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Claudio E. Tatsui, R. Jason Stafford, Jing Li, Jonathan N. Sellin, Behrang Amini, Ganesh Rao, Dima Suki, Amol J. Ghia, Paul Brown, Sun-Ho Lee, Charles E. Cowles, Jeffrey S. Weinberg and Laurence D. Rhines

OBJECT

High-grade malignant spinal cord compression is commonly managed with a combination of surgery aimed at removing the epidural tumor, followed by spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) aimed at local tumor control. The authors here introduce the use of spinal laser interstitial thermotherapy (SLITT) as an alternative to surgery prior to SSRS.

METHODS

Patients with a high degree of epidural malignant compression due to radioresistant tumors were selected for study. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain and quality of life were obtained before and within 30 and 60 days after treatment. A laser probe was percutaneously placed in the epidural space. Real-time thermal MRI was used to monitor tissue damage in the region of interest. All patients received postoperative SSRS. The maximum thickness of the epidural tumor was measured, and the degree of epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) was scored in pre- and postprocedure MRI.

RESULTS

In the 11 patients eligible for study, the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 6.18 in the preoperative period to 4.27 within 30 days and 2.8 within 60 days after the procedure. A similar VAS interrogating the percentage of quality of life demonstrated improvement from 60% preoperatively to 70% within both 30 and 60 days after treatment. Imaging follow-up 2 months after the procedure demonstrated a significant reduction in the mean thickness of the epidural tumor from 8.82 mm (95% CI 7.38–10.25) before treatment to 6.36 mm (95% CI 4.65–8.07) after SLITT and SSRS (p = 0.0001). The median preoperative ESCC Grade 2 was scored as 4, which was significantly higher than the score of 2 for Grade 1b (p = 0.04) on imaging follow-up 2 months after the procedure.

CONCLUTIONS

The authors present the first report on an innovative minimally invasive alternative to surgery in the management of spinal metastasis. In their early experience, SLITT has provided local control with low morbidity and improvement in both pain and the quality of life of patients.

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Jonathan N. Sellin, William Reichardt, Andrew J. Bishop, Dima Suki, Laurence D. Rhines, Stephen H. Settle, Paul D. Brown, Jing Li, Ganesh Rao, Eric L. Chang and Claudio E. Tatsui

OBJECT

Palliative resection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) spinal metastasis is indicated in cases of neurological compromise or mechanical instability, whereas conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is commonly used for pain control. Recently, spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a safe alternative, delivering higher therapeutic doses of radiation to spinal metastases. To better understand factors affecting survival in patients undergoing spinal SRS for metastatic RCC, the authors performed a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of cases at a tertiary cancer center.

METHODS

Patients harboring contiguous sites of vertebral body involvement from metastatic RCC who received upfront spinal SRS treatment at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2005 and 2012 were identified. Demographic data, pain scores, radiographic data, overall survival, complications, status of systemic disease, neurological and functional status, and time between primary diagnosis and diagnosis of metastasis (systemic and spinal) were analyzed to determine their influence on survival.

RESULTS

Thirty-seven patients receiving treatment for 40 distinct, contiguous sites of disease were included. The median overall survival after spinal SRS was 16.3 months (range 7.4–25.3 months). Univariate analysis revealed several factors significantly associated with improved overall survival. Local progression after spinal SRS was associated with worse overall survival compared with sustained local control (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6–7.4, p = 0.002). Median survival in patients with a Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score ≥ 70 was longer than in patients with a KPS score < 70 (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.1–10.7, p < 0.001). Patients with neurological deficits at the time of spinal SRS had a shorter median survival than those without (HR 4.2, 95% CI 1.4–12.0, p = 0.008). Individuals with nonprogressive systemic disease at the time of spinal SRS had a longer median survival than those with systemic progression at the time of treatment (HR 8.3, 95% CI 3.3–20.7, p < 0.001). Median survival in patients experiencing any metastasis < 12 months after primary RCC diagnosis was shorter than in patients experiencing any metastasis > 12 months after primary diagnosis, a difference that approached but did not attain significance (HR 1.9, 95% CI 0.90–4.1, p = 0.09). On multivariate analysis, local progression of disease after spinal SRS, metastasis < 12 months after primary, KPS score ≤ 70, and progression of systemic disease at time of spinal SRS all remained significant factors influencing survival (respectively, HR 3.7, p = 0.002; HR 2.6, p = 0.026; HR 4.0, p = 0.002; and HR 13.2, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

We identified several factors associated with survival after spinal SRS for RCC metastases, including local progression, time between first metastasis and primary RCC diagnosis, KPS score, presence of neurological deficits, and progressive metastatic disease. These factors should be taken into consideration when considering a patient for spinal SRS for RCC metastases.

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Benjamin Farnia, K. Ranh Voong, Paul D. Brown, Pamela K. Allen, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Sujit S. Prabhu, Ganesh Rao, Qianghu Wang, Zhongxiang Zhao and Anita Mahajan

Object

The authors' institution previously reported a 69% rate of crude local control for surgical management of lateral ventricle metastases at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. For comparison, the authors here report their institutional experience with use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat intraventricular metastases.

Methods

To identify patients with intraventricular metastases for this retrospective review, the authors queried an institutional SRS database containing the medical records of 1962 patients with 5800 brain metastases who consecutively underwent SRS from June 2009 through October 2013. End points assessed were local control (crude and locoregional), distant failure–free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival.

Results

Of the 1962 records examined, those for 25 (1.3%) patients with 30 (0.52%) intraventricular metastases were identified. Median patient age at SRS was 55.8 years. The most common primary malignancy was renal cell carcinoma (n = 13), followed by melanoma (n = 7) and breast adenocarcinoma (n = 5). Median tumor volume was 0.75 cm3 (range 0.01–5.6 cm3). Most lesions were located in the lateral ventricles (n = 25, 83.3%) and were treated to a median dose of 20 Gy (range 14–20 Gy). A total of 12 (48%) patients received whole-brain radiation therapy, most (n = 10) before SRS. With a median follow-up of 11.4 months (range 1.6–39.2 months), the rate of crude local control was 93.3%, and the rates of 6-month and 1-year actuarial locoregional control were 85.2% and 56.2%, respectively. The median overall survival time after SRS was 11.6 months (range 1.3–38.9 months), and the 6-month and 1-year actuarial rates were 87.1% and 46.7%, respectively. Disease dissemination developed in 7 (28%) patients as a second intraventricular metastatic lesion (n = 3, 12%), leptomeningeal disease (n = 3, 12%), or both (n = 1, 4%). Radiographic changes developed in 5 (20%) patients and included necrosis (n = 2, 8%) and hemorrhage (n = 3, 12%). A primary diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma was associated with an improved rate of distant failure–free survival (p = 0.05) and progression-free survival (p = 0.08).

Conclusions

SRS provides excellent local control for intraventricular metastases, with acceptable treatment-related toxicity, thereby supporting nonsurgical treatment for these lesions. The propensity for intraventricular dissemination among intraventricular metastases seems to be histologically dependent.

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Marcos V. C. Maldaun, Shumaila N. Khawja, Nicholas B. Levine, Ganesh Rao, Frederick F. Lang, Jeffrey S. Weinberg, Sudhakar Tummala, Charles E. Cowles, David Ferson, Anh-Thuy Nguyen, Raymond Sawaya, Dima Suki and Sujit S. Prabhu

Object

The object of this study was to describe the experience of combining awake craniotomy techniques with high-field (1.5 T) intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for tumors adjacent to eloquent cortex.

Methods

From a prospective database the authors obtained and evaluated the records of all patients who had undergone awake craniotomy procedures with cortical and subcortical mapping in the iMRI suite. The integration of these two modalities was assessed with respect to safety, operative times, workflow, extent of resection (EOR), and neurological outcome.

Results

Between February 2010 and December 2011, 42 awake craniotomy procedures using iMRI were performed in 41 patients for the removal of intraaxial tumors. There were 31 left-sided and 11 right-sided tumors. In half of the cases (21 [50%] of 42), the patient was kept awake for both motor and speech mapping. The mean duration of surgery overall was 7.3 hours (range 4.0–13.9 hours). The median EOR overall was 90%, and gross-total resection (EOR ≥ 95%) was achieved in 17 cases (40.5%). After viewing the first MR images after initial resection, further resection was performed in 17 cases (40.5%); the mean EOR in these cases increased from 56% to 67% after further resection. No deficits were observed preoperatively in 33 cases (78.5%), and worsening neurological deficits were noted immediately after surgery in 11 cases (26.2%). At 1 month after surgery, however, worsened neurological function was observed in only 1 case (2.3%).

Conclusions

There was a learning curve with regard to patient positioning and setup times, although it did not adversely affect patient outcomes. Awake craniotomy can be safely performed in a high-field (1.5 T) iMRI suite to maximize tumor resection in eloquent brain areas with an acceptable morbidity profile at 1 month.

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Claudio E. Tatsui, Dima Suki, Ganesh Rao, Stefan S. Kim, Abhijit Salaskar, Mustafa Aziz Hatiboglu, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Ian E. McCutcheon and Laurence D. Rhines

Object

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) frequently metastasizes to the spine, and the prognosis can be quite variable. Surgical removal of the tumor with spinal reconstruction has been a mainstay of palliative treatment. The ability to predict prognosis is valuable when determining the role and magnitude of surgical intervention in cancer patients. To better identify factors affecting survival in patients undergoing surgery for spinal metastasis from RCC, the authors undertook a retrospective analysis of a large patient cohort at a tertiary care cancer center.

Methods

Relevant clinical data on a consecutive series of patients who had undergone surgery for spinal metastasis of RCC between 1993 and 2007 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, histopathological grade of primary tumor, timing of spinal surgery relative to diagnosis, treatment history prior to surgery, neurological status, and systemic disease burden were analyzed to determine the impact of these factors on survival outcome.

Results

The authors identified 267 patients who met the study criteria. Five-year overall survival (OS) after spine tumor resection was 7.8%, with a median OS of 11.3 months (95% CI 9.5–13.0 months). Patients with Fuhrman Grade 4 RCC had a median OS of 6.1 months (95% CI 3.5–8.7 months), which was significantly lower than the 14.3 months (95% CI 9.1–19.4 months) observed in patients with Fuhrman Grade 3 or less RCC (p < 0.001). Patients with preoperative neurological deficits had a median survival of 5.9 months (95% CI 4.1–7.7 months), which was significantly lower than the 13.5 months (95% CI 10.4–16.6 months) observed in patients with a normal neurological examination (p < 0.001). Patients whose spine was the only site of metastasis had a median OS of 19 months (95% CI 9.8–28.2 months) after surgery, significantly longer than the 9.7 months (95% CI 8.1–11.3 months) observed in patients with additional extraspinal metastasis sites (p < 0.001). Patients with nonprogressing extraspinal metastasis (no metastasis, stable, or concurrent) had a median survival of 20.6 months (95% CI 15.1–26.1 months), compared with 5.6 months (95% CI 4.4–6.8 months) in patients with progressing metastasis (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

The authors identified several factors influencing survival after spine surgery for metastatic spinal RCC, including grade of the original nephrectomy specimen, activity of the systemic disease, and neurological status at the time of surgery. These clinical features may help to identify patients who may benefit from aggressive surgical intervention.

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Iman Feiz-Erfan, Benjamin D. Fox, Remi Nader, Dima Suki, Indro Chakrabarti, Ehud Mendel, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Ganesh Rao and Laurence D. Rhines

Object

Hematogenous metastases to the sacrum can produce significant pain and lead to spinal instability. The object of this study was to evaluate the palliative benefit of surgery in patients with these metastases.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed all cases involving patients undergoing surgery for metastatic disease to the sacrum at a single tertiary cancer center between 1993 and 2005.

Results

Twenty-five patients (21 men, 4 women) were identified as having undergone sacral surgery for hematogenous metastatic disease during the study period. Their median age was 57 years (range 25–71 years). The indications for surgery included palliation of pain (in 24 cases), need for diagnosis (in 1 case), and spinal instability (in 3 cases). The most common primary disease was renal cell carcinoma.

Complications occurred in 10 patients (40%). The median overall survival was 11 months (95% CI 5.4–16.6 months). The median time from the initial diagnosis to the diagnosis of metastatic disease in the sacrum was 14 months (95% CI 0.0–29.3 months). The numerical pain scores (scale 0–10) were improved from a median of 8 preoperatively to a median of 3 postoperatively at 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year (p < 0.01). Postoperative modified Frankel grades improved in 8 cases, worsened in 3 (due to disease progression), and remained unchanged in 14 (p = 0.19). Among patients with renal cell carcinoma, the median overall survival was better in those in whom the sacrum was the sole site of metastatic disease than in those with multiple sites of metastatic disease (16 vs 9 months, respectively; p = 0.053).

Conclusions

Surgery is effective to palliate pain with acceptable morbidity in patients with metastatic disease to the sacrum. In the subgroup of patients with renal cell carcinoma, those with the sacrum as their solitary site of metastatic disease demonstrated improved survival.

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Michele R. Aizenberg, Benjamin D. Fox, Dima Suki, Ian E. McCutcheon, Ganesh Rao and Laurence D. Rhines

Object

Patients presenting with spinal metastases from unknown primary tumors (UPTs) are rare. The authors reviewed their surgical experience to evaluate outcomes and identify predictors of survival in these patients.

Methods

This study is a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing surgery for metastatic spine disease from UPTs between June 1993 and February 2007 at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

Results

Fifty-one patients undergoing 52 surgical procedures were identified. The median age at spine surgery was 60 years. The median survival from time of diagnosis was 15.8 months (95% CI 8.1–23.6) and it was 8.1 months (95% CI 1.6–14.7) from time of spine surgery. Postoperative neurological function (Frankel score) was the same or improved in 94% of patients. At presentation, 77% had extraspinal disease, which was associated with poorer survival (6.4 vs 18.1 months; p = 0.041). Multiple sites (vs a single site) of spine disease did not impact survival (12.7 vs 8.7 months; p = 0.50). Patients with noncervical spinal disease survived longer than those with cervical disease (11.8 vs 6.4 months, respectively; p = 0.029). Complete versus incomplete resection at index surgery had no impact on survival duration (p > 0.5) or local recurrence (p = 1.0). Identification of a primary cancer was achieved in 31% of patients.

Conclusions

This is the first reported surgical series of patients with an unknown source of spinal metastases. The authors found that multiple sites of spinal disease did not influence survival; however, the presence of extraspinal disease had a negative impact. The extent of resection had no effect on survival duration or local recurrence. With an overall median survival of 8.1 months following surgery, aggressive evaluation and treatment of patients with metastatic disease of the spine from an unknown primary source is warranted.

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Sujit S. Prabhu, Jaime Gasco, Sudhakar Tummala, Jefrey S. Weinberg and Ganesh Rao

Object

The object of this study was to describe the utility and safety of using a single probe for combined intraoperative navigation and subcortical mapping in an intraoperative MR (iMR) imaging environment during brain tumor resection.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed those patients who underwent resection in the iMR imaging environment, as well as functional electrophysiological monitoring with continuous motor evoked potential (MEP) and direct subcortical mapping combined with diffusion tensor imaging tractography.

Results

As a navigational tool the monopolar probe used was safe and accurate. Positive subcortical fiber MEPs were obtained in 10 (83%) of the 12 cases. In 10 patients in whom subcortical MEPs were recorded, the mean stimulus intensity was 10.4 ± 5.2 mA and the mean distance from the probe tip to the corticospinal tract (CST) was 7.4 ± 4.5 mm. There was a trend toward worsening neurological deficits if the distance to the CST was short, and a small minimum stimulation threshold was recorded indicating close proximity of the CST to the resection margins. Gross-total resection (95%–100% tumor removal) was achieved in 11 cases (92%), whereas 1 patient (8%) had at least a 90% tumor resection. At the end of 3 months, 2 patients (17%) had persistent neurological deficits.

Conclusions

The monopolar probe can be safely implemented in an iMR imaging environment both for navigation and stimulation purposes during the resection of intrinsic brain tumors. In this study there was a trend toward worsening neurological deficits if the distance from the probe to the CST was short (< 5 mm) indicating close proximity of the resection cavity to the CST. This technology can be used in the iMR imaging environment as a surgical adjunct to minimize adverse neurological outcomes.