minor aneurysm recurrence (not requiring further intervention, i.e., < 20%) documented on short-term follow-up DSA images.

Results

Of 209 patients included in the study, 88 (42%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. On shortterm follow-up DSA images, 158 (75%) aneurysms showed no recurrence, and 51 (25%) showed minor recurrence (< 20%, not retreated). On long-term follow-up DSA images, 124 (59%) aneurysms showed no recurrence, and 85 (41%) aneurysms showed recurrence, of which 55 (26%) required retreatment. In multivariate analysis, the predictors of recurrence on long-term follow-up DSA images were as follows: 1) larger aneurysm size (p = 0.001), 2) male sex (p = 0.006), 3) conventional coil therapy (p = 0.05), 4) aneurysm location (p = 0.01), and 5) a minor recurrence on short-term follow-up DSA images (p = 0.007). Ruptured aneurysm status was not a predictive factor. The sensitivity of short-term follow-up DSA studies was only 40.0% for detecting delayed aneurysm recurrence and 45.5% for detecting delayed recurrence requiring further treatment.

Conclusions

The results of this study highlight the importance of long-term angiographic follow-up after coil therapy for ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Predictors of delayed recurrence and retreatment include large aneurysms, recurrence on short-term follow-up DSA images (even minor), male sex, and conventional coil therapy.

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Nohra Chalouhi, Alex Whiting, Eliza C. Anderson, Samantha Witte, Mario Zanaty, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, L. Fernando Gonzalez, David Hasan, Robert M. Starke, Shannon Hann, George M. Ghobrial, Robert Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

Object

It is common practice to use a new contralateral bur hole for ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with an existing ventriculostomy. At Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience, the authors have primarily used the ventriculostomy site for the VPS. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety of the 2 techniques in patients with SAH.

Methods

The rates of VPS-related hemorrhage, infection, and proximal revision were compared between the 2 techniques in 523 patients undergoing VPS placement (same site in 464 and contralateral site in 59 patients).

Results

The rate of new VPS-related hemorrhage was significantly higher in the contralateral-site group (1.7%) than in the same-site group (0%; p = 0.006). The rate of VPS infection did not differ between the 2 groups (6.4% for same site vs 5.1% for contralateral site; p = 0.7). In multivariate analysis, higher Hunt and Hess grades (p = 0.05) and open versus endovascular treatment (p = 0.04) predicted shunt infection, but the VPS technique was not a predictive factor (p = 0.9). The rate of proximal shunt revision was 6% in the same-site group versus 8.5% in the contralateralsite group (p = 0.4). In multivariate analysis, open surgery was the only factor predicting proximal VPS revision (p = 0.05).

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that the use of the ventriculostomy site for VPS placement may be feasible and safe and may not add morbidity (infection or need for revision) compared with the use of a fresh contralateral site. This rapid and simple technique also was associated with a lower risk of shunt-related hemorrhage. While both techniques appear to be feasible and safe, a definitive answer to the question of which technique is superior awaits a higher level of medical evidence.

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Richard Dalyai, Robert M. Starke, Nohra Chalouhi, Thana Theofanis, Christopher Busack, Pascal Jabbour, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Robert Rosenwasser and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

Object

Cigarette smoking has been well established as a risk factor in vascular pathology, such as cerebral aneurysms. However, tobacco’s implications for patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are controversial. The object of this study was to identify predictors of AVM obliteration and risk factors for complications.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database for all patients with AVMs treated using surgical excision, staged endovascular embolization (with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate or Onyx), stereotactic radiosurgery (Gamma Knife or Linear Accelerator), or a combination thereof between 1994 and 2010. Medical risk factors, such as smoking, abuse of alcohol or intravenous recreational drugs, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease, were documented. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to detect predictors of periprocedural complications, obliteration, and posttreatment hemorrhage.

Results

Of 774 patients treated at a single tertiary care cerebrovascular center, 35% initially presented with symptomatic hemorrhage and 57.6% achieved complete obliteration according to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or MRI. In a multivariate analysis a negative smoking history (OR 1.9, p = 0.006) was a strong independent predictor of AVM obliteration. Of the patients with obliterated AVMs, 31.9% were smokers, whereas 45% were not (p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis of obliteration, after controlling for AVM size and location (eloquent vs noneloquent tissue), revealed that nonsmokers were more likely (0.082) to have obliterated AVMs through radiosurgery. Smoking was not predictive of treatment complications or posttreatment hemorrhage. Abuse of alcohol or intravenous recreational drugs, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease had no discernible effect on AVM obliteration, periprocedural complications, or posttreatment hemorrhage.

Conclusions

Cerebral AVM patients with a history of smoking are significantly less likely than those without a smoking history to have complete AVM obliteration on follow-up DSA or MRI. Therefore, patients with AVMs should be strongly advised to quit smoking.

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Kenan AlKhalili, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for properly selected patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, the risk of postradiosurgical radiation-related injury is higher in patients with large AVMs. Multistaged volumetric management of large AVMs was undertaken to limit the radiation exposure to the surrounding normal brain. This strategy offers a promising method for obtaining high AVM obliteration rates with minimal normal tissue damage. The use of embolization as an adjunctive method in the treatment of large AVMs remains controversial. Unfortunately, staged-volume radiosurgery (SVR) has a number of potential pitfalls that affect the outcome. The aim of this article is to highlight the role of SVR in the treatment of large AVMs, to discuss the outcome comparing it to other treatment modalities, and to discuss the potential improvement that could be introduced to this method of treatment.

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Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert M. Starke, David Hasan, Nimrita Sidhu, Saurabh Singhal, Shannon Hann, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Robert Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

Object

Endovascular therapy has become a widely used method for achieving arterial recanalization in patients who are ineligible for intravenous thrombolysis or those in whom it is unsuccessful. Young stroke patients with large vessel occlusions may particularly benefit from endovascular intervention. This study aims to assess the authors' experience with the use of modern endovascular techniques to treat young patients (≤ 55 years old) with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusions.

Methods

Young patients (≤ 55 years old) undergoing endovascular intervention for acute ischemic stroke at the authors' institution were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Only those patients with a confirmed large vessel occlusion were included. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were determined at 90 days during a follow-up visit. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictors of outcome (mRS score 0–2).

Results

A total of 45 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients in this series was 45 ± 9.6 years. The mean admission NIH Stroke Scale score was 14.1 ± 5 (median 13.5). Mechanical thrombectomy was performed using the Solitaire FR device in 13 (29%) patients and the Merci/Penumbra systems in 32 (71%) patients. The rate of successful recanalization (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] scale Grade II–III) was 93% (42/45). Only 1 patient (2.2%) had a symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage following intervention. One patient (2.2%) sustained a vessel perforation intraoperatively. The rate of 90-day favorable outcome (mRS score 0–2) was 77.5% and the rate of 90-day satisfactory outcome (mRS score 0–3) was 90%. The 90-day mortality rate was 7.5%. In multivariate analysis, postprocedure TIMI grade was the only statistically significant independent predictor of 90-day outcome (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.01–1.19; p = 0.05).

Conclusions

The results of this study demonstrate that endovascular therapy provides remarkably high rates of arterial recanalization and favorable outcomes in young patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusions. These findings support aggressive interventional strategies in these patients. Randomized, controlled trials reflecting modern acute ischemic stroke treatment will be needed to confirm the findings of this study.

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Pascal Jabbour, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Aaron S. Dumont, Rohan Chitale, Robert Rosenwasser, Carlos G. Bianciotto and Carol Shields

Retinoblastoma is a deadly eye cancer in children, leading to death in 50%–70% of children in undeveloped nations who are diagnosed with it. This malignancy is the most common intraocular tumor in childhood worldwide. The good prognosis in developed nations is related to early detection and advanced treatments. With the advent of intraarterial chemotherapy, neurosurgeons have taken a central role in the treatment of this pediatric condition. Intraarterial chemotherapy is a novel treatment for retinoblastoma whereby chemotherapeutic agents are precisely delivered into the ophthalmic artery, minimizing systemic toxicity. This procedure has shown impressive results and has allowed a dramatic decrease in the rate of enucleation (eye removal) in advanced and refractory retinoblastoma. Recent reports have raised some concerns about the risk of ocular vasculopathy, radiation-related toxicity, and the potential for metastatic disease after intraarterial chemotherapy. In the authors' experience of more than 3 years, tumor control is excellent with globe salvage at 67% and vascular events less than 5%, mostly related to improvement in technique. The role of this novel approach in the management of retinoblastoma has yet to be defined. As more centers are adopting the technique, the topic will decidedly become the focus of intensive future research. In this paper, the authors review and discuss current data regarding intraarterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma.

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Nohra Chalouhi, Aaron S. Dumont, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Jurij R. Bilyk, Ciro Randazzo, David Hasan, Richard T. Dalyai, Robert Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

Object

Endovascular therapy is the primary treatment option for carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs). Operative cannulation of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) provides a reasonable alternative route to the cavernous sinus when all transvenous and transarterial approaches have been unsuccessful. The role of the liquid embolic agent Onyx in the management of CCFs has not been well documented, especially when using an SOV approach. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of Onyx embolization of CCFs through a surgical cannulation of the SOV.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients with CCFs who were treated with Onyx through an SOV approach between April 2009 and April 2011. Traditional endovascular approaches had failed in all patients.

Results

A total of 10 patients were identified, 1 with a Type A CCF, 5 with a Type B CCF, and 4 with a Type D CCF. All fistulas were embolized in 1 session. Onyx was the sole embolic agent used in 7 cases and was combined with coils in 3 other cases. Complete obliteration was achieved in 8 patients and a significant reduction in fistulous flow was achieved in 2 patients, which later progressed to near-complete occlusion on angiographic follow-up. All patients experienced a complete clinical recovery with excellent cosmetic results and were free from recurrence at their latest clinical follow-up evaluations.

Conclusions

Onyx embolization is an excellent therapy for CCFs in general, and through an SOV approach in particular. Direct operative cannulation of the SOV followed by Onyx embolization may be the best treatment option in patients with CCFs when all other endovascular approaches have been exhausted.

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Nohra Chalouhi, Rohan Chitale, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Aaron S. Dumont, Robert Rosenwasser and L. Fernando Gonzalez

Given that relatives of patients with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) or subarachnoid hemorrhage have a greater risk of harboring an aneurysm, family screening has become a common practice in neurosurgery. Unclear data exist regarding who should be screened and at what age and interval screening should occur. Multiple factors including the natural history of IAs, the risk of treatment, the cost of screening, and the psychosocial impact of finding an aneurysm should be taken into account when family screening is considered. In this paper, the authors review the current literature regarding risk factors and natural history of sporadic and familial aneurysms. Based on these data the authors assess current recommendations for screening and propose their own recommendations.

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Richard T. Dalyai, George Ghobrial, Issam Awad, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Aaron S. Dumont, Nohra Chalouhi, Ciro Randazzo, Robert Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

Cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically occult vascular malformations that are frequently found incidentally on MR imaging. Despite this benign presentation, these lesions could cause symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Cavernomas can be managed conservatively with neuroimaging studies, surgically with lesion removal, or with radiosurgery. Considering recent studies examining the CM's natural history, imaging techniques, and possible therapeutic interventions, the authors provide a concise review of the literature and discuss the optimal management of incidental CMs.